▪ Chinese textsChinese“Five Classics”Wade-Giles romanization Wu-chingfive ancient Chinese books whose prestige is so great that in the fourfold classification of Chinese writings the jing (“classics”) are placed before shi (“history”), zi (“philosophy”), and ji (“literature”) in order of importance. For 2,000 years these five classics, all associated in some way with the name of the ancient sage Confucius, were invoked as norms for Chinese society, law, government, education, literature, and religion. As such, their influence is without parallel in the long history of China. Chinese students do not, however, generally attempt the Wujing without having first studied the shorter—and, generally speaking, less complicated—Confucian texts called Sishu (“Four Books”).In 136 BC the Han dynasty ruler Wudi declared Confucianism to be the state ideology of China. Doctoral chairs (boshi) were thereupon established for the teaching of the Wujing and continued to exist until the early 20th century, when the official Confucian education system was abolished. In 124 BC the Wujing were accepted by the national university as its core curriculum. Proficiency in interpreting and expounding the texts of the Wujing became a requirement for all scholars who wanted to obtain posts in the government bureaucracy.The Wujing collection consists of the Yijing (“Classic of Changes”; known to many as the I-Ching), Shujing (“Classic of History”), Shijing (“Classic of Poetry”), Liji (“Collection of Rituals”), and Chunqiu (“Spring and Autumn [Annals]”).
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