Williamson, Alexander William

Williamson, Alexander William

▪ British chemist
born May 1, 1824, London
died May 6, 1904, Hindhead, Surrey, Eng.

      English chemist whose research on alcohols and ethers clarified organic molecular structure.

      From 1849 to 1887 Williamson served on the faculty of University College, London. In 1850 he discovered the structural relation between ethers and alcohols: in ethers the oxygen atom links two hydrocarbon groups, whereas in alcohols the oxygen is bonded to a hydrocarbon group and a hydrogen atom. In further studies, Williamson created an understanding of reversible reactions. He also was the first to explain the state of dynamic equilibrium, in which two opposing reactions have equal rates, resulting in no net change in concentration for any of the reactants.

      In 1854 Williamson described the process of making ether from alcohol and revealed why an acid is needed as a catalyst. This was the first time that catalytic action was clearly explained. He was also responsible for the Williamson synthesis of mixed ethers (ethers that contain two different hydrocarbon groupings).

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Williamson , Alexander William — (1824–1904) British chemist Williamson s father was a clerk in the East India Company in London. After his retirement in 1840 the family lived on the Continent, where Williamson was educated. He studied at Heidelberg and at Giessen (under Justus… …   Scientists

  • Alexander William Williamson — Naissance 1er mai 1824 Londres (Royaume Uni) Décès …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Alexander William Williamson — Alexander William Williamson. Alexander William Williamson (* 1. Mai 1824 in Wandsworth; † 6. Mai 1904 in Haslemere) war ein britischer Chemiker des 19. Jahrhunderts, der vor allem durch die nach ihm benannte Ethersynthese bekannt wurde …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Alexander William Williamson — Nacimiento 1 de mayo de 1824 Wandsworth, Gran Londres, Inglaterra Fallecimiento …   Wikipedia Español

  • Alexander William Williamson — Infobox Scientist name = Alexander William Williamson box width = image width =200px caption =Alexander William Williamson birth date = May 1, 1824 birth place = London death date = May 6, 1904 death place = Surrey residence = citizenship =… …   Wikipedia

  • Alexander Williamson — There have been several persons named Alexander Williamson.* Alexander William Williamson (1824 1904) was a chemist who discovered the Williamson ether synthesis reaction. * Alexander Williamson (tutor) was hired by Mary Todd Lincoln to teach her …   Wikipedia

  • Williamson-Ether-Synthese — Die Williamson Synthese (siehe auch Ethersynthese) dient der Herstellung von symmetrischen und unsymmetrischen Ethern. Sie wurde bereits im 19. Jahrhundert durch ihren Namensgeber Alexander William Williamson entwickelt. Die Williamson Synthese… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Williamson — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Alison Williamson (* 1971), britische Sportbogenschützin Alexander William Williamson (1824−1904), britischer Chemiker Audrey Williamson (1926−2010), britische Leichtathlethin Ben M. Williamson (1864−1941) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Williamson —   [ wɪljəmsn],    1) Alexander William, britischer Chemiker, * Wandsworth (heute zu London) 1. 5. 1824, ✝ High Pitfold (bei Haslemere, County Surrey) 6. 5. 1904; Professor in London (1849 87). Williamson arbeitete v. a. über die Darstellung von… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Williamson (surname) — Family name name = Williamson imagesize= caption= pronunciation = meaning = son of William region = English speaking countries origin = William, Old Germanic related names = Willams, Willson, Wilson footnotes = Williamson is a common English… …   Wikipedia

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