Whitney, Anne

Whitney, Anne

▪ American sculptor
born September 2, 1821, Watertown, Massachusetts, U.S.
died January 23, 1915, Boston, Massachusetts

      American sculptor whose life-size statues and portrait busts frequently addressed abolitionist and feminist concerns.

      During the 1850s Whitney began to write poetry and experiment with sculpture. By 1855 she had advanced to making portrait busts, and in 1859, the year she published a volume entitled Poems, she began to study sculpture in earnest.

      Whitney entered a bust of a child in the 1860 exhibit of the National Academy of Design in New York City, and in 1864 and 1865 she exhibited in Boston and New York both a life-size Lady Godiva and a colossal work entitled Africa, which explored the abolition of slavery through a heroic female figure. She studied privately with William Rimmer in Boston for a time and in 1867 traveled to Rome, where she remained for four years. Her Roma (1869), inspired by the poverty of Roman peasants, was shown in London, Boston, and Philadelphia. After her return to the United States she exhibited her statue of Toussaint-Louverture (Toussaint Louverture), the leader of the Haitian independence movement during the French Revolution.

      While in Rome, Whitney became acquainted with fellow sculptors Harriet Hosmer (Hosmer, Harriet Goodhue) and Edmonia Lewis (Lewis, Edmonia). A commission to execute a statue of Samuel Adams (as part of Massachusetts's contribution to Statuary Hall in the U.S. Capitol) prompted her return to Europe in 1875 so that she could study in Paris and supervise the cutting of the stone. In 1876 she established a home and studio in Boston. Over the next three decades Whitney executed portrait busts of prominent suffragists such as Alice Freeman Palmer, Lucy Stone, Mary A. Livermore, Frances Willard, and Harriet Martineau, and abolitionists such as Harriet Beecher Stowe and William Lloyd Garrison. She also carved a statue of Leif Eriksson that was placed on Boston's Commonwealth Avenue mall in 1887 and a statue of the seated Charles Sumner that was placed in Harvard Square in 1902. She exhibited a larger version of Roma at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago.

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