Vinson, Fred M.

Vinson, Fred M.

▪ United States jurist
in full  Frederick Moore Vinson  
born Jan. 22, 1890, Louisa, Ky., U.S.
died Sept. 8, 1953, Washington, D.C.
 American lawyer and 13th chief justice of the United States, who was a vigorous supporter of a broad interpretation of federal governmental powers.

      Following completion of his legal studies at Centre College in Danville, Ky., in 1911, Vinson entered private practice in Louisa and quickly assumed an active role in local political affairs. In 1923 he was appointed to fill a vacancy in the U.S. House of Representatives. The following year he was elected to the seat as a Democrat and, except for one two-year period, served as a member of Congress until 1938.

      As a congressman Vinson was recognized as an outstanding expert in tax and fiscal policy. From 1938 to 1943 he served as associate justice of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia. Between 1943 and 1945 he held a succession of high executive posts in emergency agencies of World War II, and in 1945 he became secretary of the Treasury in the cabinet of President Harry S. Truman. In this office he helped establish the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Monetary fund.

      Upon appointment by President Truman, Vinson became chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court on June 24, 1946. It is generally believed that his tact reduced personal animosities that had arisen on the court. As a judge his interpretation of the powers of the federal government often led him to reject claims of individual right asserted in opposition to the exercise of governmental authority. Perhaps his best-known opinions, however, are those upholding the rights of members of racial minorities under the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. He spoke for the court in refusing to permit a state court to enforce a private agreement (“restrictive covenant”) to sell real property to white persons only (Shelley v. Kraemer, 1948). His opinion for the court in 1947 upheld the power of the federal courts to enjoin a strike in coal mines then under control of the federal government. He strongly dissented from the court's opinion holding unconstitutional the president's seizure of the strike-threatened steel industry during the Korean War (Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, 1952).

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Vinson, Fred(erick Moore) — (22 ene. 1890, Louisa, Ky., EE.UU.–8 sep. 1953, Washington, D.C.). Jurista estadounidense. Se desempeñó en el congreso durante todo el período que va entre 1923 y 1938, salvo dos años. Luego de desempeñarse en una Corte de Apelaciones de EE.UU.… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Vinson, Fred(erick Moore) — born Jan. 22, 1890, Louisa, Ky., U.S. died Sept. 8, 1953, Washington, D.C. U.S. jurist. He served in Congress for all but two years during the period 1923 to 1938. After serving on the U.S. Court of Appeals (1938–43), he held high executive… …   Universalium

  • Fred Vinson — may refer to* Fred M. Vinson * Fred Vinson (basketball) * Fred Vinson (American football) …   Wikipedia

  • Fred M. Vinson — Infobox Chief Justice name = Frederick Moore Vinson imagesize = caption = office = 13th Chief Justice of the United States termstart = June 24 1946 termend = September 8 1953 nominator = Harry S. Truman appointer = predecessor = Harlan Fiske… …   Wikipedia

  • Fred Moore Vinson — Porträt von F. M. Vinson im Finanzministerium Frederick (Fred) Moore Vinson (* 22. Januar 1890 in Lawrence County, Kentucky; † 8. September 1953 in Washington D.C.) war ein US amerikanischer d …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Fred M. Vinson — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Vinson. Fred M. Vinson, peint par Thomas Edgar Stephens. Frederick Moore Vinson (22 janvier 1890 – 8 septembre 1953) est un juriste et hom …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Vinson (surname) — Vinson is a surname, and may refer to:* Carl Vinson, United States Congressman * Clarence Vinson, boxer * Eddie Vinson, musician * Fred M. Vinson, Chief Justice of the United States * Fred O Neal Vinson, basketball player * Helen Vinson, actress… …   Wikipedia

  • Vinson — steht für: Mount Vinson, höchster Berg der Antarktis USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70), ein Flugzeugträger der US Navy Vinson ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Carl Vinson (1883–1981), US amerikanischer Politiker Eddie „Cleanhead“ Vinson… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Fred Perry — (ca. 1934 1936) Fred Perry (* 18. Mai 1909 in Stockport, England als Frederick John Perry; † 2. Februar 1995 in Melbourne, Australien) war ein britischer Tischtennisspieler, Tennisspieler und …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Fred Rodell — (1907 1980) was an American law professor most famous for his critiques of the U.S. legal profession. A professor at Yale Law School for more than forty years, Rodell was described in 1980 as the bad boy of American legal academia (by Charles… …   Wikipedia

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