The two most commonly used tsuzumi are the ko-tsuzumi and the ō-tsuzumi, found in the music of Noh (Noh theatre) and Kabuki theatres. Although the ko-tsuzumi and the ō-tsuzumi are quite similar in appearance, the manner in which they are played and the sound and tone they produce are quite distinct. Both heads of the smaller ko-tsuzumi are horsehide. The instrument is held on the player's right shoulder and hit with fingers of the right hand. The drummer can produce four soft sounds by changing encircling rope tensions with gentle left-hand squeezes. The resonance of the drum is altered by the application of thin paper (chōshigami) to the centre of the rear drumhead. By contrast, the cowhide skins of the larger ō-tsuzumi are heated before being tied tightly against the body of the drum. The instrument, held on the left hip, produces a cracking sound when one head is struck with the central fingers of the right hand, which sometimes are covered with hard paper thimbles to intensify the sound.Ancient Japanese court orchestra music had three types of tsuzumi drums, of which only the san no tsuzumi form survives in komagaku style (courtly music of Japanese, Korean, and other non-Chinese, non-Indian ancestry). The tsuzumi is related to the Korean changgo, a large hourglass-shaped, two-headed drum.
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