short hymn or stanza sung in Greek Orthodox religious services. The word probably derives from a diminutive of the Greek tropos (“something repeated,” “manner,” “fashion”), with a possible analogy to the Italian ritornello (“refrain”; diminutive of ritorno, “return”). Since the 5th century, troparion also has designated brief phrases inserted after psalm verses.Troparia vary in length from one or two verses to long poems. After the introduction of the kontakion, a type of sung religious poetry, into Byzantium in the 6th century, individual kontakion stanzas were often called troparia. So also, from the 8th century, were stanzas of another sung religious form, the kanōn. The early troparion was also called stichēron (probably from stichos, “verse”); and a very brief refrain may have been called syntomon (“concise,” “brief”). Other designations of troparia reflect their liturgical position, manner of performance, or content. Heōthinon (“in the morning”) refers to the 11 hymns used only in the morning office; hypakoē (from “to respond”) was originally a responsorial hymn (having soloist-chorus alternation); katabasia (from “to descend”) refers to the singing of an ode by left and right choirs descending from their stalls and singing in the middle of the church; theotokion, from Theotokos (Mother of God), is a type of hymn relating to the Virgin Mary; and staurotheotokion relates to the Virgin standing at the foot of the cross. There are also troparia for specific feasts and others that recur several times during the church year. In modern practice most troparia are recited, although a few are still chanted. One that has retained a special place in the liturgy is “Ho Monogenēs” (“The Only Begotten Son”), believed to have been written by the Byzantine emperor Justinian I (reigned 527–565). See also Byzantine chant.
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