also spelled  Tosaphoth 

      (Hebrew: “additions”), critical remarks and notes on selective passages of the Talmud that were written mostly by unknown Jewish scholars in Germany, in Italy, and especially in France during the 12th to 14th century. Experts are undecided whether tosafot were meant to be direct commentaries on the two elements that comprise the Talmud—the Mishna (the codification of Jewish oral law) and the Gemara (expositions of the Mishna)—or were intended to supplement the great French rabbinical scholar Rashi's systematic commentary on the text of the Babylonian Talmud.

      The first tosafists (baʿale ha-tosafot) were Meir ben Samuel and Judah ben Nathan, two of Rashi's sons-in-law who lived in northern France. The most highly regarded tosafist, however, was Rabbenu Tam (Jacob ben Meir Tam), Rashi's grandson. All editions of the Babylonian Talmud (since its first printing in Venice, 1520–23) carry Rashi's commentaries on the inside margin of the page, with the tosafot located on the outside margin. This arrangement, however, is not followed in some modern editions in translation. Extensive learning is required to understand the subtleties discussed in all these commentaries.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • TOSAFOT — (Heb. תּוֹסָפוֹת; lit. additions ), collections of comments on the Talmud arranged according to the order of the talmudic tractates. In general the point of departure of the tosafot is not the Talmud itself but the comments on it by the earlier… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Tosafot — Tosafot, auch Tossafot (hebr. Hinzufügungen, Ergänzungen) sind frühmittelalterliche Sammlungen von Kommentaren zum Talmud, die in der Reihenfolge der talmudischen Traktate geordnet sind und ursprünglich als Ergänzungen zu Kommentaren von Raschi… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Tosafot —   [hebräisch »Ergänzungen«], im 12. 14. Jahrhundert entstandene Glossen zu frühen Talmudkommentaren, besonders zum Kommentar Raschis. Die Tosafot werden den Talmudausgaben an der Außenseite des Textes beigedruckt, während Raschis Kommentar die… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Tosafot — The Tosafot or Tosafos ( he. תוספות) are mediæval commentaries on the Talmud. They take the form of critical and explanatory glosses, printed, in almost all Talmud editions, on the outer margin and opposite Rashi s notes. The authors of the… …   Wikipedia

  • Tosafists — were medieval rabbis who created critical and explanatory glosses on the Talmud. These were collectively called Tosafot.Alphabetical list of TosafistsOf the great number of tosafists only forty four are known by name. The following is an… …   Wikipedia

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  • RISHONIM — (Heb. רִאשׁוֹנִים; lit. the early authorities ), a term with many connotations–chronological, literary, ethical, and halakhic–serving to indicate the standing and authority of preceding scholars in relation to the scholars of the time in the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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  • ISAAC BEN SAMUEL OF DAMPIERRE — (usually referred to by the initial letters of his name as Ri (initials of R abbi I saac) or Ri the Elder, or Ri of Dampierre, d. c. 1185), one of the most important of the tosafists and leading authority of Franco German Jewry in the second half …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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