▪ emperor of Qing dynasty
Wade-Giles romanization  T'ung-chih , personal name (xingming)  Zaichun , posthumous name (shi)  Yidi , temple name (miaohao)  (Qing) Muzong 
born April 27, 1856, Beijing, China
died Jan. 12, 1875, Beijing

      reign name (niaohao) of the eighth emperor (reigned 1861–1874/75) of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12), during whose reign occurred a short revitalization of the beleaguered Qing government, known as the Tongzhi Restoration.

      Ascending the throne at the age of five (six by Chinese reckoning), the young ruler assumed the reign title of Tongzhi (“Union for Order”). He ruled under the regency of a triumvirate that was headed by his mother, the empress dowager Cixi (1835–1908).

      The restoration under the Tongzhi emperor followed the examples of the great restorations in the middle of the Han (Han dynasty) (206 BC–AD 220) and Tang (Tang dynasty) (AD 618–907) dynasties. In the first years of the Tongzhi reign, the Chinese government finally quelled the great Taiping Rebellion (1850–64), which had been threatening South China, and crushed the Nian Rebellion (1853–68) in North China. The finances of the imperial treasury were restored, and an attempt was made to recruit good men into the government. The system of civil-service examinations was once again held in areas that had long been under rebel control. The government also made an effort to revive agricultural production by distributing seeds and tools and helping to develop new land. A program was also undertaken to manufacture Western arms, although the effort to adopt foreign technology was only superficially successful because the study of the Confucian Classics, not Western science, remained the only sure path to official advancement.

      The Zongli Yamen (“Office for General Management”) was created to handle foreign affairs, and the government began attempts to understand and deal with the West. Tongzhi assumed personal control of the government in 1873 when he was 17. One of his first acts was to grant an audience to the representatives of six foreign countries. For the first time in Chinese history, the emperor did not demand the ceremonial kowtow—kneeling and touching the forehead to the ground as a sign of supplication. The government concluded a détente with the Western powers with the treaties of Tianjin (1858) and Beijing (1860).

      Tongzhi was a weak, uninterested ruler, whose affairs were constantly scrutinized by the empress dowager Cixi. He died a little more than two years after assuming control of the government.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Tongzhi — (T ong tche) (1856 1875) est le huitième empereur de la dynastie Qing à régner sur la Chine. Monté sur le trône à cinq ans …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Tongzhi — This article refers to the term tongzhi . For the emperor who reigned China between 1861 and 1875, see Tongzhi Emperor Tongzhi (同志, tóngzhì) is a term which literally means same will or same purpose in Chinese. Idiomatically, it means comrade .… …   Wikipedia

  • Tongzhi — Kaiser Tongzhi Tongzhi (chinesisch 同治 Tóngzhì, * 27. April 1856; † 12. Januar 1875, Kaiser der Qing Dynastie ab dem 11. November 1861) folgte seinem Vater …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Tongzhi (Begriffsklärung) — Tongzhi (chinesisch 同治 Tóngzhì) ist der Name folgender Personen: Kaiser Tongzhi (1856–1875) Der chinesische Begriff Tongzhi (chinesisch 同治 tóngzhì) steht für: die Tongzhi Restauration während der Regentschaft des Kaisers… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Tongzhi Emperor — Infobox Chinese Royalty name = Tongzhi Emperor native name = 同治帝 temple name = Qing Muzong 清穆宗 reign = 11 November, 1861 – 12 January, 1875 predecessor = Xianfeng Emperor successor = Guangxu Emperor spouse =Empress Xiao Zhe Yi issue = full name… …   Wikipedia

  • Tongzhi in Love — Infobox Film name = Tongzhi in Love 《彼岸浮生》 image size = caption = director = Ruby Yang producer = Thomas Lennon writer = narrator = starring = music = Bill Frisell Brian Keane cinematography = Yang Yishu editing = Gary Wong, Ruby Yang distributor …   Wikipedia

  • Tongzhi Restoration — The Tongzhi Restoration (c 1860–1874) was an attempt to arrest the dynastic decline of the Qing dynasty of China by restoring the traditional order. The rude realities of the Opium War, the unequal treaties, and the mid century mass uprisings… …   Wikipedia

  • Tongzhi-Restauration — Die Tongzhi Restauration fand im China der 1860er Jahre statt. Sie trägt formell den Namen des damals amtierenden minderjährigen Kaisers Tongzhi, wurde aber faktisch von der Regentin Cixi und ihrem Berater Zeng Guofan ins Werk gesetzt. Unter… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Emperador Tongzhi — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda El Emperador Tongzhi, nació en Pekín (el 27 de abril de 1856 al 12 de enero de 1875) era el noveno emperador de la dinastía manchú de Qing, y el octavo emperador Qing que gobierna China, a part …   Wikipedia Español

  • homosexuality and tongzhi culture — In China, homosexuality has always conflicted with the traditional importance of marriage and posterity, but has rarely been regarded a crime. In the 1980s, homosexuals in the People’s Republic developed their own subculture, referred to as… …   Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”