**Thomson, Sir J.J.** — ▪ British physicist Introduction in full Sir Joseph John Thomson born Dec. 18, 1856, Cheetham Hill, near Manchester, Eng. died Aug. 30, 1940, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire English physicist who helped revolutionize the knowledge of atomic… … Universalium

**atomic physics** — Scientific study of the structure of the atom, its energy states, and its interaction with other particles and fields. The modern understanding of the atom is that it consists of a heavy nucleus of positive charge surrounded by a cloud of light,… … Universalium

**Atomic theory** — Atomic model redirects here. For the unrelated term in mathematical logic, see Atomic model (mathematical logic). This article is about the historical models of the atom. For a history of the study of how atoms combine to form molecules, see… … Wikipedia

**Atomic orbital model** — The Atomic Orbital Model is the currently accepted model of the electrons in an atom. It is sometimes called the Wave Mechanics Model. In the atomic orbital model, the atom consists of a nucleus surrounded by orbiting electrons. These electrons… … Wikipedia

**Atomic physics** — (or atom physics) is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus. It is primarily concerned with the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus and the processes by which these arrangements… … Wikipedia

**Atomic orbital** — The shapes of the first five atomic orbitals: 1s, 2s, 2px, 2py, and 2pz. The colors show the wave function phase. These are graphs of ψ(x,y,z) functions which depend on the coordinates of one electron. To see the elongated shape of ψ(x,y,z)2… … Wikipedia

**Thomson problem** — The Thomson problem is that of determining the minimum (ground state) energy configuration of N classical electrons on the surface of a sphere (or 2 sphere S^{2}). The electrons repel each other with a force given by Coulomb s law. This problem… … Wikipedia

**Atomic clock** — Nuclear clock redirects here. For the clock as a measure for risk of catastrophic destruction, see Doomsday Clock. For a clock updated by radio signals (commonly but inaccurately called an atomic clock ), see Radio clock. For the album by Zion I … Wikipedia

**Plum pudding model** — A schematic presentation of the plum pudding model of the atom. In Thomson s mathematical model the corpuscles (or modern electrons) were arranged non randomly, in rotating rings. The plum pudding model of the atom by J. J. Thomson, who… … Wikipedia

**Rutherford model** — The Rutherford model or planetary model was a model of the atom devised by Ernest Rutherford. Rutherford directed the famous Geiger Marsden experiment in (1909), which suggested to Rutherford s analysis (1911) that the Plum pudding model (of J. J … Wikipedia