Tawfīq Pasha, Muḥammad

Tawfīq Pasha, Muḥammad

▪ khedive of Egypt
also spelled  Mohammed Tewfik Pasha,  in full  Muḥammad Tawfīq Pasha ibn Ismāʿīl ibn Ibrāhīm ibn Muḥammad ʿAlī 
born April 30, 1852, Cairo, Egypt
died Jan. 7, 1892, Ḥulwān

       khedive of Egypt (1879–92) during the first phase of the British occupation.

      The eldest son of Khedive Ismāʿīl (Ismāʿīl Pasha), Tawfīq was distinguished from other members of his family by having engaged in study in Egypt rather than in Europe. He subsequently assumed a variety of administrative positions, including the head of the Privy Council and president of the Council of Ministers. The Ottoman sultan appointed Tawfīq khedive in 1879, when Ismāʿīl proved obstructive to the interests of the European powers.

      Tawfīq enjoyed little domestic support and was thus forced to meet the demands of his political opponents. A group of military officers led by Aḥmad Urābī Pashaʿ gained increasing influence, and ʿUrābī was named minister of war in 1882. Great Britain was alarmed by the anti-European direction in which events were moving in Egypt, and a British fleet bombarded Alexandria in July 1882; this only increased ʿUrābī's popular support, and Tawfīq was forced to seek the protection of the British. That August the British invaded Egypt and returned Tawfīq to authority. From then on he was largely controlled by the occupation authorities, in particular by the British consul general, Sir Evelyn Baring (Cromer, Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of, Viscount Errington Of Hexham, Viscount Cromer, Baron Cromer Of Cromer) (later Lord Cromer (Cromer, Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of, Viscount Errington Of Hexham, Viscount Cromer, Baron Cromer Of Cromer)). Programs undertaken in Tawfīq's later years as khedive included a reorganization of the legal system, the formation of the General Assembly and the Legislative Council, and various agricultural and irrigation projects. He died unexpectedly following a sudden illness in Ḥulwān in 1892.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно сделать НИР?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Tawfiq Pacha — Tawfiq Tawfiq Pasha Muhammad Tawfiq (Le Caire 1852 1892) (arabe: محمد توفيق باشا) est un khédive d Égypte (1879 1892). Successeur de son père Ismaïl Pacha, il nomma en 1881, Arabi Pacha …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Tawfiq — Pasha Muhammad Tawfiq (Le Caire 1852 1892) (arabe: محمد توفيق باشا) est un khédive d Égypte (15 novembre 1879 7 janvier 1892). Successeur de son père Ismaïl Pacha, il nomma en 1881, Arabi Pacha chef du mouvement nationaliste, ministre de la Guerr …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Muhammad Tawfiq Nasim Pasha — (1874 1938) (Arabic: محمد توفيق نسيم باشا‎) was an Egyptian political figure of Turkish origin.[1] He served as the prime minister of Egypt between May 1920 and 1921, again from 1922 until 1923, and finally between 1934 and 1936. He was also… …   Wikipedia

  • Muhammad Sharif Pasha — For other people of the same name, see Muhammed Sharif (disambiguation). Muhammad Sharif محمد شريف Prime Minister of Egypt In office 7 April 1879 – 18 August 1879 Monarch Isma il Pasha …   Wikipedia

  • Urābī Pashaʿ — ▪ Egyptian nationalist ʿUrābī also spelled  Arabi , in full  Aḥmad ʿUrābī Pasha al Miṣrī  born 1839, near Al Zaqāzīq, Egypt died , Sept. 21, 1911, Cairo       Egyptian nationalist who led a social political movement that expressed the discontent… …   Universalium

  • Muhammad ibn al-Habib — Full name Muhammad ibn al Habib Born 1876 Died 1972 January 10 Era 20th Century …   Wikipedia

  • Nubar Pasha — نوبار باشا Prime Minister of Egypt In office 28 August 1878 – 23 February 1879 Preceded by Position Created Succeeded by …   Wikipedia

  • Tewfik Pasha — This article is about Tewfik Pasha. For Ahmed Tevfik Pasha, the last Ottoman grand vizier, see Ahmed Tevfik Pasha. Tawfik Pasha Khedive of Egypt and Sudan …   Wikipedia

  • Ahmad Zaki Pasha — For other people named Ahmad Zaki, see Ahmad Zaki. Ahmad Zaki Pasha Colorized photograph of Ahmad Zaki Pasha Secretary General of the Egyptian Cabinet …   Wikipedia

  • Abdel Khaliq Sarwat Pasha — Prime Minister of Egypt In office 26 April 1927 – 16 March 1928 Monarch Faud I Preceded by Adl …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”