- Taira Family
▪ Japanese clanIntroductionalso called HeikeJapanese samurai (warrior) clan of great power and influence in the 12th century. The genealogy and history of the family have been traced in detail from 825, when the name Taira was given to Prince Takamune, grandson of Kammu (the 50th emperor of Japan). From about 1156 to 1185, the Taira monopolized high positions at the Imperial court; in the latter year the clan was destroyed in the sea battle of Dannoura.Origins and first period of power.The clan had its origins in 825, at a time when government finances were at a low ebb and members of the Imperial line were numerous. In an attempt to eliminate some of the drain on the finances, collateral Imperial branches were given surnames (the Imperial family had none) and sent out into the provinces. The name of “Taira” was given to Prince Takamune, the son of Prince Kuzuhara and grandson of Kammu, the 50th emperor. His descendants were accordingly called Taira of Kammu. Takamochi, a nephew of Takamune, arrived in the Hitachi district (about 40 miles [60 kilometres] northwest of present-day Tokyo) as a local official and settled there. His descendants succeeded him in the post, and the family became powerful samurai in the district.Taira Masakado (q.v.), a great-grandson, acquired great power and soon governed the whole Kantō district. In 939 he established a government in the southern part of Kantō, styling himself shinnō (“new emperor”) in opposition to the Emperor in the capital at Kyōto, but was subdued in 940. In 1028, when Taira Tadatsune attempted to reestablish Taira domination over the Kantō, the court dispatched another warrior, Minamoto Yorinobu, to quell the rebellion, and three years later, Tadatsune surrendered. As a result the Taira family began to decline, and the Minamoto family, descendants of Seiwa, the 56th emperor, organized a big samurai group in Kantō, with the Taira under them.Second era of power.In later years the Fujiwara Family, who, sharing power with the emperor, had monopolized the highest posts in the court from the mid-10th to the mid-11th century, began to decline. In the latter half of the 11th century, the emperor Shirakawa abdicated the throne in favour of his son and then introduced a new political system called insei, by which the former emperor, who was now freed from the ceremonial requirements of the Imperial office (but could count on the loyalty of his son, the real emperor), was finally able to wrest the power of the throne away from the Fujiwara. So as to retain absolute power, the former emperor Shirakawa summoned Taira Masamori, a descendant of the Taira of Kantō with considerable local power in the Ise district (present-day Mie Prefecture), to suppress the Minamoto family, whose military strength had been helping to ensure the dominance of the Fujiwara at court. Masamori's success was so absolute that he stood high in the former emperor Shirakawa's favour and won speedy promotion as a court official.Masamori's son Tadamori continued his father's successes. By eliminating the pirates along the Inland Sea in western Japan, he curried Imperial favour.Taira Kiyomori (q.v.), the son of Tadamori and grandson of Masamori, continued to enlarge the family's holdings and to increase its influence at court, making a conflict between the Taira and Minamoto inevitable. Finally in 1156 a dispute over control of the court between two brothers, the former emperor Sutoku and the reigning emperor Go-Shirakawa (Shirakawa, Go-), resulted in the Hōgen (Hōgen Disturbance) War between Kiyomori and the head of the Minamoto. Aided by the defection of a group of Minamoto warriors, Kiyomori emerged victorious. Three years later, in the Heiji War of 1159, Kiyomori brutally eliminated those Minamoto who had sided with him in the Hōgen War and thus became the most powerful figure in Japan.The Taira family monopolized high positions as court officials, governing almost half of all the provinces and owning more than 500 manors. In 1179 the court nobles led by the former emperor Go-Shirakawa rebelled against him but were subdued, and Go-Shirakawa was imprisoned. As a result, Kiyomori's grip became positively dictatorial, the period being known as the “Rokuhara regime” since he lived at Rokuhara in Kyōto. In spite of his great powers, however, he failed to make any basic changes in the Imperial system. As a result, the Taira hold over the countryside weakened as the family became accustomed to the rich court life and lost touch with the provincial warrior groups.Rise of the Minamoto family.In 1181, when Kiyomori died after an illness, movements were started against the tyrannical Taira clan all over the country. The strongest opposition was that of the Minamoto family, whose scion, Minamoto Yoritomo, living in Kantō, had been spared in the great conflicts of 1159 because of his extreme youth at the time. With the assistance of other samurai hostile to the Taira, he rose in arms. When the Minamoto army advanced on the capital, the Taira escaped from Kyōto and, taking the young emperor, Antoku, with them, attempted to establish themselves in their stronghold in western Japan. They were defeated in two successive battles, however—one at Ichinotani, west of the city of Kōbe in Settsu Province, and the other at Yashima Island, along the Inland Sea in Sanuki Province (present Kagawa Prefecture). Forced to flee further west, the Taira family was finally completely destroyed in 1185 in the great sea battle of Dannoura, which occurred off the eastern end of the strait that separates Kyushu from Honshu. In this battle the emperor Antoku drowned, taking with him the great sword that was one of the Imperial Treasures of Japan, the symbols of divine authority that had supposedly been brought to Japan when the first emperor descended from heaven.Keigo HogetsuAdditional ReadingFor more information on the Taira family, see The Heike Monogatari, trans. by A.L. Sadler, Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, vol. 46, pt. 2, and vol. 49, pt. 1 (1918–21); and Carl Spohr, Gempei: The Civil Wars of Old Japan (1967).
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