Symmachus, Saint

Symmachus, Saint

born , Sardinia
died July 19, 514, Rome; feast day July 19

      pope from 498 to 514.

      Apparently a Christian convert, Symmachus was an archdeacon in the Roman Church when elected to succeed Pope Anastasius II. Concurrently, a minority had elected, with the support of a strong Byzantine party, the archpriest Laurentius. Both candidates were consecrated on Nov. 22, 498, and their respective parties appealed to the Ostrogothic king Theodoric the Great, whose decision favoured Symmachus. The Pope held a Roman synod on March 1, 499, which decided that only a majority vote triumphs.

      Although Laurentius submitted and became bishop of Nocera, Italy, his supporters continued to dissent, accusing Symmachus of arbitrary decisions about the date of Easter, of despoiling the Church, and of fornications. Theodoric convoked a Roman synod in 501; during its fourth session (the Palmary Synod) the bishops decreed that there was no precedent for other bishops' passing judgment on the pope, which was ultimately in the hands of God. Theodoric, whose right to judge the issue was never acknowledged by Symmachus, was not satisfied and allowed the antipope Laurentius to return to Rome. Four years of violence ensued, during which the Laurentians took possession of many churches, although Symmachus was never dispossessed of his see.

      Peace was not established until 505/506, when Theodoric ordered the Laurentian party to surrender the churches that they had confiscated. The schism, however, was finally healed during the reign of Pope St. Hormisdas, Symmachus' successor. The dispute also caused considerable fraudulent literature, subsequently known as the Symmachan Forgeries, drawn on by later exponents of the doctrine quod prima sedes non judicatur a quoquam (“that no one can pass judgment on the pope”).

      A strong supporter of orthodoxy, Symmachus engaged in the Acacian Schism (484–519), a complicated theological and political conflict between Rome and the patriarchate of Constantinople. The Byzantine emperor Anastasius I accused the Pope of favouring Manichaeism, the dualistic religious doctrine that good and evil are essentially principles of equivalent potency. In a letter of 512 Symmachus denied the imperial charges. Furthermore, he expelled the Manichaeans from Rome and burned their books. He aided the poor, for whom he built refuges, and African Catholics, who were being persecuted by the Arians (followers of the heretical doctrine that the Son was neither equal with God the Father nor eternal), and he also erected and restored several Roman churches, including the basilica of S. Agnese Fuori le Mura on the Via Aurelia.

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Universalium. 2010.

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