Sumner, William Graham

Sumner, William Graham

▪ American sociologist
born Oct. 30, 1840, Paterson, N.J., U.S.
died April 12, 1910, Englewood, N.J.

      U.S. sociologist and economist, prolific publicist of Social Darwinism.

      Like the British philosopher Herbert Spencer, Sumner, who taught at Yale from 1872 to 1909, expounded in many essays his firm belief in laissez-faire, individual liberty, and the innate inequalities among men. He viewed competition for property and social status as resulting in a beneficent elimination of the ill adapted and the preservation of racial soundness and cultural vigour. For him the middle-class Protestant ethic of hard work, thrift, and sobriety was conducive to wholesome family life and sound public morality. Foreseeing the drift toward the welfare state, but considering poverty the natural result of inherent inferiorities, he opposed all reform proposals that smacked of paternalism because they would impose excessive economic burdens on the middle class, his “forgotten man.” In his best known work, Folkways (1907), he stated that customs and morals originate in instinctive responses to the stimuli of hunger, sex, vanity, and fear. He emphasized the irrationality of folk customs and their resistance to reform. Sumner's notes became the basis of The Science of Society, 4 vol. (1927–28), edited by Albert G. Keller.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Sumner, William Graham — (1840 1910) An early American sociologist and noted laissez faire Social Darwinist . Influenced by the works of Herbert Spencer , he argued that social life was governed by natural laws (as binding as those governing the physical world), the most …   Dictionary of sociology

  • William Graham Sumner — (October 30, 1840 – April 12, 1910) was an American academic and professor at Yale College. For many years he had a reputation as one of the most influential teachers there. He was a polymath with numerous books and essays on American history,… …   Wikipedia

  • William Graham Sumner — (* 30. Oktober 1840 in Paterson, New Jersey; † 12. April 1910 in New Haven, Connecticut) war Professor für Soziologie an der Yale University. Zugleich war er der führende US amerikanische Befürworter einer industriellen Freihandels Gesellschaft,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • William Graham Sumner — noun United States sociologist (1840 1910) • Syn: ↑Sumner • Instance Hypernyms: ↑sociologist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Sumner — Sumner, William Graham …   Dictionary of sociology

  • Sumner — is a surname, and may refer to* Allen Melancthon Sumner (1882 1918), American marine soldier * Bernard Sumner (born 1956), British musician * Brian Sumner (born 1979), British skateboarder * Carl Sumner (1908 1999), American baseball player *… …   Wikipedia

  • Sumner — ist im Englischen ursprünglich die Berufsbezeichnung für eine Art Gerichtsdiener, zu dessen Aufgabe es gehörte, einen Prozessbeteiligten vor den Gerichtshof zu bestellen (engl. to summon). Ein solcher summoner, wie die moderne Schreibweise lautet …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Sumner —   [ sʌmnə],    1) Charles, amerikanischer Politiker, * Boston (Massachusetts) 6. 1. 1811, ✝ Washington (D. C.) 11. 3. 1874; Rechtsanwalt; Pazifist, ab 1851 für die Free Soil Party, ab 1857 als Republikaner im Senat. Als erbitterter Gegner der… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Sumner — [sum′nər] 1. Charles 1811 74; U.S. statesman & abolitionist 2. William Graham [grā′əm] 1840 1910; U.S. sociologist & economist …   English World dictionary

  • Sumner — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Personnes de nom de famille Sumner Bernard Sumner chanteur de New Order Charles Sumner Homme politique américain (1811 1874) Gordon Matthew Sumner est le… …   Wikipédia en Français

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