professional troubadours performing autobiographical songs who ascended in the early 1970s to the forefront of commercial pop in the wake of the communal fervour of 1960s rock. For the baby boom generation that had chosen rock as a medium for political and social discourse, the new preeminence of the singer-songwriters, which lasted until the late 1970s, was a natural development. As countercultural heroes such as Bob Dylan (Dylan, Bob), John Lennon, and Paul Simon (Simon, Paul) reached age 30, they experienced their first intimations of mortality and faced uncertain commercial futures in a youth-oriented music market.

 Dylan, who had almost single-handedly dragged folk music from the political into the personal realm in the mid-1960s, had made it safe for untrained, idiosyncratic voices to sing their original “song-poetry.” In 1970, after leaving the Beatles (Beatles, the), Lennon released his confessional “primal scream” album, John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band, in which he repudiated the group's deified mystique. Simon, following his breakup with Art Garfunkel, released a wistful solo debut, Paul Simon (1972), with several songs that addressed physical deterioration and death.

 In the early 1970s a white, mostly middle-class pantheon of soloists coalesced—Joni Mitchell (Mitchell, Joni), Van Morrison (Morrison, Van), Neil Young (Young, Neil), Randy Newman (Newman, Randy), James Taylor (Taylor, James), Carly Simon, Cat Stevens, Carole King, Laura Nyro (Nyro, Laura), Leonard Cohen (Cohen, Leonard), Jackson Browne (Browne, Jackson), and Loudon Wainwright III, all of whom owed much to Dylan for having broken down conventional song form and undermining traditional vocal decorum.

      Mitchell (Mitchell, Joni), the most gifted and influential, smoothed out Dylan's narrative line in songs of unprecedented candour and poetic refinement about her restless search for love in a hedonistic, sexually liberated age, and in the mid-1970s she opened up the genre to jazz influences. Young, in his raw acoustic ballads (pop ballad), epitomized a hippie visionary painfully shaking off his dreamy idealism. Morrison created cryptic dreamscapes tinged with Celtic mysticism, sung with artfully slurred diction. Newman, who came from a family of Hollywood composers, wrote ironic dramatic monologues that juxtaposed the musical worlds of Gustav Mahler (Mahler, Gustav), Stephen Foster (Foster, Stephen), and Fats Domino (Domino, Fats). Taylor (Taylor, James), who grew up in North Carolina, fused Appalachian mountain music with sophisticated, often cryptic personal confessions of emotional disorder.

 Carly Simon, who was married to Taylor in the 1970s, personified white, East Coast, upper middle-class longing in her blunt folk-pop songs. Stevens, an English hippie mystic, wrote impenetrably fanciful but pretty folk-pop meditations. King, a professional New York songwriter, embodied an optimistic, commonsense earth mother in her plain, keyboard-based songs with gospel (gospel music) chords. Nyro, vastly influential but only marginally successful, invented an intensely passionate and private, keyboard-based style that borrowed from gospel, folk, jazz, and Broadway. Cohen, a Canadian poet-turned-songwriter, mixed biblical and erotic imagery in elevated folk-pop songs that had a droning Middle Eastern flavour. Browne's morally searching generational anthems borrowed the harmonic vocabulary of Protestant hymns. Wainwright, a brilliant comic buffoon, punctured his own and his peers' self-seriousness in needling, clownish light verse. The genre reached its commercial peak in the mid-1970s with the formal country-pop ballads of John Denver that substituted official good cheer for intimate personal revelation.

      Other pioneering singer-songwriters of artistic note included John Prine, a homespun comic fabulist and storyteller from Illinois; Tom Waits (Waits, Tom), a Californian who acted the role of raspy-voiced hipster and latter-day beatnik saint; and Waits's female counterpart, Rickie Lee Jones, whose pop-jazz suites echoed Nyro's effusions. In England, Richard Thompson (Thompson, Richard) wrote scathingly despairing social realist ballads, while the hugely prolific Elvis Costello (Costello, Elvis), whose first album was released in 1977, brought the anger and skepticism of punk rock into his trickily rhymed circumlocutory songs that often explored situations from multiple perspectives.

      Although the reign of the singer-songwriters ended with the twin upsurge of punk and disco in the late 1970s, the genre has remained relatively stable, and the market for personal, idiosyncratic, overwhelmingly female voices with lofty, often unrealized, artistic goals has proved extremely remunerative for a select few.

Stephen Holden

Representative Works

● Leonard Cohen, The Songs of Leonard Cohen (1968)
● Laura Nyro, Eli and the Thirteenth Confession (1968)
● James Taylor, Sweet Baby James (1970)
● Carole King, Tapestry (1971)
● John Prine, John Prine (1971)
● Carly Simon, Carly Simon (1971)
● Randy Newman, Sail Away (1972)
● Loudon Wainwright III, Album III (1973)
● Tom Waits, Closing Time (1973)
● Jackson Browne, Late for the Sky (1974)
● Richard and Linda Thompson, I Want to See the Bright Lights Tonight (1974)
● Rickie Lee Jones, Rickie Lee Jones (1979)

Additional Reading
Paul Zollo, Songwriters on Songwriting, expanded ed. (1997), collects 52 interviews with songwriters about their work and includes conversations with Bob Dylan, Paul Simon, Randy Newman, Leonard Cohen, Laura Nyro, and Jackson Browne.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

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