- Serbo-Turkish War
▪ Balkan history(1876–78), military conflict in which Serbia and Montenegro fought the Ottoman Turks in support of an uprising in Bosnia and Herzegovina and, in the process, intensified the Balkan crisis that culminated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78. By the settlement of that conflict Serbia and Montenegro acquired their independence from the Ottoman Empire and an expansion of their territory.In July 1875 the Christian peasants of Herzegovina rebelled against their Muslim landlords and Ottoman Turkish rulers. The revolt quickly spread to Bosnia and aroused enormous popular sympathy in Serbia, which was then an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire. After attempts by the great European powers to mediate between the belligerents had failed, Milan Obrenović (Milan IV (or II)) IV of Serbia, together with Prince Nicholas of Montenegro, succumbed to domestic pressure and declared war on the Turks (June 30, 1876).Serbia's military capacity was extremely limited; and although a Russian general assumed command of the army and Serbia received Russian volunteers, the Russian government did not at once provide the expected military assistance. The Serbian effort to invade Bosnia was a failure; and while their sole ally, Montenegro, successfully fought in Herzegovina, the Serbs, after losing the Battle of Aleksinac (Sept. 1, 1876), were confronted with a Turkish advance toward Belgrade. Only then did Russia present an ultimatum to the Turks and force them to conclude an armistice (Oct. 31, 1876).When subsequent international negotiations produced no settlement, the Serbs and Turks concluded a peace treaty based on the status quo (March 1, 1877). In the meantime, Russia's efforts to secure from the Ottoman sultan a guarantee of reforms that would improve the position of the Christian populations in his empire failed after two years of futile negotiation. So on April 24, 1877, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire and in December was joined by the Serbs and Montenegrins.The Russo-Turkish War was ended by the Treaty of San Stefano (March 3, 1878), which was subsequently revised by the Treaty of Berlin (July 13, 1878). Serbia and Montenegro received their independence from the Ottoman Empire and also made substantial territorial gains—Serbia acquired almost 4,000 square miles (10,360 km) on its southeastern frontier. Additionally, Austria-Hungary assumed the administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina after 1878.
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