Scaliger, Joseph Justus

Scaliger, Joseph Justus

▪ Dutch philologist and historian

born Aug. 5, 1540, Agen, Fr.
died Jan. 21, 1609, Leiden, Holland [now in Neth.]
 Dutch philologist and historian whose works on chronology were among the greatest contributions of Renaissance scholars to revisions in historical and classical studies.

      The son of an Italian physician and philosopher, Julius Caesar Scaliger, who immigrated to Agen in 1525, the young Joseph entered school at Bordeaux and quickly proved himself an extraordinarily precocious student. In 1559 he went to Paris to study Greek and Latin and then began to teach himself Hebrew, Arabic, Syrian, Persian, and the principal modern languages. He converted to Protestantism in 1562 and set out on travels to French and German universities and to Italy to study its antiquities. After the Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day (August 1572) and the persecution of French Protestants, he went to Geneva, where he taught at an academy, returning to France in 1574. He was called to the University of Leiden (1593), where he became known as the most erudite scholar of his time. He remained there until his death.

      Scaliger's greatest work is the Opus de emendatione tempore (1583; “Study on the Improvement of Time”), a study of previous calendars. In it he compared the computations of time made by the various civilizations of antiquity, corrected their errors, and for the first time placed chronology on a solidly scientific basis. His other major work is Thesaurus temporum, complectens Eusebi Pamphili Chronicon (1609; “The Thesaurus of Time, Including the Chronicle of Eusebius Pamphilus”), a reconstruction of the Chronicle of the early Christian historian Eusebius Pamphilus and a collection of Greek and Latin remnants placed in chronological order. Two other treatises (published in 1604 and 1616) established numismatics, the study of coins, as a new and reliable tool in historical research. A prolific writer, his works were collected and published posthumously in 1610, and two collections of his correspondence appeared in 1624 and 1627.

Additional Reading
Jakob Bernays, Joseph Justus Scaliger (1855); Charles Nisard, Le Triumvirat littéraire au XVIe siècle, pp. 149–308 (1852); Joseph Scaliger, Autobiography (Eng. trans. by G.W. Robinson, 1927).

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • SCALIGER, Joseph Justus — (1540 1609) A French philologist and historian, Joseph Justus Scaliger reformed historical and classical studies during the Renaissance through his careful correction of various ancient chronologies and by a rigorous approach to textual criticism …   Renaissance and Reformation 1500-1620: A Biographical Dictionary

  • Scaliger, Julius Caesar, and Scaliger, Joseph Justus — born April 23, 1484, Riva, Republic of Venice died Oct. 21, 1558, Agen, France born Aug. 5, 1540, Agen, France died Jan. 21, 1609, Leiden, Holland Classical scholars. Julius worked in botany, zoology, and grammar but was chiefly interested in… …   Universalium

  • SCALIGER, JOSEPH JUSTUS —    eminent scholar, son of the following, born at Agen; educated by his father; followed in his father s footsteps, and far surpassed him in scholarship; travelled over Europe, and became a zealous Protestant; accepted the chair of belles lettres …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Joseph Justus Scaliger — (* 5. August 1540 in Agen, Lot et Garonne; † 21. Januar 1609 in Leiden) war das zehnte Kind und der dritte Sohn von Julius Caesar Scaliger und Andiette de Roques Lobejac und einer der größten Gelehrten der zweiten Hälfte des 16. Jahrhunderts.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Joseph Justus Scaliger — (August 5, 1540, Agen – January 21, 1609, Leiden) was a French religious leader and scholar, known for expanding the notion of classical history from Greek and Ancient Roman history to include Persian, Babylonian …   Wikipedia

  • Joseph Justus Scaliger — Joseph Justus Scaliger. Joseph Justus Scaliger (5 de agosto de 1540 21 de enero de 1609) fue un erudito francés, conocido por la ampliación de la noción clásica de la historia griega y la historia antigua de Roma con la inclusión de la historia… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Joseph Scaliger — Joseph Justus Scaliger (* 5. August 1540 in Agen, Lot et Garonne; † 21. Januar 1609 in Leiden) war das zehnte Kind und der dritte Sohn von Julius Caesar Scaliger und Andiette de Roques Lobejac und einer der größten Gelehrten der zweiten Hälfte… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Joseph — /joh zeuhf, seuhf/, n. 1. Jacob s eleventh son, the first of Jacob and his second wife, Rachel: sold into slavery by his brothers. Gen. 30:22 24; 37. 2. the husband of Mary who was the mother of Jesus. Matt. 1:16 25. 3. (Hinmaton yalaktit), c1840 …   Universalium

  • Justus Lipsius — (eigentlich Joest Lips; * 18. Oktober 1547 in Overijse (Flämisch Brabant); † 23. März 1606 in Löwen) war ein niederländischer Rechtsphilosoph und Philologe …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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