- Saint-Simon, Henri de
▪ French social reformerIntroductionborn Oct. 17, 1760, Paris, Fr.died May 19, 1825, ParisFrench social theorist and one of the chief founders of Christian (Christian Socialism) socialism. In his major work, Nouveau Christianisme (1825), he proclaimed a brotherhood of man that must accompany the scientific organization of industry and society.Life.Saint-Simon was born of an impoverished aristocratic family. His grandfather's cousin had been the Duke de Saint-Simon, famous for his memoirs of the court of Louis XIV. Henri was fond of claiming descent from Charlemagne. After an irregular education by private tutors, he entered military service at 17. He was in the regiments sent by France to aid the American colonies in their war of independence against England and served as a captain of artillery at Yorktown in 1781.During the French Revolution he remained in France, where he bought up newly nationalized land with funds advanced by a friend. He was imprisoned in the Palais de Luxembourg during the Reign of Terror and emerged to find himself enormously rich because of the depreciation of the Revolutionary currency. He proceeded to live a life of splendour and license, entertaining prominent people from all walks of life at his glittering salons. Within several years he had brought himself close to bankruptcy. He turned to the study of science, attending courses at the École Polytechnique and entertaining distinguished scientists.In his first published work, Lettres d'un habitant de Genève à ses contemporains (1803; “Letters of an Inhabitant of Geneva to His Contemporaries”), Saint-Simon proposed that scientists take the place of priests in the social order. He argued that the property owners who held political power could hope to maintain themselves against the propertyless only by subsidizing the advance of knowledge.By 1808 Saint-Simon was impoverished, and the last 17 years of his life were lived mainly on the generosity of friends. Among his many later publications were De la réorganisation de la société européenne (1814; “On the Reorganization of European Society”) and L'industrie (1816–18, in collaboration with Auguste Comte; “Industry”). In 1823, in a fit of despondency, Saint-Simon attempted to kill himself with a pistol but succeeded only in putting out one eye.Throughout his life Saint-Simon devoted himself to a long series of projects and publications through which he sought to win support for his social ideas. As a thinker, Saint-Simon was deficient in system, clearness, and coherence, but his influence on modern thought, especially in the social sciences, is undeniable. Apart from the details of his socialist teachings, his main ideas are simple and represented a reaction against the bloodletting of the French Revolution and the militarism of Napoleon. Saint-Simon correctly foresaw the industrialization of the world, and he believed that science and technology would solve most of humanity's problems. Accordingly, in opposition to feudalism and militarism, he advocated an arrangement whereby businessmen and other industrial leaders would control society. The spiritual direction of society would be in the hands of scientists and engineers, who would thus take the place occupied by the Roman Catholic church in the European Middle Ages. What Saint-Simon desired, in other words, was an industrialized state directed by modern science, and one in which society would be organized for productive labour by the most capable men. The aim of society would be to produce things useful to life. Saint-Simon also proposed that the states of Europe form an association to suppress war. These ideas had a profound influence on the philosopher Auguste Comte (Comte, Auguste), who worked with Saint-Simon until the two men quarreled.Although the contrast between the labouring and the propertied classes in society is not emphasized by Saint-Simon, the cause of the poor is discussed, and in his best-known work, Nouveau Christianisme (1825; “The New Christianity”), it takes the form of a religion. It was this development of Saint-Simon's teaching that occasioned his final rupture with Comte. Before the publication of Nouveau Christianisme, Saint-Simon had not concerned himself with theology, but in this work, beginning with a belief in God, he tries to resolve Christianity into its essential elements, and he finally propounds this precept: that religion “should guide the community toward the great aim of improving as quickly as possible the conditions of the poorest class.” This became the watchword of the entire school of Saint-Simon.His movement and its influence.Saint-Simon died in 1825, and, in the subsequent years, his disciples carried his message to the world and made him famous. By 1826 a movement supporting his ideas had begun to grow, and by the end of 1828 the Saint-Simonians were holding meetings in Paris and in many provincial towns. In July 1830 revolution brought new opportunities to the Saint-Simonians in France. They issued a proclamation demanding the ownership of goods in common, the abolition of the right of inheritance, and the enfranchisement of women. The sect included some of the ablest and most promising young men of France. In the following years, however, the leaders of the movement quarreled among themselves, and as a result the movement fragmented and broke up, its leaders turning to practical affairs.Despite this, the ideas of the Saint-Simonians had a pervasive influence on the intellectual life of 19th-century Europe. Thomas Carlyle in England was among those influenced by the ideas of Saint-Simon or his followers. Friedrich Engels found in Saint-Simon “the breadth of view of a genius,” containing in embryo most of the ideas of the later socialists. Saint-Simon's proposals of social and economic planning were indeed ahead of his time, and succeeding Marxists, socialists, and capitalist reformers alike were indebted to his ideas in one way or another. Felix Markham has said that Saint-Simon's ideas have a peculiar relevance to the 20th century, when socialist ideologies took the place of traditional religion in many countries.Additional ReadingBiographical and critical works include E.M. Butler, The Saint-Simonian Religion in Germany: A Study of the Young German Movement (1926, reprinted 1968); Mathurin Marius Dondo, The French Faust: Henri de Saint-Simon (1955); and Frank Edward Manuel, The New World of Henri Saint-Simon (1956, reissued 1963), and The Prophets of Paris (1962), on Turgot, Condorcet, Saint-Simon, Fourier, and Comte. See also the relevant chapters in D.G. Charlton, Secular Religions in France, 1815–1870 (1963, reissued 1970); and Alexander Gray, The Socialist Tradition: Moses to Lenin (1946, reissued 1968).
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