(Sanskrit: “sound”), in Indian philosophy, verbal testimony as a means of obtaining knowledge. In the orthodox philosophical systems (darśana), śabda is equated with the authority of the Vedas (most ancient sacred scriptures) as the only infallible testimony, since the Vedas are deemed both eternal and authorless and without contradiction. Śabda is of particular importance to the exegetic Mimāṃsā school. Mimāṃsā defines the authoritativeness as applying bindingly only to scriptural statements that exhort to purposive action and whose efficacy would not be known by any other means of knowledge. The Vedānta school extends this authoritativeness to suprasensual objects—e.g., to Brahman, the ultimate reality. The school of logic, Nyāya, accepts verbal testimony, both human and divine, as a valid means of knowledge but notes that only the divine knowledge of the Vedas is infallible.

      The nonorthodox systems of Buddhism and Jainism, though they reject the authoritativeness of the Vedas, rely in fact on the śabda of their own scriptures.

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Universalium. 2010.

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