Rowland, F. Sherwood

Rowland, F. Sherwood

▪ American chemist
in full  Frank Sherwood Rowland  
born June 28, 1927, Delaware, Ohio, U.S.

      American chemist who shared the 1995 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with chemists Mario Molina (Molina, Mario) and Paul Crutzen (Crutzen, Paul) for research on the depletion of the Earth's ozone layer (ozonosphere). Working with Molina, Rowland discovered that man-made chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants accelerate the decomposition of the ozonosphere, which protects the Earth from ultraviolet radiation. Their findings eventually brought about international changes in the chemical industry.

      Rowland was educated in his hometown at Ohio Wesleyan University (B.A., 1948) and at the University of Chicago (M.S., 1951; Ph.D., 1952). He held academic posts at Princeton University (1952–56) and at the University of Kansas (1956–64) before becoming a professor of chemistry at the University of California, Irvine, in 1964. At Irvine in the early 1970s he began working with Molina. Rowland was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1978.

      Rowland and Molina theorized that CFC gases combine with solar radiation and decompose in the stratosphere, releasing atoms of chlorine and chlorine monoxide that are individually able to destroy large numbers of ozone molecules. Their research, first published in Nature magazine in 1974, initiated a federal investigation of the problem. The National Academy of Sciences concurred with their findings in 1976, and in 1978 CFC-based aerosols were banned in the United States. Further validation of their work came in the mid-1980s with the discovery of the so-called hole in the ozone shield over Antarctica. In 1987 an international protocol to ban the production of ozone-depleting gases was negotiated by the United Nations in Montreal.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Rowland , Frank Sherwood — (1927–) American chemist Born in Delaware, Ohio, Rowland was educated at Wesleyan University, Ohio, and at the University of Chicago, where he gained his PhD in 1952. After holding teaching posts at Princeton and Kansas, Rowland moved to the… …   Scientists

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  • Sherwood Rowland — Frank Sherwood Rowland Pour les articles homonymes, voir Rowland. Frank Sherwood Rowland. Franklin Sherwood Rowland, né le 28 juin …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Rowland (surname) — Rowland is a common surname, and may refer to:*Alfred Rowland (1844 1898), U.S. Representative from North Carolina *Barrington Rowland (born 1980), Indian cricketer *Bo Rowland, American college football coach *Brian Rowland, Canadian soccer… …   Wikipedia

  • Rowland — ist Familienname folgender Personen Alfred Rowland (1844–1898), US amerikanischer Politiker Austen Rowland (* 1981), US amerikanischer Basketballspieler Charles Hedding Rowland (1860–1921), US amerikanischer Politiker Earl Jerrod Rowland (* 1983) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Sherwood Island State Park — is a park on the shore of Long Island Sound, in the Greens Farms section of Westport, Connecticut. It covers convert|234|acre|km2 of beach, wetlands and woodlands. People come to the park to enjoy various outdoor sports, study nature, fly kites… …   Wikipedia

  • Rowland —   [ rəʊlənd],    1) Frank Sherwood, amerikanischer Chemiker, * Delaware (Ohio) 28. 6. 1927; seit 1964 Professor im Department for Chemistry der University of California (Irvine). Zusammen mit Molina untersuchte Rowland die Auswirkungen von… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Rowland — [rō′lənd] n. a masculine name: see ROLAND * * * Row·land (rōʹlənd), F(rank) Sherwood. Born 1927. American chemist who shared a 1995 Nobel Prize for his work on the chemical processes involved in the formation and decomposition of ozone. * * * …   Universalium

  • Rowland — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Rowland peut désigner : Sommaire 1 Patronyme 1.1 Personnage fictif …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Rowland — biographical name Frank Sherwood 1927 American chemist …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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