in horticulture, the removal or reduction of parts of a plant, tree, or vine that are not requisite to growth or production, are no longer visually pleasing, or are injurious to the health or development of the plant. Pruning is common practice in orchard and vineyard management for the improvement of flowering and fruiting. In home gardening (e.g., rose culture), pruning enhances plant shape and flowering potential; new growth emerges from the bud or buds immediately below the pruning cut. The once-common practice of cutting off a branch so that its base is flush with the limb is now recognized as inadvisable. Instead, the pruning cut should be made just above the collar, or swelling—essentially a protective callus—that surrounds the base of the branch. Ragged bark at the edge of the wound should be carefully trimmed. The application of pruning paint, or dressing, also a once-common practice, is unnecessary, but thin coasts may be applied for cosmetic reasons. Incorrect pruning can cause flower and fruit loss and leave the plant weak and vulnerable to disease or insect damage.Tree injuries caused by ice, strong winds, lightning, fire, or disease require major repair by a tree surgeon. If left uncorrected, such damage can result in the death of the tree. Common tree surgery procedures include the removal of broken, dead, or diseased branches; cutting back limbs that interfere with traffic, impede power and telephone lines, obstruct views, or mar the shape of a tree; thinning to permit air circulation and secure more light; removal of branches that rub against others to prevent wounding and possible future decay; judicious cutting to compensate for root loss and promote formation of blossoms; and heading back to revitalize an aged tree. The origin of modern tree surgery is attributed to John Davey of Kent, Ohio, who established a landscaping business there in 1880.
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