Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion
- Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion
▪ fraudulent document
fraudulent document that served as a pretext and rationale for anti-Semitism
in the early 20th century. The document purports to be a report of a series of 24 (in other versions, 27) meetings held at Basel, Switz., in 1897, at the time of the first Zionist congress. There Jews and Freemasons were said to have made plans to disrupt Christian civilization and erect a world state under their joint rule. Liberalism and socialism were to be the means of subverting Christendom; if subversion failed, all the capitals of Europe were to be sabotaged.
The Protocols were printed in Russia in abbreviated form in 1903 in the newspaper Znamia (“Banner”) and subsequently (1905) as an addendum to a religious tract by Serge Nilus, a tsarist civil servant. They were translated into German, French, English, and other European languages and soon came to be a classic of anti-Semitic literature. In the United States Henry Ford's private newspaper, Dearborn Independent, often cited them as evidence of a Jewish threat.
The spurious character of the Protocols
was first revealed in 1921 by Philip Graves of The Times
), who demonstrated their obvious resemblance to a satire by the French lawyer Maurice Joly on Napoleon III published in 1864 and entitled Dialogue aux Enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu
(“Dialogue in Hell between Machiavelli and Montesquieu”). Subsequent investigation, particularly by the Russian historian Vladimir Burtsev, revealed that the Protocols
were forgeries compounded by officials of the Russian secret police out of the satire of Joly, a fantastic novel (Biarritz
) by Hermann Goedsche (1868), and other sources.
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
ELDERS OF ZION, PROTOCOLS OF THE LEARNED — ELDERS OF ZION, PROTOCOLS OF THE LEARNED, antisemitic forgery aimed at showing the existence of international Jewish aspirations bent on world power. The specter of a worldwide Jewish conspiracy aiming at reducing the gentiles to slavery or… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion — ( Protocols of the wise men of Zion , Library of Congress s Uniform Title; ru. Протоколы сионских мудрецов , or Сионские протоколы ; see also other titles) is an antisemitic tract alleging a Jewish and Masonic plot to achieve world domination. It … Wikipedia
Protocols of the Elders of Zion (versions) — The Protocols, or The Protocols of Zion, are the briefest two common English language titles of the writing more popularly known in the United States as The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, or as the Protocols of the wise men of Zion, the latter… … Wikipedia
Protocols of the Elders of Zion — Originating in Russia and evidently plagiarized by the Tsar s secret police from a little known French satirical attack of 1864 on the despotism of Louis Napoleon, the Protocols out lined in twenty four lectures a mysterious Jewish conspiracy… … Historical dictionary of Weimar Republik
List of editions of Protocols of the Elders of Zion — The Protocols The Protocols of the Elders of Zion Versions of The Protocols … Wikipedia
Contemporary imprints of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion — The Protocols The Protocols of the Elders of Zion Versions of The Protocols … Wikipedia
The Jewish Peril — is the first edition (1920) of the so called Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and its title is an antisemitic and pejorative ethnic slur. It is also one of the lead title of one of the many different imprints or editions of the Protocols of Zion… … Wikipedia
The Britons — The Britons, was founded in July 1919, by Henry Hamilton Beamish. It was an organization which published anti Semitic pamphlets and propaganda under the imprint names of the Judaic Publishing Co. and subsequently the Britons Publishing Society .… … Wikipedia
The Times — This article is about the British newspaper. For other uses, see The Times (disambiguation). The Times The 21 April 2011 front page of The Times Type Daily newspaper Format Compact … Wikipedia
The Culture of Critique series — The Culture of Critique The original trilogy, released between 1994–1998. A People That Shall Dwell Alone Separation and Its Discontents The Culture of Critique Understanding Jewish Influence Can the Jewish Model Help the West Survive? … Wikipedia