Popper, Sir Karl

Popper, Sir Karl

▪ British philosopher
in full  Karl Raimund Popper  
born July 28, 1902, Vienna, Austria
died Sept. 17, 1994, Croydon, Greater London, Eng.

      Austrian-born British philosopher of natural and social science who subscribed to antideterminist metaphysics, believing that knowledge evolves from experience of the mind.

      Although his first book, Logik der Forschung (1934; The Logic of Scientific Discovery), was published by the Vienna Circle of logical positivists, Popper rejected their inductive empiricism and developmental historicism. After studying mathematics, physics, and psychology at the University of Vienna, he taught philosophy at Canterbury University College, New Zealand (1937–45). In 1945 he became a reader in logic at the London School of Economics, and he served there as professor of logic and scientific method from 1949 until his retirement in 1969.

      Popper's principal contribution to the philosophy of science rests on his rejection of the inductive method in the empirical sciences. According to this traditional view, a scientific hypothesis may be tested and verified by obtaining the repeated outcome of substantiating observations. As the Scottish empiricist David Hume had shown, however, only an infinite number of such confirming results could prove the theory correct. Popper argued instead that hypotheses are deductively validated by what he called the “falsifiability criterion.” Under this method, a scientist seeks to discover an observed exception to his postulated rule. The absence of contradictory evidence thereby becomes corroboration of his theory. According to Popper, such pseudosciences as astrology, metaphysics, Marxist history, and Freudian psychoanalysis are not empirical sciences, because of their failure to adhere to the principle of falsifiability.

      Popper's later works include The Open Society and Its Enemies (1945), The Poverty of Historicism (1957), and Postscript to the Logic of Scientific Discovery, 3 vol. (1981–82). He was knighted in 1965.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • POPPER, SIR KARL — (Raimund; 1902–1994), philosopher. Popper was born in Vienna of Jewish parents who had converted to Christianity. In the early 1920s he worked with juvenile delinquents in alfred adler s clinic in Vienna. In 1930 he became a secondary school… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Popper,Sir Karl Raimund — Pop·per (pŏpʹər), Sir Karl Raimund. 1902 1994. British philosopher known for his contributions to the understanding of scientific reasoning and his attacks on historicism. His works include The Logic of Scientific Discovery (1931) and The Open… …   Universalium

  • Popper, Sir Karl Raimund — ▪ 1995       Austrian born British philosopher (b. July 28, 1902, Vienna, Austria Hungary d. Sept. 17, 1994, Croydon, Surrey, England), believed that knowledge particularly scientific knowledge evolves from individual experience and cannot be… …   Universalium

  • POPPER, Sir Karl — (1902 )    Austrian born British philosopher whose Jewish parents converted to CHRISTIANITY. After a short period as a Marxist, he became disenchanted and was associated with the VIENNA CIRCLE which he also found inadequate. His own philosophy is …   Concise dictionary of Religion

  • Popper, Sir Karl (Raimund) — born July 28, 1902, Vienna, Austria died Sept. 17, 1994, Croydon, Greater London, Eng. Austrian British philosopher of natural and social science. In The Logic of Scientific Discovery (1934), he rejected the traditional conception of induction,… …   Universalium

  • Popper, Sir Karl (Raimund) — (28 jul. 1902, Viena, Austria–17 sept. 1994, Croydon, Greater London, Inglaterra). Filósofo británico de las ciencias naturales y sociales de origen austríaco. En La lógica de la investigación científica (1934), rechazó la concepción tradicional… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Sir-Karl-Popper-Schule — Das Schulgebäude am Wiedner Gürtel Die Sir Karl Popper Schule ist ein Schulversuch am Wiedner Gymnasium (BG und BRG Wiedner Gürtel) im 4. Wiener Gemeindebezirk Wieden mit Adresse Wiedner Gürtel 68. Inhaltsverzeichnis …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Sir-Karl-Popperschule — Das Schulgebäude am Wiedner Gürtel Die Sir Karl Popper Schule ist ein Oberstufengymnasium und Oberstufenrealgymnasium im 4. Wiener Gemeindebezirk Wieden. Das Gebäude wurde 1909 nach Plänen von Emil Hoppe und seinem Bruder Paul Hoppe für den… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Sir Karl Raimund Popper — noun British philosopher (born in Austria) who argued that scientific theories can never be proved to be true, but are tested by attempts to falsify them (1902 1994) • Syn: ↑Popper, ↑Karl Popper • Hypernyms: ↑philosopher …   Useful english dictionary

  • Popper — (sir Karl Raimund) (1902 1994) philosophe britannique d origine autrichienne. épistémologue, il a défini les critères de démarcation entre science et métaphysique …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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