Pinel, Philippe

Pinel, Philippe

▪ French physician
born April 20, 1745, Saint-André, Tarn, Fr.
died Oct. 25, 1826, Paris
 French physician who pioneered in the humane treatment of the mentally ill (mental hygiene).

      Arriving in Paris (1778), he supported himself for a number of years by translating scientific and medical works and by teaching mathematics. During that period he also began visiting privately confined mental patients and writing articles on his observations. In 1792 he became the chief physician at the Paris asylum for men, Bicêtre, and made his first bold reform by unchaining patients, many of whom had been restrained for 30 to 40 years. He did the same for the female inmates of Salpêtrière when he became the director there in 1794.

      Discarding the long-popular equation of mental illness with demoniacal possession, Pinel regarded mental illness as the result of excessive exposure to social and psychological stresses and, in some measure, of heredity and physiological damage. In Nosographie philosophique (1798; “Philosophical Classification of Diseases”) he distinguished various psychoses and described, among other phenomena, hallucination, withdrawal, and a variety of other symptoms.

      Pinel did away with such treatments as bleeding, purging, and blistering and favoured a therapy that included close and friendly contact with the patient, discussion of personal difficulties, and a program of purposeful activities. His Traité médico-philosophique sur l'aliénation mentale ou la manie (1801; “Medico-Philosophical Treatise on Mental Alienation or Mania”) discusses his psychologically oriented approach.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Pinel, Philippe —    (1745–1826)    One of the founders of modern psychiatry, Pinel was born into a medical family in a village near Castres in southwest France, graduating as doctor of medicine from Toulouse in 1773. In 1778, he came up to Paris, making a meager… …   Historical dictionary of Psychiatry

  • Pinel, Philippe — (1745 1826)    physician    one of the pioneers of modern psychiatry, Philippe Pinel was born in Saint André d Alayrac, Tarn, and practiced medicine at the important hospitals of Bicêtre and Salpêtrière. The teacher of jean éti enne esquirol, he… …   France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present

  • PINEL, PHILIPPE —    a French physician, distinguished for the reformation he effected, against no small opposition, in the treatment of the insane, leading to the abandonment everywhere of the cruel, inhuman methods till then in vogue (1745 1826) …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Pinel, Philippe-François — vero nome di Dumanoir …   Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione

  • Пинель Филипп / Pinel, Philippe — (1745 1826). Пинель ратовал за более гуманное обращение с душевнобольными, которых в те времена многие считали нечистыми и одержимыми злым духом. Он предложил альтернативное объяснение психической болезни, связав нарушенное поведение с… …   Психологическая энциклопедия

  • Philippe Pinel — (* 20. April 1745 in Jonquières im Departement Tarn; † 25. Oktober 1826 in Paris) war ein französischer Psychiater und seit 1794 leitender Arzt am Hôpital Salpêtrière und setzte dort zuerst eine ärztliche Behandlung ohne Zwangsmaßnahmen durch. Um …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Philippe Pinel — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Phillipe Pinel Philippe Pinel (20 de abril de 1745 25 de octubre de 1826) fue un médico francés dedicado al estudio y tratamiento de las enfermedades mentales. Pertenece al grupo de pensadores que constituyeron la… …   Wikipedia Español

  • PINEL (P.) — PINEL PHILIPPE (1745 1826) Aliéniste français à qui est attribuée la «libération», sous la Révolution, des malades à l’intérieur des asiles. Après des études classiques au collège de Lavaur (Tarn) puis ecclésiastiques au collège de l’Esquille à… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Pinel — (Philippe) (1745 1826) médecin aliéniste français. Nommé médecin chef à l hôpital de Bicêtre (1793), il abolit les traitements violents jusqu alors en usage …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Philippe Pinel — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Pinel. Philippe Pinel Philippe Pinel Naissance 20 avril …   Wikipédia en Français

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