Perón, Eva

Perón, Eva

▪ Argentine leader
in full  Eva Duarte de Perón , née  María Eva Duarte , byname  Evita 
born May 7, 1919, Los Toldos, Arg.
died July 26, 1952, Buenos Aires
 second wife of Argentine president Juan Perón (Perón, Juan), who, during her husband's first term as president (1946–52), became a powerful though unofficial political leader, revered by the lower economic classes.

      Eva Duarte married Col. Juan Perón, a widower, in 1945 after an undistinguished career as a stage and radio actress. She participated in her husband's 1945–46 presidential campaign, winning the adulation of the masses, whom she addressed as los descamisados (descamisado) (Spanish: “the shirtless ones”).

 Although she never held any government post, Evita acted as de facto minister of health and labour, awarding generous wage increases to the unions, who responded with political support for Perón. After cutting off government subsidies to the traditional Sociedad de Beneficencia (Spanish: “Aid Society”), thereby making more enemies among the traditional elite, she replaced it with her own Eva Perón Foundation, which was supported by “voluntary” union and business contributions plus a substantial cut of the national lottery and other funds. These resources were used to establish thousands of hospitals, schools, orphanages, homes for the aged, and other charitable institutions. Evita was largely responsible for the passage of the woman suffrage law and formed the Peronista Feminist Party in 1949. She also introduced compulsory religious education into all Argentine schools. In 1951, although dying of cancer, she obtained the nomination for vice president, but the army forced her to withdraw her candidacy.

      After her death, Evita remained a formidable influence in Argentine politics. Her working-class followers tried unsuccessfully to have her canonized, and her enemies, in an effort to exorcise her as a national symbol of Peronism, stole her embalmed body in 1955 after Juan Perón was overthrown and secreted it in Italy for 16 years. In 1971 the military government, bowing to Peronist demands, turned over her remains to her exiled widower in Madrid. After Juan Perón died in office in 1974, his third wife, Isabel Perón, hoping to gain favour among the populace, repatriated the remains and installed them next to the deceased leader in a crypt in the presidential palace. Two years later a new military junta hostile to Peronism removed the bodies; Evita's remains were finally interred in the Duarte family crypt in Recoleta cemetery.

Additional Reading
Nicholas Fraser and Marysa Navarro, Eva Perón (1980).

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

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