- Patton, George Smith
▪ United States generalborn November 11, 1885, San Gabriel, California, U.S.died December 21, 1945, Heidelberg, GermanyU.S. Army officer who was an outstanding practitioner of mobile tank warfare in the European and Mediterranean theatres during World War II. His strict discipline, toughness, and self-sacrifice elicited exceptional pride within his ranks, and the general was colourfully referred to as “Old Blood-and-Guts” by his men.A 1909 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, and a descendant of a Virginia family with a long military tradition, Patton became a keen student of the American Civil War (1861–65), especially its great cavalry leaders, an interest that likely contributed to the strategy of bold, highly mobile operations associated with his name. He began his army career as a cavalry lieutenant (1913) and was aide-de-camp to General John J. Pershing (Pershing, John J) in Mexico (1916–17) and in England (1917). After serving with the U.S. Tank Corps in World War I, Patton became a vigorous proponent of tank warfare. He was made a tank brigade commander in July 1940. On April 4, 1941, he was promoted to major general, and two weeks later he was made commander of the 2nd Armored Division. Soon after the Japanese surprise air attack on Pearl Harbor (December 7, 1941), he was made corps commander in charge of both the 1st and 2nd armoured divisions and organized the desert training centre at Indio, California. Patton was commanding general of the western task force during the U.S. operations in North Africa in November 1942. He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general in March 1943 and led the U.S. Seventh Army in Sicily, employing his armour in a rapid drive that captured Palermo in July.The apogee of his career came with the dramatic sweep of his Third Army across northern France in the summer of 1944 in a campaign marked by great initiative, ruthless drive, and disregard of classic military rules. Prior to the Normandy Invasion, he was publicly placed in command of the First U.S. Army Group, a fictitious army whose supposed marshaling in eastern England helped to deceive German commanders into thinking that the invasion would take place in the Pas-de-Calais region of France. Patton's armoured units were not operational until August 1, almost two months after D-Day, but by the end of the month they had captured Mayenne, Laval, Le Mans, Reims, and Châlons. They did not stop until they hurtled against the strong German defenses at Nancy and Metz in November. In December his forces played a strategic role in defending Bastogne in the massive Battle of the Bulge (Bulge, Battle of the). By the end of January 1945, Patton's forces had reached the German frontier; on March 1 they took Trier, and in the next 10 days they cleared the entire region north of the Moselle River, trapping thousands of Germans. They then joined the Seventh Army in sweeping the Saar and the Palatinate, where they took 100,000 prisoners.Patton's military achievements caused authorities to soften strong civilian criticism of some of his actions, including his widely reported striking of a hospitalized shell-shocked soldier in August 1943. (Patton publicly apologized for the incident.) His public criticisms of the Allied postwar denazification policy in Germany led to his removal from the command of the Third Army in October 1945.The controversial general died in a Heidelberg hospital after an automobile accident near Mannheim. His memoirs, War as I Knew It, appeared posthumously in 1947. A film biography directed by Franklin Schaffner (Schaffner, Franklin), Patton (1970), won seven Academy Awards.Additional ReadingMartin Blumenson, The Patton Papers, 2 vol. (1972–74; vol. 2 reissued as The Patton Papers, 1940–1945, 1996), combines and arranges Patton's papers with informative narrative. Biographies of Patton include Ladislas Farago, Patton: Ordeal and Triumph (1963, reissued 1977), and The Last Days of Patton (1981); Martin Blumenson, Patton: The Man Behind the Legend, 1885–1945 (1985), a popular account; Robert H. Patton, The Pattons: A Personal History of an American Family (1994), written by his grandson; and Carlo D'Este, Patton: A Genius for War (1995). Charles M. Province, Patton's Third Army: A Daily Combat Diary (1992), covers his World War II battles.
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