Chinese bamboo panpipe, generally a series of bamboo tubes secured together by rows of bamboo strips, wooden strips, or ropes. The instrument is blown across the top end. Although 16 pipes have become the standard, other groupings (from 13 to 24) have been made. Before the Tang dynasty (AD 618–907) the panpipe was called xiao, a name that from that time forward was applied to a single-tube end-blown flute.

      The arrangement of the pipes formed a shape that was described by ancient writers as resembling the wings of the mythical fenghuang birds. Single-winged paixiao appear to have been the most common among the early examples, and the double-wing shape (with the pipes lengthening toward the two ends) predominated later. There also exist paixiao made up of pipes that are all of about the same length; wax is positioned inside the pipes to adjust pitch.

      The earliest complete paixiao was a stone single-wing model with 13 pipes, 3 to 15 cm (1.2 to 5.8 inches) long, from a tomb in Henan province dated about 552 BC. Two bamboo panpipes with 13 pipes in single-wing shape, ranging from 5.1 to 22.5 cm (2 to 8.8 inches) in length, were excavated from the tomb of Zenghouyi (Marquis Yi of Zeng) in Hubei province (433 BC). Not only was the paixiao a member of the ancient ritual orchestra, but it was also a favourite instrument in entertainment ensembles and military bands. Literary and iconographic sources concerning the instrument are abundant. After the Song dynasty (AD 960–1279), the importance of the paixiao declined dramatically, and it survived only in the ritual orchestra. As an important remnant of China's musical past, it has seen some return to use as an aural reminder of ancient times.

Additional Reading
Zhuang Benli, Panpipes of Ancient China (1963; in Chinese with an English summary); Alan R. Thrasher, Chinese Musical Instruments (2000).

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Paixiao — The paixiao (traditional: ; simplified: ; pinyin: páixiāo ; also pái xiāo, pai hsiao) is an ancient Chinese wind instrument, a form of pan pipes. It is no longer used, having died out in ancient times, although in the 20th century it was… …   Wikipedia

  • Paixiao — Le paixiao (trad : 排簫 ; simp : 排箫 ; pin : páixiāo), pái xiāo ou pai hsiao est une ancienne flûte de pan chinoise en bambou à 13 tuyaux peints datant de plus de 3000 ans. Bien que disparue, des tentatives ont été faites… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Flûte de Pan — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Pan (homonymie) et Syrinx. Flûtes de Pan roumaines La flûte de Pan est un instrument de musique composé d un ensembl …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Xiao (flute) — Xiao blowing hole (the hole faces away from the player, against the lower lip, when the instrument is played) …   Wikipedia

  • Flauta de Pan — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Pan enseñando a Dafnis a tocar la flauta. Mármol, copia romana de un original helénico. El brazo derecho de Dafne y las cabezas de ambos son retauraciones. Las flautas de Pan son un conjunto de instrumentos de viento …   Wikipedia Español

  • List of Chinese musical instruments — Music of China Timeline General topics Traditional Chinese instr …   Wikipedia

  • List of traditional Chinese musical instruments — Traditional Chinese musical instruments comprise a wide range of string, wind, and percussion instruments. Traditionally, they were classified according to the materials used in their construction.The Eight Sounds ()The eight categories are: silk …   Wikipedia

  • Liste traditioneller chinesischer Musikinstrumente — Dieses ist eine alphabetische Liste traditioneller chinesischer Musikinstrumente. Sie enthält die chinesische Bezeichnung, die Pinyin Schreibung (mit Tönen), den Instrumententyp bzw. die Art der Tonerzeugung, führt nach den verwendeten… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Flute de Pan — Flûte de Pan Pour les articles homonymes, voir Pan et Syrinx. Flûtes de Pan roumaines La flûte de Pan est un …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Flute de pan — Flûte de Pan Pour les articles homonymes, voir Pan et Syrinx. Flûtes de Pan roumaines La flûte de Pan est un …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”