painting, Western

painting, Western


      history of Western painting from its beginnings in prehistoric times to the present.

      Painting, the execution of forms and shapes on a surface by means of pigment (but see also drawing for discussion of depictions in chalks, inks, pastels, and crayons), has been continuously practiced by humans for some 20,000 years. Together with other activities that may have been ritualistic in origin but have come to be designated as artistic (such as music or dance), painting was one of the earliest ways in which man sought to express his own personality and his emerging understanding of an existence beyond the material world. Unlike music and dance, however, examples of early forms of painting have survived to the present day. The modern eye can derive aesthetic as well as antiquarian satisfaction from the 15,000-year-old cave murals of Lascaux—some examples testify to the considerable powers of draftsmanship of these early artists. And painting, like other arts, exhibits universal qualities that make it easy for viewers of all nations and civilizations to understand and appreciate.

      The major extant examples of early painting anywhere in the world are found in western Europe and the Soviet Union. But some 5,000 years ago, the areas in which important paintings were executed shifted to the eastern Mediterranean Sea and neighbouring regions. For the purposes of this article, therefore, Western painting is to be taken as signifying painting not only in Europe but also in regions outside Europe that share a European cultural tradition—the Middle East and Mediterranean Basin and, later, the countries of the New World.

      Western painting is in general distinguished by its concentration on the representation of the human figure, whether in the heroic context of antiquity or the religious context of the early Christian and medieval world. The Renaissance extended this tradition through a close examination of the natural world and an investigation of balance, harmony, and perspective in the visible world, linking painting to the developing sciences of anatomy and optics. The first real break from figurative painting came with the growth of landscape painting in the 17th and 18th centuries. The landscape and figurative traditions developed together in the 19th century in an atmosphere that was increasingly concerned with “painterly” qualities of the interaction of light and colour and the expressive qualities of paint handling. In the 20th century these interests contributed to the development of a third major tradition in Western painting, abstract painting, which sought to uncover and express the true nature of paint and painting through action and form.


European Stone Age

Upper Paleolithic
      During the Upper Paleolithic Period, just before the final retreat of the glaciers at the end of the last Ice Age (15,000–10,000 BC), much of Europe was peopled by small bands of nomadic hunters preying on the migratory herds of reindeer, cattle, bison, horses, mammoth, and other animals whose bodies provided them with food, clothing, and the raw materials for tools and weapons. These primitive hunters decorated the walls (mural) of their caves with large paintings of the animals (animal) that were so important for their physical well-being. Most surviving examples of such murals have been found in France and Spain (see Stone Age), but similar figures from caves in the Ural Mountains in the Soviet Union may indicate that the practice was more widespread than has been supposed.

      Ever since the first examples of these paintings came to light in the late 19th century, they have excited admiration for their virtuosity and liveliness. The simplest figures are mere outline drawings, but the majority combine this technique with sophisticated shading and colour washes that modulate the surface and suggest the differing textures of pelts, horn, and bone. Volume is indicated by carefully controlled changes in the thickness of brushstrokes, and the astonishingly advanced draftsmanship conveys a considerable sense of movement and life. Most of the animals were originally depicted as individual figures without narrative import, and what appear to the modern observer to be sophisticated groupings of figures are, in reality, the end result of a long additive process.

      The lack of a clear narrative element in these paintings has caused problems in their interpretation. Man is seldom portrayed, and depictions of human figures unambiguously interacting with the numerous animal figures are rare. One of the few exceptions to this rule is a scene at Lascaux (Lascaux Grotto) in southern France depicting a bison butting a falling male figure. The “Sorcerer” at Les Trois Frères (Trois Frères), also in southern France, is more characteristic. Although he is draped in the skin of an animal and seems to be engaged in stalking or a ritual dance, his complete isolation from any other figure leaves his exact significance unclear. It is also interesting that, in contrast to the obvious care taken in the detailed portrayal of animals, the few human figures are usually executed in a perfunctory and schematized fashion. Sometimes the only hint of man is provided by depictions of darts wounding or killing a few of the animal figures. These projectiles have been interpreted as exercises in sympathetic magic designed to induce success in a future hunt. Conversely, they might just as easily commemorate past kills. But certain features suggest that such simple explanations do not tell the whole story: first, such portrayals are rare (in inverse proportion to the amount of scholarly discussion they have engendered) and, second, the beasts that are shown as wounded—indeed the vast majority of the species depicted on the cave walls—were not significant items in the diet of the cave artists. Contemporary habitation deposits indicate that most of the meat consumed came from reindeer, and reindeer appear almost as infrequently as man himself among the surviving paintings. One fact is clear: individual initiative seems paramount, both in the execution of the animal figures and in the recording of the activities of the isolated humans. Any hint of social interaction is absent, and it has been assumed that society as such existed at a relatively low level. Nature provided the impetus for change, and in the art of the following period man finally emerged as part of a community.

Mesolithic (Mesolithic Period)
      At the end of the Ice Age the great herds that had provided sustenance for the Paleolithic hunters disappeared from France and Spain. Forests cloaked the landscape and harboured much smaller groups of deer and related species. These were fleet and elusive and, in consequence, much more difficult to hunt and kill. Thus, although the climate was warmer than before, it was much harder to live by hunting alone. Man had to modify his hunting techniques and forage for the seeds and fruits that the forests provided, or the fish and shellfish that he could find in rivers or on the coasts. Cooperation was essential, and the new situation is clearly reflected in the art of the period.

      In the southern and eastern parts of what is now Spain, small bands of such hunter-gatherers left a record of their activities in the rock shelters where they camped periodically. In some ways the new paintings resemble the old. Although a simple silhouette technique for the most part replaced the outline and shading techniques of the Paleolithic style, facility of brushwork and accuracy of observation continued to imbue the new creations with a vivacity and sense of movement similar to those of their predecessors. There are obvious conceptual differences between the two artistic complexes, however. The new paintings constitute the first real compositions having a clear narrative meaning, and man finally emerges as the chief actor in the dramas played out on the rock walls. At Remigia three hunters are depicted stalking a leaping ibex, while at Los Caballos a line of archers fires arrows into a small herd of panic-stricken deer, presumably driven into the ambush by beaters. Scenes of battle or groups of dancers also occur, while social status is implied in a carefully executed archer found at Santolea: he is dressed in painstakingly portrayed finery and is flanked by two other figures. This emphasis on man is new, but even more significant is the element of cooperation as part of a group whose social cohesion in warfare, hunting, or ritual was probably necessary if the group was to survive and prosper.

      The subsequent Neolithic Period saw the introduction from western Asia of farming and the raising of domesticated animals. The new way of life appeared in the Balkans sometime before 6000 BC and rapidly spread across Europe. For the first time man was able to live a relatively settled village life and accumulate a wide range of household goods. So far as large-scale painting is concerned, however, this period is something of a disappointment. Thus far, there is no evidence that the farming communities decorated their house walls with painted designs, in this at least failing to imitate their Asiatic mentors whose walls, as in the shrines at Çatalhüyük in Turkey, were often embellished with ambitious decorative schemes. In different places and at different times the European farmers did indeed indulge their aesthetic drive by producing highly decorated painted pottery whose patterns reflect contemporary basketwork or textiles. Few of these styles include human or animal figures and, despite their undoubted charm, these vases are the products of craft traditions that have little to do with large-scale art.

Aegean (Aegean civilizations) and eastern Mediterranean Metal Age
      In Greece and the Aegean, influence from the adjacent areas of western Asia helped promote the rise of small towns by about 3000 BC. The cultural development is usually divided into three separate strands: Minoan on Crete, Cycladic on the islands of the central Aegean, and Helladic on the Greek mainland. A fourth area, Cyprus, is often included in this development, though its culture was closer to those of Syria and Asia Minor and it was only during the 13th century BC that Greek invaders brought Cyprus fully into the Aegean orbit.

Peter John Callaghan
      The Metal Age in Europe started in the early 3rd millennium BC, when the peoples around the Aegean Sea began to work copper (copper work), under the influence of the neighbouring peoples of western Asia. By 2500 BC coppersmiths were also active across the Alps. Bronze (bronze work) began to be used in Europe at the beginning of the 2nd millennium (Bronze Age) BC, and iron was used in Greece by the 11th century BC and north of the Alps by the 8th century BC. Bronze was always a luxury item because the sources of its constituent metals, tin and copper, occurred in scattered deposits, often far from the producing centres. Its use, therefore, encouraged trade. But iron (ironwork), when it came into use, was cheaper and easier to work; moreover, the ore lodes were often close at hand. Its use, especially for agricultural implements, allowed more intensive exploitation of the countryside, especially those areas where heavy soils had precluded farming with more primitive tools. The end of this period is usually placed at the point where written records supplement the archaeological record. In Greece and Italy this happened during the 8th century BC or a little later, whereas in northwestern Europe the Celtic and Germanic peoples had to wait for the Roman conquests of the 1st century BC before emerging into history. Beyond the imperial frontiers old patterns continued longer. Throughout this long period it was the Mediterranean, with its flourishing towns and cities, that produced major works of painting.

Ole Klindt-Jensen Peter John Callaghan

Early Bronze Age (3000–2000 BC)
Early Minoan (Minoan civilization)
      In Crete the Early Minoan peoples lived in small towns and villages with a basically agricultural economy. Although traces of their houses have been preserved, it is clear that they did not paint their walls with decorative designs. The fine plaster introduced at this time, however, did provide the basis for later developments. Their pottery was at first plain or decorated with simple, arresting patterns of straight lines. (Pottery is an important source for modern knowledge of painting in the last three millennia BC because, although fired clay objects—even when decorated—may be broken, they are not easily pulverized, so many fragments have survived.) In the following phase (2500–2200 BC) a similar style flourished, though other vases with a mottled surface imitating variegated stones were produced. During the third phase (2200–2000 BC) most fine vases were decorated with designs in white or cream paint on a dark ground. Elegant running spirals and other curvilinear motifs, as well as the occasional use of other colours, revolutionized the style and paved the way for the greater advances of the Middle Minoan period.

Early Cycladic
      In the islands there was little interest in painted designs. Most decoration consisted of incised or impressed geometric schemes, though there were some vases with similar designs in paint. The typical pottery of the second and third phases (2500–2000 BC) was decorated in semilustrous paint, either as an allover wash or in angular patterns.

Early Helladic
      On the Greek (Greek pottery) mainland there was a similar lack of interest in painted decoration (decorative art) on pots. Although monumental buildings have been found in the Peloponnese dating to the Early Helladic II period (2500–2200 BC), none of these had decorated walls. New settlers arrived about 2200 BC and destroyed the old centres of power. Their houses were primitive affairs and only a few of their finer vases bore painted designs, these being of straight lines or other simple patterns.

Middle Bronze Age (2000–1600 BC)
Middle Minoan
      The Middle Minoan period saw the evolution of a monarchical society based on palaces situated in the most fertile districts of Crete. There were undoubtedly frescoes (fresco painting) in these large buildings before 1600 BC, but little survived the disastrous earthquake of about 1700 BC, and once again it is the pottery that gives the best idea of contemporary aesthetics. The decorative style is basically a development of the previous period's. Curvilinear patterns in white, yellow, and red swirl around the surfaces of these bulbous vases. The latest Middle Minoan style is similar, but its static formality seems better suited to wall decoration, and it is likely that monumental frescoes from the old palaces influenced the vase painter. The combination of modeled flowers and animals with painted motifs on the vases certainly reflects similar developments in wall painting, where stucco reliefs were combined with simple painted backgrounds.

Middle Cycladic and Middle Helladic
      On the mainland and in the islands, native styles of plain or simply painted pottery continued to be executed, but Cretan influence was felt toward the end of the period in both areas, and they began to be drawn into the wider cultural orbit characteristic of the following period.

Late Bronze Age (1600–1100 BC)
Wall paintings (mural)
      The three separate areas of the Aegean were brought into intimate contact during the Late Bronze Age; indeed the whole eastern Mediterranean saw intense cross connections and cultural diffusion. Great palaces arose on the Greek mainland and Crete and even on some of the lesser islands. Although there were probably differences in the natures of the societies that built them (resulting in fortified structures on the Greek mainland and unfortified ones on Crete), the palaces and great houses were decorated with complex frescoes whose style was based on Cretan models. Many of the figured scenes are merely decorative and depict landscapes with birds and animals or figures gathering flowers. Others show ceremonies connected with a cult or the court (“The Toreador Fresco”) and were probably useful in bolstering the power of the royal or priestly classes. The style is a combination of dark outline drawing, to delimit the object shown, and solid painted areas within it. On some birds and animals the feathers or pelts are imitated by slightly more impressionistic brushstrokes. Most of these frescoes are in fragmentary condition, but a better idea of what they must once have looked like can be gained from the house walls at Akrotíri on Thera (one of the Cyclades of the southern Aegean). Thera was destroyed by volcanic eruption during the 15th century BC and is often referred to as the Greek Pompeii. The wall paintings there were heavily influenced by those of Crete, both as to style and subject matter, though the popularity of outline figures on a pale background stemmed from the local pottery tradition. One of the most exciting discoveries is a long frieze depicting a fleet of gaily decorated ships sailing against a backdrop of hilly islands with towns, shepherds, and hunters scattered along the shores or set upon the forested peaks among gushing streams. Another painting shows a group of women at a religious festival and—in the first known instance at this period—ordinary people: two boys boxing and a fisherman proudly displaying his catch. These paintings decorated well-to-do houses. In the great palaces of Crete and on the Greek mainland many of the scenes are rather more formal. At Knossos on Crete there are long lines of offering bearers in the vestibule leading to the state rooms. The throne in one ritual chamber is flanked by fresco paintings of griffins (griffin) whose presence must have had a protective value. Griffins also flank the throne at Pylos in Greece, and the same site has produced fragments of another fresco showing battle scenes. Mycenae (also on the Greek mainland) possesses a small sanctuary whose walls are decorated with ritual episodes, and religious ceremonies do indeed appear to have been an important part of the wall painters' repertoire. There are, however, none of the historical or annalistic scenes so characteristic of the palaces and temples of western Asia and Egypt. In particular there are no depictions of investitures or battles with accompanying inscriptions; in short, Aegean paintings are far less bombastic than their Middle Eastern equivalents. This is not to say that the visitor would have been less impressed by the ruler's power in these first great European civilizations, merely that the iconographic emphases were different.

Peter John Callaghan

Vase paintings

Late Minoan
      The light-on-dark style of pottery was by now replaced by dark-on-light ornamentation. At first (roughly 1600–1500 BC), curvilinear patterns and simple designs of vegetation predominated. Between 1500 and about 1450 BC, however, there flourished the marine style, possibly the most successful of all Minoan pottery styles. Nearly every form of marine life is accurately reproduced in a riotous allover arrangement: octopuses, argonauts, dolphins, and fish, against a background of rocks and waves. In the 70 or 80 years after 1450 BC, the spontaneity of the early Marine style degenerated into a rigid formality. Subsequently, Late Minoan pottery became little more than a provincial version of Mycenaean ware.

Late Mycenaean
      For about two and a half centuries after around 1600 BC, Mycenaean pottery painting echoed Minoan. After the eclipse of Knossos, however, Minoan influence declined, and Mycenaean potters fell back on their own resources. Minoan plant and marine motifs became simpler until virtually unrecognizable as representations of anything in real life. A figure style also developed. Adapted at first from frescoes and later from textiles, this style is seldom successful, however. Unlike the classical Greeks who came later, the Mycenaean potters were not able to adapt their fresco style so as to form a convincing figure style for vases.

Late Cypriot
      The Cypriot pottery of the Late Bronze Age is of three main kinds: (1) a handmade ware with a glossy brown surface called base-ring ware, vases and statuettes of humans and animals being the most common examples of this type, (2) white-slip ware, in which handmade vases of a leathery appearance are decorated with patterns in black on a white slip (slip is liquid clay covering the pottery body), and (3) local imitations, made on the wheel, of imported Mycenaean pottery, which was evidently popular.

Reynold Alleyne Higgins Peter John Callaghan

Ancient Greek
      At the root of Greek art was the desire to explore man and the nature of his experience. Even divine subjects were cast in terms of human behaviour, and both gods and epic heroes could at times stand as representations of and models for contemporary political achievement. The seemingly naturalistic outward forms characteristic of Greek art have continued to fascinate Western artists to the present day, and the history of Western painting is full of classical revivals that have aimed at recapturing the spirit of the Greek original. Art, however, is deeply rooted in the society that creates it, and these classical revivals usually say more about those who are attempting the revival than they do about the Greek art that served as the model. Attempts to re-create the spirit and form of antique art do serve, however, as a reminder that a mere description of form does not reveal the whole truth about the art of an ancient culture. This section defines, therefore, the reasons for certain developments as well as the technical advances themselves.

      A major stumbling block has been the difficulty in defining the ancient Greek attitude to art. Certainly it is clear that there was no concept of “ art for art's sake” before the Hellenistic period (roughly the last three and a quarter centuries BC). Great works of art were functional: they served as gifts to the gods, monuments to the dead, or commemorations of events in the life of a city. The Greek language itself made no distinction between art and craft: both were called technē; a great work of art was simply an exceptional piece of workmanship (aristourgēma). This lack of linguistic variety should not be made too much of, however, for the actions of the artists indicate that they were exceptionally proud of their work. For the first time in the history of art, painters signed their works, and both painters and sculptors explored new means of expression. The greatest sculptors sometimes wrote books detailing their philosophy of art, and there was obviously a body of philosophical thought behind the more important advances in the painter's technique during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. By the late 5th century BC this became a basis for discussion by the philosophers themselves, indicating that, by then at least, a theory of art coexisted with the corpus of workshop techniques that might reasonably be called the practice of art.

Peter John Callaghan
      Paintings on wall plaster, wood, and marble panels are easily eradicated, and most ancient paintings were destroyed long ago. Many fine examples, some of the highest quality, have survived, however. These are the funerary paintings on stelae (decorated stone slabs) or burial chamber walls in northern Greece and Macedonia, whose rich kings and nobles could afford the best talents from the southern cities. Contemporary vase paintings—so long as vase painting continued—often depict the same subjects and sometimes faintly reflect the style and composition of monumental frescoes, but they were in no sense accurate or even deliberate copies. The paintings on vases, now the main evidence for the development of Greek draftsmanship, were hardly mentioned by ancient writers and, although in great demand, were evidently not considered important works of art.

Bernard Ashmole Peter John Callaghan

Dark Ages (1200–900 BC)
      During the 13th century BC the great palatial centres of the Aegean world came to a violent end. Both internal dissension and foreign invasion seem to have played a part in this development, and, if the exact course of events is still obscure, the end result is quite clear: Greece was severely depopulated and impoverished. The small, scattered settlements that took the place of the great Mycenaean and Minoan kingdoms were not able to support the luxury arts that had flourished in the Bronze Age palaces. No wall paintings are known from this period, and the sophisticated Bronze Age aesthetics was lost. Before the end of the 11th century BC Greece began a steady recovery, and a secure basis was laid for all future developments. At Athens, a city that had won a position of importance in Greece only at the end of the Bronze Age, the potters invented a new painted style, which has been called the Protogeometric (Proto-Geometric style). Old Bronze Age shapes persisted, but they became tauter and better proportioned. In addition, the old patterns were executed with a new finesse, aided by improved equipment—a multiple brush and compasses. Using these, the painter decorated selected zones of the vase with distinctive concentric circles and semicircles, simple zigzags, and wavy lines. The vases were well potted and restrained and successful in their decoration. The simple precision of their patterns is a quality that remained dominant in Greek vase painting as well as in the other arts. Other Greek cities besides Athens adopted the Protogeometric style as well.

Geometric period (c. 900–700 BC)
      The Geometric style arose in Athens about 900 BC. It built upon the foundations of the previous period, though the area covered by painted patterns expanded and new motifs were incorporated into the painters' repertoire. The meander, swastika, and crenellation (battlement) patterns were prominent and, together with the older concentric circles, were used by the painters to push back the large areas of solid black characteristic of Protogeometric vases and to create a pleasing halftone decorative effect. A few human and animal figures were introduced into this otherwise severely geometric scheme, but it was not until about 760 BC that a renewed interest in figures became paramount. The major achievement in this development was that of the Dipylon Master, who specialized in monumental vases used as markers over the graves of rich Athenians. These vases incorporated scenes with animal and human figures: funerals, battles, and processions as well as files of deer or goats. The figures were not conceived in realistic terms; rather, they were formalized into geometric shapes whose schematic appearance did the least possible damage to the overall decorative pattern. That this was deliberate is indicated by the fact that newly introduced types, such as sows and piglets, are more naturalistic at the time of their first appearance than in their subsequent development, when the artists learned how to cast them in a more formalized mold. Nevertheless, the introduction of schemes involving figures marked the beginning of the end for the Geometric style, for later painters became more and more fascinated with this aspect of decoration, and the older pattern work languished. By the end of the 8th century BC the figures had become much more naturalistic and were joined by floral patterns introduced from western Asia, leading to the rise of new styles in which men and gods occupied the most important positions.

      The reasons for the introduction of figures, even the exact significance of such decoration, are problematic. On the simplest level, the subject matter is a factor: battles and funerals can be related to the lives of the aristocratic patrons whose graves were marked out by the Dipylon vases. Some scholars believe, however, that the figured scenes include episodes from the heroic past or that the whole of the new iconography was cast in a heroic mold, indicating a basic identification between the aristocrats of the 8th century BC and their epic forebears. Athens in the Geometric period remained the centre from which the vase-painting studios of other cities took their inspiration.

Orientalizing period (c. 700–625 BC)
      About 700 BC important changes took place in vase painting. Floral motifs, animals, and monsters borrowed from the art of Syria and Phoenicia delivered the coup de grace to an already debased Geometric style. In Athens the new style is called Proto-Attic and includes, for the first time, scenes referring unambiguously to Greece's heroic past. The exploits of Heracles, Perseus, and other heroes were painted, often on large vases used as burial containers. The bodies of men and animals were depicted in silhouette, though their heads were drawn in outline; women were drawn completely in outline. The brushwork is bold, even sloppy on occasion, and the general effect is monumental and very impressive.

      At Corinth, painting followed a different course during the 7th century BC. Corinthian painters also borrowed Oriental motifs, but their predilection for small vases, whose surfaces were divided into horizontal registers and covered with numerous tiny and beautifully drawn figures, created a miniaturist style called Proto-Corinthian (Proto-Corinthian style). By the end of the century human or mythological figures were rare, and the backgrounds of the animal and narrative scenes were filled with incised floral rosettes. Corinthians introduced the black-figure (black-figure pottery) technique, which, although seeming to owe something to Asian influence, is essentially native to Greece. In black-figure technique figures were painted on the naturally pale clay surface of the vase in a lustrous black pigment and then incised to indicate details of anatomy and drapery. Added colours enhanced the liveliness of these scenes. The high quality of these Proto-Corinthian vases led to a flourishing export trade, and in the later 7th century BC they were exported throughout the Mediterranean.

Archaic period (c. 625–500 BC)
      Corinth remained the leading exporter of Greek vases until about 550 BC, though mass production quickly led to a drop in quality. These later vases were decorated with unambitious and stereotyped groups of animal or human figures; there was little or no interest in narrative. By the late 7th century BC Athenian artists had adopted many of the stylistic features of Corinthian pots, as well as the black-figure technique. Files of animals became popular at Athens, but the artists always maintained an interest in the narrative scenes that had been so popular in the Proto-Attic style. The finest example of the marriage of Corinthian discipline and Attic invention is the François vase (in the Archaeological Museum in Florence), produced about 570 BC and exported to Etruria in Italy. Its surface is divided into horizontal friezes containing hundreds of carefully drawn, tiny figures showing episodes from Greek myth. The professionalism of the Attic masters, so clearly displayed on this and other contemporary vases, contrasted with the laziness of the Corinthian painters, and it is hardly surprising that the Attic products soon captured the foreign markets.

      The first generation of Athenian painters after 500 BC concentrated on large-scale narrative scenes. One, Exekias, was fond of heroes. His superb draftsmanship and sense of the monumental was emphasized by exceedingly detailed use of incision to indicate the patterns on drapery, weapons, and anatomy. The Amasis Painter, on the other hand, preferred the wild cavortings of the wine god, Dionysus, and his band of drunken followers.

      In general, many old conventions were retained. Men were still painted in black on the red ground of the vase; women had white skins. But some of the work of the Amasis Painter and his contemporaries used an outline technique for women and certain other figures, and it must soon have become obvious that the brush allowed greater freedom than the graver. By about 530 BC several painters took the momentous decision to dispense with the old black-figure technique entirely and show all their figures in outline, the details being indicated only with the brush. The background of the vase was now painted solid black and the figures stood out dramatically against this sombre field. This is called the red-figure (red-figure pottery) technique, and, in the hands of artists such as Euthymides and Euphronius, the style rapidly gained ground. It had several advantages over black-figure. Incising the older decoration was painfully laborious, and it was almost impossible to vary the thickness or intensity of the incised lines. The painted line, however, could be made thicker or thinner depending on the amount of pressure applied and the amount of paint on the brush; it could also be made lighter by diluting the glaze. Red-figure artists took advantage of all these tricks and found that it was possible to depict complicated groups of overlapping figures or incidents involving violent action. Cities other than Athens and Corinth had studios producing black-figure vases; of these the most distinguished were in Sparta and eastern Greece. By the end of the Archaic period, however, only Athens was producing and exporting finely decorated pottery in any quantity.

      It has always been assumed that vase painting in the Orientalizing and Archaic periods mirrored developments in monumental art, and to a certain extent this seems to be true. Not many paintings on monuments survive, but a sufficient number exist to give a general idea of their form and technique. temple models of the late Geometric and Orientalizing periods are decorated in a way that suggests that temples had paintings on their walls (mural); fragments of such paintings have actually been found at the temple of Poseidon at the Isthmus of Corinth. The earliest reasonably well-preserved temple decoration, however, comes from the temple of Apollo at Thermon, in central Greece, and dates from the later 7th century BC. The temple roof was decorated with a series of square terra-cotta frieze plaques, called metopes, bearing mythological scenes. Although there are several similarities to contemporary vases, there are also important differences: black-figure incision is confined to relatively minor details of drapery, and the figures themselves are drawn in outline, the women then being overpainted in white. Among vases of this period, only the brightly painted drinking cups from the island of Chios seem at all similar in technique. Other terra-cotta plaques painted in a similar, though more developed, style have been found in Italy at Caere (where they decorate the interior walls of a temple) and on the Acropolis, at Athens, indicating that there was probably a continuous tradition in this technique.

      More important, because more numerous, are the many paintings on stucco (stuccowork). These are found in Italy and Asia Minor, as well as in Greece. They were painted by Greeks or artists working under intense Greek influence. At Pitsa, near Corinth, votive plaques covered in stucco and then painted have been found. There was a flourishing school of Greek painters who decorated tombs in the colonies of southern Italy. In Asia Minor, two tombs dating from the Late Archaic period have been found near Elmalı, in ancient Lycia (what is now southwestern Turkey). Although depicting scenes from the life of a Lycian prince, they were certainly painted by Greeks. With the exception of the plaque from Pitsa, a minor work, all these paintings come from provincial areas of the Greek world and probably do not represent the very finest of paintings then in existence, but many are highly competent pieces of work and they do give some idea of the state of monumental painting at the time. As on the vases, the greatest emphasis was on finely controlled line. Colours were applied in flat, undifferentiated masses, and there was no attempt at shading, perspective, or illusionistic treatment. At Karaburun, near Elmalı, variety was introduced by the use of finely detailed motifs on the clothing of the prince, an effect closer to the work of Exekias than to the practices of the early red-figure vase painters.

Classical period (c. 500–323 BC)
Early Classical (c. 500–450 BC)
      The Early Classical period is deemed to have begun after Athens' double defeat of the Persian invaders in 490 and 479 BC, but a new feeling of self-confidence was already in the air about 500 BC, possibly as a result of the firm establishment of democracy in Athens 10 years earlier. By now the Archaic colour and pattern were gone from vase painting, to be replaced by sobriety and dignity. The artist's ability to render anatomy in line had reached the point where he could accurately indicate the roundness of a figure without shading. The artist was still bound, however, to a strict profile view of heads, with few frontal, and even fewer three-quarter, views of the features. The vase painters of the first quarter of the 5th century BC included some of the finest Athens was ever to produce. One, the Cleophrades Painter (Kleophrades Painter), has often been called the “painter of power” since his intense, majestic subjects are rich in psychological insight. Although not all his vases concern scenes of violence, perhaps the vase that captures his spirit best is the kalpis, or wine jar, depicting the sack of Troy. It has been suggested that the extreme cruelty and tragedy present in this scene may well reflect Greek shock at the brutal sack of Miletus by Persian troops in 494 BC.

      Another artist of this period was the Berlin Painter. His finest vases are almost completely covered in black glaze. Isolated or small groups of overlapping figures of extreme delicacy are posed on each side of the vases. The brushwork is exceptionally fine, and in these vases there is a sombre mood of introspection that also characterizes many contemporary sculptures. The work of this fine artist, though, is a relatively isolated phenomenon, except in funerary art where inaction and otherworldliness are appropriate. Most vase painters preferred a more narrative approach, and these narratives often reflected contemporary political developments. In 510 BC the tyranny (a tyrant at that time was a ruler, not necessarily brutal, who ruled unconstitutionally) of the Peisistratids had been overthrown in Athens, and the new democratic rulers, seeking among the heroes of the past a suitable patron, chose Theseus, an ancient king of Athens who had been credited with the union of the whole of Attica under the rule of its chief city. The new democracy fought off attempts to reinstate the tyrants, as well as defeating the two Persian invasions. It is therefore hardly surprising that the vase painters responded to the general enthusiasm and civic pride by adopting Theseus as a frequent subject. This development was reflected in monumental painting. About 460 BC the Painted Stoa at Athens was decorated with a series of paintings representing famous battles, including both legendary and historical events involving Athenians. Thus, probably for the first time in Greek history, painters placed their talents at the service of the state—moreover, a state that used them to decorate purely secular buildings. Panaenos, the brother or nephew of the sculptor Phidias, executed a picture of the Battle of Marathon for the Painted Stoa and, sometime later, included a painting of Greece and Salamis personified on the throne for the cult statue of Zeus at Olympia. This brought the depiction of political achievement into the very temples of the gods.

      None of the Early Classical architectural paintings has survived, but a reasonable idea of what they might have looked like may be gleaned from the work of various vase painters who seem to have been working under the influence of the monumental artists. The great wall painter Polygnotus is said to have depicted figures at different depths in his compositional field, and similar compositions occur in the work of the Niobid Painter, although the lack of scope for such compositions on vases generally makes this something of an isolated example. Micon was another celebrated wall painter; both he and Polygnotus worked in Athens and Delphi. Ancient descriptions of their work dwell on features and moods that are easy to envisage in the light of extant contemporary vase painting and the Olympia sculptures, to which they seem to have been similar in spirit. The effect of wall paintings on white plaster may also be imagined by examining various white-ground vases intended for the tomb, where there is a concentration on calligraphic line and colour applied in flat areas without any use of shading. In other words, for all its achievements, Greek painting was still closer to drawing than anything that might today be regarded as exhibiting true painterly qualities.

High Classical (c. 450–400 BC)
      Because Greek vase painting consists essentially of the delineation of form by line, it could not follow monumental wall or panel painting once the latter began to depart significantly from their common traditions. This happened during the second half of the 5th century BC, and vase painting, while surviving for a time by looking to sculpture as a source of inspiration, went into a swift decline from about 400 BC.

      There were certainly revolutionary changes in monumental painting technique. The Athenian painter Apollodorus introduced skiagraphia (literally “shadow painting”), or shading technique. In its simplest form this consists of hatched areas that give the illusion of both shadow and volume. A few of the white-ground vases exhibit this technique in a discreet fashion, but its true potential comes out in the great cycle of wall paintings that decorate the small royal tomb at Vergina (Verghina), in Macedonia. The paintings, executed in the 4th century BC, represent the abduction of Persephone by Hades. The figures are defined less by an outline technique than by complicated patterns of shading and contour lines.

      Another technique that also may have been included within the concept of skiagraphia by the ancient Greeks can be found in the treatment of Persephone's drapery: the reddish pink mantle is overlaid with slabs of darker red to create realistic patterns of light and shade, and then still darker lines are used to indicate the folds. This tomb is of the utmost importance for understanding the development of Greek painting, since it contains the earliest first-rate monumental wall painting to have survived. Therefore, it would be premature to generalize about the state of painting at that time solely from either vase painting or later Roman works, which, it has been argued, were based on Greek originals.

Late Classical (c. 400–323 BC)
      All authorities agree that the Late Classical period was the high point of ancient Greek painting. Within its short span many famous artists were at work, of whom Zeuxis, Apelles, and Parrhasius were the most renowned. Technique advanced considerably during this period. Zeuxis built on the discoveries of Apollodorus, and his pupil Apelles, who lived in the later 4th century BC, worked along the same lines but achieved even greater fame. They appear to have added the concepts of highlighting and subtle gradations of colour. Late Classical monuments such as the Great Tomb at Leukadia, in Macedonia, suggest that one of the means at their disposal was the juxtaposition of lines of different colours to create optical fusion—in other words, a true painterly style in the modern sense of the term. Parrhasius, in contrast, was a conservative and insisted on the priority of something called linear style, which is assumed to be closer to drawing than painting. His influence has been detected in the figure of Hermes at Leukadia and in the Lion Hunt and Dionysus mosaics at Pella, also in Macedonia.

      In Athens, red-figure vase painting was in decline, and the majority of vases were painted with showy scenes, using much added colour and gilding. Occasionally there is a glimpse of brilliant line drawing, but the technique barely survived the century.

Hellenistic (Hellenistic Age) period (c. 323–1st Century BC)
      The Hellenistic period began with the incorporation of the Persian Empire into the Greek world, specifically with the death of Alexander the Great (323 BC). In art history terms, however, a new relationship of painter and patron had begun slightly earlier. Apelles executed works depicting the tyrant of Sicyon and was later court painter to Alexander the Great. His career, in fact, spans the division between the two periods. The major monument for the new period is the Great Tomb at Vergina, the exact date of which should lie between the death of Philip II of Macedon, in 336 BC, and the death of his son Philip III, in 317 BC. The facade of the tomb is decorated with a large wall painting depicting a royal lion hunt. The background was left white, landscape being indicated by a single tree and the ground line. The figures themselves were painted in the fashion Apelles is assumed to have introduced, and there are sophisticated examples of optical fusion and light and shadow.

      Very similar in style is the famous Alexander mosaic from Pompeii, almost certainly a copy of an original painting executed about the same time as that at Vergina. Apart from the interesting developments in technique discernible during the 4th century BC, an important change in patronage and choice of subject matter occurred. The great patrons were kings and tyrants, and many paintings exalted their claims to rule. After the 4th century BC there were few advances until the Roman period. One Demetrius of Alexandria is said to have specialized in “topographic” paintings, but the exact meaning of this word remains unclear. All other surviving Hellenistic works are of low quality.

Sir John Boardman Peter John Callaghan

Western Mediterranean
      In the Metal Age (Bronze Age), western Mediterranean cultures were similar at many points. The area occupied by them extended from Illyria (the northwestern part of the Balkan Peninsula) in the east to the Atlantic shores of the Iberian Peninsula in the west and from the shores along the Gulf of Lion and the Ligurian Sea (i.e., the coasts of what are now southern France and northwestern Italy) and the top of the Adriatic in the north to a line stretching from Sicily to Gibraltar in the south. Of the earliest painting in classical antiquity, however, little remains except the frescoes on the tombs of the Etruscans.

Raymond Bloch Peter John Callaghan

      During the 8th and 7th centuries BC the Greeks founded many colonies in southern Italy, partly in order to expand their trade with the native peoples of Etruria, who controlled rich mineral deposits. In the Archaic period (6th century BC) these native settlements, scattered across the landscape of present-day Tuscany and Lazio in the area north of Rome, evolved into flourishing city-states whose culture was heavily dependent on influences from Greek art. More in the way of Etruscan painting has survived than in the case of Greek painting. The Etruscans buried their dead in large chamber tombs (tomb) cut into bedrock; in many of these, especially in central Italy at Tarquinii (modern Tarquinia), Clusium (modern Chiusi), and Caere (modern Cerveteri), the walls of the tomb chambers were covered with plaster, and lively scenes (mural) were painted on them. Although some of these frescoes (fresco painting) show scenes from Greek mythology, the overwhelming majority depict events in the lives of the Etruscans themselves. Funeral games were very popular subjects; perhaps the best-known depictions are those on the Tomb of the Augurs at Tarquinii, with its scenes of wrestlers, dancers, musicians, and a banquet. These paintings date from the late 6th century BC and, although the style of painting changed somewhat in later periods, the types of scene represented remained standard. The Archaic period saw the gradual evolution of an Etruscan style of wall painting whose inspiration is probably to be found in the Ionian colonies of southern Italy. By the early 5th century BC, however, the Athenian style began to predominate, and it ushered in the Classical period as well. There are many classical tombs at Clusium, including the Tomb of the Monkey. This inland city seems to have taken a cultural lead during the 5th century BC; certainly it contains competently executed works that made use of the new stylistic discoveries of mainland Greece—shading, hatching, and simple dimensional effects. There are few surviving later classical monuments in Etruria, and they seem to add little to the style established during the 5th century BC. It was only with the advent of Roman political and cultural influence during the Hellenistic period that an Etruscan renaissance in painting took place. The earliest examples of the new style are the Orcus tomb at Tarquinii and the Golinia tombs at Orvieto (south of Clusium), where there is some use of chiaroscuro effects as well as simpler means of shading. Tombs in Vulci and Tarquinii of the 1st century BC carry the development of these techniques even further. In the François Tomb at Vulci there is a celebrated fresco known as the “Sacrifice of the Trojan Prisoners.” It is next to a historical scene showing wars between Etruscan and Roman princes during the Archaic period. This renewed interest in mythological or legendary equivalents of actual historical events is yet another hint that the Greek Hellenistic allegorical tradition was beginning to take hold. The same sacrificial scene and others depicting the deaths of the Theban princes during the war of the Seven Against Thebes were extremely popular on the ash urns that were used as burial jars by the late Etruscans, and it may very well have been through them that a taste for myth allegory was imparted to the Romans at this time.

Etruscan and Hellenistic Greek influences
      During the Archaic period Rome (ancient Rome) was ruled by Etruscan and Etruscanized kings. The city's temples were built and decorated in the Etruscan manner and most features of Etruscan culture were present. Although the Romans did not build painted tombs for their dead, they may have employed Etruscan artists to decorate the painted walls of the temples (temple). When the republic was founded at the end of the 6th century BC, much of this Etruscan influence survived, especially the tendency to use painting for political purposes. Accounts of temple decoration during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC mention depictions of triumphal processions. The probable style of these is visible in the contemporary tombs of Tuscany. It was to Greek artists that the Romans turned when, in the 3rd century BC, they first came into contact with the flourishing Greek cities of southern Italy and the eastern Mediterranean. Contact was usually in the form of war, and soon Greek works of art were being brought to Rome as booty in order to decorate the temples set up as memorials to victorious campaigns. Greek artists followed the works of art as it became increasingly clear that Rome offered the best and most consistent source of patronage. In 168 BC Lucius Aemilius Paullus (Paullus Macedonicus, Lucius Aemilius), the victor over the Macedonian king Perseus at the Battle of Pydna, employed Metrodorus, an Athenian painter, to execute panels (mural) depicting events in his victorious campaign. It is significant, perhaps, that Metrodorus was a philosopher as well as a painter and that he was also employed by Paullus in educating his children. Tradition states that Demetrius, an Alexandrian “place painter” (topographos), was working in Rome by 164 BC. The exact meaning of his title is problematic, but it could mean that he painted landscapes, later to become a favourite motif in the decoration of Roman houses. Some Alexandrian tombs of the 2nd century BC do indeed represent gardens and groves as seen through colonnades or windows in the wall of the tomb chamber. A late Hellenistic version of the type is preserved on floor mosaics from Pergamum in Asia Minor and from Italy itself. Paintings on Delos show floral motifs in an illusionistic style against a dark ground. This was later to become the Roman garden scene, usually set against a cool, dark background, that is found so often in the colonnades of Pompeian courtyards.

Peter John Callaghan
      Wall paintings of the Roman period, for instance those from Pompeii, vary so much in their treatment of any one subject that it is hazardous to conjecture which version is likely to be closest to any earlier Greek painting, even supposing there was definite copying. With the exception of the Alexander mosaic already mentioned (see above Hellenistic period (painting, Western))—evidently a direct copy of a painting of the 4th century BC—there is nothing in painting to correspond to the straightforward copying of Greek statues that was apparently so abundant under the Roman Empire.

Bernard Ashmole Peter John Callaghan

Pagan Roman paintings
      Virtually the only example of painting in Rome and Latium to have survived from before the 1st century BC is a fragment of a historical tomb painting with scenes from the Samnite Wars, found in a family tomb on the Esquiline and probably dating from the 3rd century BC (Palazzo dei Conservatori, Capitoline Museums, Rome). In addition to Metrodorus and Demetrius, ancient writers mention the names of three painters, each of whom worked in a temple: Fabius Pictor (Fabius Pictor, Quintus), in the Temple of Salus in Rome at the end of the 4th century; Pacuvius (Pacuvius, Marcus), a dramatist and native of Brundisium, in the Temple of Hercules in the Forum Boarium in Rome during the first half of the 2nd century; and Lycon, an Asiatic Greek, in the Temple of Juno at Ardea in the late 3rd or early 2nd century. Nothing is known about the work of these artists.

      At Pompeii during the 2nd century BC the interior walls of private houses were decorated in a so-called Incrustation, or First, style; that is, the imitation in painted stucco of veneers, or crustae (“slabs”), of coloured marbles. But in the second half of the 1st century BC, there suddenly appeared in Rome and in the Campanian cities (the most famous of which is probably Pompeii) a brilliant series of domestic mural paintings of the so-called Second style, the aim of which was to deny the walls as solid surfaces confining the room space. This was sometimes done by covering the whole area of the walls with elaborate landscapes, in which depth, atmosphere, and light are rendered in a highly pictorial, illusionistic manner. Such are the Odyssey paintings found in a Roman house on the Esquiline (now in the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Vatican City), which consist of a continuous flow of episodes that unfold, filmlike, beyond a colonnade of pilasters, with vertical, bird's-eye-view perspective and human figures strictly subordinated to their settings. Other wall paintings, such as those in a room from Livia's Villa at Prima Porta (transferred to the Museo Nazionale Romano), represent a great park or garden filled with trees, shrubs, flowers, and birds, with no pilasters in the foreground to interrupt the prospect and no human figures to distract attention.

      The possibility of Hellenistic models for this type of painting has already been mentioned, though the surviving Hellenistic precursors were no preparation for the important Roman developments. Most examples of the type, which survived into the Fourth style, have been found on the back walls of the colonnades running around real gardens. The cool painted scenes would have given the illusion that an idler in this part of the house was surrounded by shrubs or groves of trees. Another type of landscape combined sacred and idyllic features and was often placed as though behind elaborate stage buildings. These monotone compositions held sacred columns or rustic shrines and were closely related to other illusionistic scenes peopled with little figures whose antics, the written sources make clear, were a source of endless amusement for the householder and his guests.

      A celebrated frieze of life-size figures, depicting Dionysiac initiation rites and the prenuptial ordeals of a bride, in the so-called triclinium of the Villa of the Mysteries (or Villa Item) outside the Herculaneum gate of Pompeii, also belongs to the Second style. There the walls are denied by the device of substituting for them a narrow stage on which the figures carry out the ritual before a drop scene of continuous painted panels. But the most common Second-style paintings are known as Architectural and show a threefold horizontal division of the wall into dado, central area, and cornice, combined with a triple vertical scheme of design that consists of a large central panel (panel painting) (in the main, intermediate horizontal area), framed by flanking columns and a pediment, and two smaller panels on either side. The central panel and often the lateral panels as well are views seen through windows that break through the walls and link the spectator with the world outside, as in the house of Augustus on the Palatine in Rome.

      In the Third style, which covers most of the Augustan period, the central panel picture on a wall is no longer thought of as a scene through a window but as a real picture hung on or inserted into a screen or woven into a tapestry, which partially conceals an architectural vista behind it. The columns, entablatures, and so on are completely unreal and so complicated that this Third style is sometimes dubbed Ornate.

      The Fourth style, which runs from the close of the Augustan Age to the destruction of Pompeii and its fellow Campanian cities in BC 79, is less homogeneous than its predecessors and exhibits three main variants: first, an architectural design soberer and more realistic but still with a central screen or tapestry partly covering a retreating vista; second, an architectural layout that imitates a scaena (“stage background”); and third, a method (sometimes known as “intricate”) by which the whole surface of the wall is covered with a flat, white, neutral ground painted with an allover, latticelike pattern of fantastic architectural elements, arabesques, grotesques, small figure motifs, or small panels containing pictures. This third type of Fourth-style painting came into vogue at Pompeii between an earthquake of AD 63 and the catastrophic volcanic eruption of 79, and one of its most impressive exponents is the Golden House of Nero in Rome.

      The subjects of the panel pictures of the Second, Third, and Fourth styles are for the most part drawn from Greek mythology. Some of them recall literary descriptions of famous classical Greek and Hellenistic paintings or show motifs that suggest their originals were painted on the Greek mainland or in Asia Minor. It is certain that many masterpieces of Greek painting did make their way to Rome as the booty of Roman generals of republican days, and wall painters could have studied them at first hand. But often those artists must have had to rely only on sketches of the celebrated pictures, and it is not known how faithfully the Roman and Campanian murals reproduce the prototypes. Other panel pictures present scenes from contemporary religious ritual, and a few show themes from Roman legend. Frequently, in the case of the Greek mythological subjects and those taken from rustic religious cults, the artist produced landscape with figures, as in the Odyssey frescoes, not figures with landscape, as on Trajan's Column. These late republican and early imperial set pieces are competently executed, remarkably vivid, and extremely naturalistic. But, with a few exceptions, they reveal that the principles of a single vanishing point and unified lighting from a single source of illumination either were not understood by Roman painters or did not interest them.

      The flat, uniform background of the last phase of the Fourth style remained a constant feature of mural painting in houses, tombs, temples, and other religious shrines throughout the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th centuries. The decoration, which stands out against that ground, takes any of several forms: (1) latticelike, allover patterns, as in many pagan tombs; (2) small groups of figures or figure panels spread out at intervals across the field, as in the Christian catacombs of Rome; (3) a mixture of large human figures and extensive scenes with small-scale figures, as in the early 3rd-century Hypogeum of the Aurelii on the Viale Manzoni in Rome, the interesting painted content of which is Gnostic or crypto-Christian; or (4) large scenes with relatively large figures, such as a group of marine deities in a 2nd-century Roman house under the Church of SS. John and Paul on the Caelian, a late 2nd- or early 3rd-century leopard hunt on the south wall of the frigidarium of the hunting baths at Leptis Magna (on the coast of modern Libya), or the early 3rd-century biblical scenes from a baptistery at Doura-Europus, an important archaeological site on the Euphrates in what is now Syria.

      In the case of the Roman tombs, cross- or barrel-vaulted ceilings, where preserved, normally carry out the painted decoration of the walls, showing either a latticelike pattern or a series of small, spaced-out, figured panel pictures. At Trier (in what is now West Germany) remains have been found of a flat, coffered ceiling with panels of painted plaster from an early 4th-century imperial hall destroyed to make room for a Christian basilica. Large portions of eight painted panels are preserved. Four depict female busts—three of them with nimbi—which may be either personifications or portraits of members of the imperial family; the other four show pairs of dancing or sporting cupids. As the skillful modeling and lively naturalism of these figures show, late Roman painting could reach high standards.

      Roman portrait painting comes only a short way behind portrait sculpture in technical skill and realism. One of the earliest extant examples is a group of Terentius Neo and his wife, from Pompeii (National Archaeological Museum, Naples). Both figures recall mummy portraits in Egypt (art and architecture, Egyptian), being painted in encaustic (encaustic painting) (a technique by which colours are mixed with liquid wax and fixed by heat) and ranging in date from the Flavian period to the 3rd century. A circular portrait group of frontal figures painted on wood, probably in Egypt (now in the Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, West Berlin), seems to have originally depicted the emperors Septimius Severus and Caracalla, Julia Domna (Septimius Severus' wife), and Geta (Caracalla's brother); but Geta (so it seems) was subsequently washed out (perhaps most consequent upon his murder by Caracalla). Particularly attractive are the portraits done on gold-glass medallions, which in the exquisite refinement of their treatment may be compared to 16th-century European miniatures. A medallion in the Museum of Christian Antiquities, Brescia, dating from the 3rd century and carrying a portrait group, is a veritable masterpiece.

Jocelyn M.C. Toynbee Peter John Callaghan

Early Christian (Early Christian art)
      It is customary to distinguish early Christian (Christianity) painting of the West or Latin part of the late Roman Empire from the Christian painting of regions dominated by the Greek language and to consider the latter as proto-Byzantine. The Western strain of early Christian painting may be said to have ended with the collapse of the empire in the West at the end of the 5th century. In the East, until the 6th and even the 7th century, painting in many regions followed the paths traced by Christian painting at its beginnings. Exceptions to the above schematization are Doura-Europus and early Christian paintings in Egypt (see below).

      Early Christian painting did not have a distinct existence until about the end of the 2nd century AD. There are several reasons for this. First, there can have been few, if any, monumental churches before that time capable of taking decoration showing Christian themes. Second, Christianity did not at first make great headway among those able to afford large painted tombs where examples of Christian iconography might be expected to appear. Third, early Christianity was much closer to Judaism than in later years and may have retained the Judaic distaste for the painted image, especially if it referred to the Godhead. Lastly, even Christians prized classical education, which was, after all, the only sound basis for a public career, and they could appreciate classical works of art even if they rejected pagan subject matter. This was made easier for them by the concept of myth as allegory, according to which depictions of mythological scenes were not so much statements of a religious position as moral lessons whose messages could be appreciated by any educated man. Because most surviving early Christian painting is funerary, it is hardly surprising that purely Christian subjects at first made little headway in a field already crowded with edifying moral messages based on the Greek myths. These may have been pagan, but they did emphasize the common belief in life beyond the grave. It was only in the 3rd century AD, when the idea of Judaic or Christian allegories gained legitimacy, that any real development could begin. Even so, some rather odd compromises took place: representations of Christ as the victorious Sun God or as a philosopher occur in early Christian tomb paintings. Even the emperor Constantine (Constantine I), who by the Edict of Milan (AD 313) established toleration for Christianity throughout the Roman Empire and who himself professed Christianity, seems to have worshiped both in his lifetime.

      The new elements, then, consisted not of form but of content. As the power of the church over public and private life grew, these new elements tended to gain in importance, but they never quite ousted the pagan scenes. The latter were often drawn undiminished from plays or epics whose prestige remained long after Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire.

      With the growth of Christian communities, the catacombs (catacomb)—underground burial places—became veritable subterranean cities, their rooms linked by corridors. The most important extant examples are in Rome, with others in Naples, Sicily, Malta, North Africa (specifically in what is now Tunisia), and Egypt. Pictorial decoration of the catacombs, limited to only a few rooms, followed pagan models. Delicate lines on the ceilings and walls trace circles and squares in which decorative motifs are inserted: garlands, birds, four-legged animals, cupids, images of the seasons, and figures of ambiguous significance (pagan or Christian)—praying figures and a shepherd carrying a sheep on his shoulders, generally called “The Good Shepherd.”

      As early as the first half of the 3rd century, however, scenes of purely Christian meaning were added to these neutral subjects. The oldest are located in Rome in the cemeteries of Domitilla (the gallery of the Flavians), of Priscilla (the Greek Chapel), and of Calixtus (the Chapel of the Sacrament). Stories from the Old Testament are joined by stories from the Gospels (New Testament). These images present examples of the succour brought to the faithful by God the Father and Christ the Son. Even the baptism and the adoration of the Magi can be interpreted in this manner; as revelations of Christ's divinity, they announce man's salvation.

      The style and quality of these paintings vary. Some of those from the beginning of the 3rd century are light in touch and charmingly elegant (e.g., gallery of the Flavians), comparable to the best pagan paintings. In others (e.g., cemetery of Priscilla, mid-3rd century) there is a somewhat heavier element, with a passion of expression that seems to match the aspirations of the new faith. In the 4th century the style becomes firmly contoured.

      The frescoes in the baptistery of Doura-Europus (Dura-Europus), executed between 230 and 240, differ only in style from those of the catacombs in the West. Scenes from the Old and New Testaments are used to explain the significance of Baptism: the death of the old Adam and his rebirth to a new life through the baptismal bath. The back wall of the baptismal pool bears the images of Adam and Eve, recalling the Fall, as well as that of the Good Shepherd (who in this case is Christ, Saviour of souls). Illustrations on the longitudinal walls are of David fighting Goliath and of incidents from the Gospels—Christ walking on water, the healing of the paralytic, the holy women at the tomb, and Christ and the Samaritan—and were probably inspired by readings that accompanied the rite of baptism. Stylistic elements that recall the paintings in the Roman catacombs are the juxtaposition of scenes without apparent connection and the conciseness of the narrative.

      Among the latest examples of early Christian funerary art are paintings dating from the 5th century in the tomb of el-Bagaouat at al-Khārijah, in Egypt.

Henri Stern Peter John Callaghan Ed.

Book illustration in antiquity
      That book illustration existed as far back as the late Hellenistic world can be inferred from some of the so-called Megarian bowls, imitations in clay of gold or silver vessels that date from the 3rd century BC to the 1st century AD. They often bear on their exteriors scenes in relief from literary texts that are sometimes accompanied by Greek quotations. They must, in part at least, have served as models for Roman artists. Book illustration is known to have existed in Rome comparatively early—examples include 700 pictures illustrating the early 1st-century-BC scholar and satirist Marcus Terentius Varro's (Varro, Marcus Terentius) 15 books of Hebdomades vel de imaginibus and a portrait of Virgil prefixed to an edition of his poems. Miniatures in the codex of the Iliad in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan, were painted probably at the end of the 5th or beginning of the 6th century AD but reflect pictures of the 3rd, 2nd, and even 1st centuries AD, as do those of the Codex Virgilius Vaticanus in the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana (No. 3225), written about 400. Miniatures in the second great illustrated Codex Virgilius Romanus in the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana (No. 3867), written about 500, are still Roman in spirit, if less classical in style.

      The tenacious influence of Greco-Roman painting can be traced clearly in the illustrations of certain early Byzantine books. A most remarkable, if aesthetically crude, mid-4th-century mosaic pavement, found in a Romano-British villa at Low Ham, Somerset, and showing scenes from the first and fourth books of the Aeneid, is undoubtedly based on the copybook illustrations used for some Virgilian codex.

Jocelyn M.C. Toynbee
      The only Christian illuminated manuscript surviving from before the 6th century is a fragment of the Book of Judges from Quedlinburg (Staatsbibliotek Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin).

Henri Stern Ed.

Eastern Christian
      A new artistic centre was created in the eastern Mediterranean with the foundation in the early 4th century AD of Constantinople (modern Istanbul) on the site of Byzantium. The term Byzantine (Byzantine art) is normally used to identify the art of this city and of the Orthodox Christian empire that was controlled from it and that survived from 330 until its capture in 1453 by the Ottoman Turks. From the reign of Justinian I (527–565) there were relatively clear political and ecclesiastical differences between the Byzantine world and the West, and the term Byzantine art from this period onward broadly reflects these differences. In practice, the division of Mediterranean art into two polarities is not always easy to maintain, as artistic contacts were frequent and each “sector” influenced the other. For instance, by the 12th century, Byzantine influence had made itself felt outside the empire, as, for example, in the mosaics of Sicily and Venice; and the Byzantine style had been adopted by the Orthodox states that were growing up in Russia, Bulgaria, and the western Balkans. During the first half of the 13th century, when Constantinople was in Latin crusader hands, it was in these outlying areas that the most important developments in painting took place. Once the Greek emperors had returned to Constantinople in 1261, developments there began anew, and fine Byzantine mosaics and paintings date from this last phase. In the study of Byzantine art, mosaics are frequently included with painting, but here painting is treated alone; for mosaics, see mosaic: Principles of design (mosaic).

      By 1460 or a short while after, the little that remained of the empire following Constantinople's fall in 1453, together with the independent Orthodox (Russian Orthodox church) states (except Russia), was in Turkish hands. Nevertheless, painting in the Byzantine tradition continued in Greece, the western Balkans, and Bulgaria, for Orthodox Christian art was not banned by the new Muslim rulers. Indeed, works of great technical sophistication were still produced, and a number of painters of icons and church paintings are known through signed and dated works. In Russia a national art of great quality saw continuous development from a Byzantine basis throughout the Middle Ages and up to the end of the 17th century, when Peter I the Great imposed western fashions.

      In general, Byzantine painters may perhaps have retained Greco-Roman traditions more faithfully than did medieval painters in the West. There is so much variation of expression in the history of Byzantine painting, however, that it would be misleading to describe it as a “style”; the term is better seen as the label for a period and for the patronage of an Orthodox Christian society. Because most surviving work is religious in content, Byzantine painting does have some distinctive features. Icons, or painted panels depicting holy figures, were a major item of production, and the most important churches have their walls decorated in mosaic. On the other hand, the production of illuminated books was limited. The range of subject matter in Byzantine works is more restricted than that of the medieval West; scenes and figures from the New Testament and the history of the early church are perhaps the most popular choices.

      Byzantine painting was a highly effective Christian art, expressing a new view of the divine and a new spirituality. On the whole, Byzantine emphasis concentrated less on presenting a naturalistic narrative than on suggesting the existence of a supernatural and timeless Christian realm; painters retained the pictorial devices of classical antiquity, even if they aimed at portraying a more abstract version of the world. It has been felt that Byzantine art as a result always contains a tension between naturalistic and abstract modes of expression.

Early Byzantine Period (330–717)
Icons (icon)
      Until quite recently very little was known about the icons of this age, but, owing to the cleaning of several in Rome and the discovery of hundreds in the monastery of St. Catherine (Saint Catherine's) on Mount Sinai, much material is now available for study. Enough examples are now known to substantiate the significance of the icons.

      The icons in Rome (large cult images such as that of the Virgin from the Pantheon) represent Christian images at their most formal and monumental. The Sinai icons are more intimate, and many must have been intended for private devotions as well as church display. Among the finest are icons that represent Christ, St. Peter, and the Virgin and saints.

Illuminated manuscripts (illuminated manuscript)
      It is now thought that illuminated manuscripts were relatively few in number even at the time they were produced. Certainly very few religious or classical texts survive. Of the latter, a copy of the pharmacological treatise De materia medica by Pedanius Dioscorides, a Greek physician of the 1st century AD, is certainly Constantinopolitan; it was done for Juliana Anicia, the founder of the church of St. Polyeuktos, and is dated 512. A copy of the Iliad at Milan may perhaps have been copied and illustrated in a Byzantine scriptorium. Of the religious manuscripts, the most important is a copy of the book of Genesis (known as the Vienna Genesis) at the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna; there is a fragmentary copy of the Gospels in the Bibliothèque Nationale—usually known as the Sinop fragment, for it came from Sinop, in Turkey—and another at Rossano, in southern Italy. There is also another copy of Genesis, the Cotton Genesis, in the British Museum, but it was severely damaged by the fire that destroyed part of the Cotton Collection. There has been dispute as to where these manuscripts were written and painted, but either Constantinople or Syria is the normal attribution. A fifth religious manuscript, the Rabula Gospels, whose text is framed in elaborate architectural and floral motifs, was copied at Zagba, in Syria, in the year 586 and was executed in a more sketchy, informal style.

Iconoclastic (Iconoclastic Controversy) Age (717–843)
      By the early 8th century so great an importance had accrued to the depiction of the saintly and divine forms that one body of opinion in the state feared the population was in danger of lapsing into idolatry. As a countermeasure, a decree forbidding representation of saintly or divine forms in religious art was promulgated, and from about 717 until 843 there reigned emperors who are called Iconoclasts. To most of them, representation of the saintly or divine in religious art was genuinely anathema. In spite of the ban, pictorial decoration was not in itself forbidden. The church of Ayía Sophia (literally “Divine Wisdom”) at Salonika (modern Thessaloníki, Greece) was decorated under the patronage of Constantine VI (780–797); his monogram survives, and in the apse there are indications that there was a great cross like that which is preserved in the Church of St. Irene (Eirene) at Constantinople and which dates from the 740s. The survival of the 6th- and 7th-century figural mosaics in St. Demetrius at Salonika suggests that the ban was not strictly enforced everywhere. In any case, it was strongly opposed in the monasteries. But in Constantinople the ban seems to have been universal, and religious mosaics and paintings in all the churches were removed, including all those in Hagia Sophia.

Middle Byzantine period (843–1204)
      With the return to power of the “icon lovers,” as they were called, in 843, figural art once more became important in the churches. Elaborate representational decorations in mosaic were set up in the more important buildings, painted ones in the poorer. The next two or three centuries were an age of great brilliance and represent the acme of Byzantine culture. The empire's frontiers were far-flung, its wealth was enormous, and its general culture was far in advance of the rest of Europe. After the death of Basil II (976–1025), a slow decline set in.

      Icons were regularly produced throughout this period. The largest number are to be found in the Sinai monastery (Saint Catherine's). These were mostly for Orthodox use but include a 12th- and 13th-century group done in a mixed East-West style by Western painters who were active in the Latin crusader kingdoms of the region and who copied Byzantine models. Others exist in various museums in the Soviet Union, where they were brought from provincial Russian churches and monasteries for cleaning and conservation. Some of these were imported from Constantinople; one of the finest, an icon of the Virgin known as “Our Lady of Vladimir,” was painted for a Russian patron about 1130. It is of considerable importance in the history of painting, for it not only is a work of outstandingly high quality but also is in a new, more human style, anticipating the late style that flourished between 1204 and 1453. It was at this time that the cult of the icon really came into its own, partly because richer materials became rare but mostly because the interior decoration of churches changed with the introduction of a screen called an iconostasis (i.e., a screen that was to be covered in icons).

      Wall paintings were important during this period, but only one decoration by trained artists in a larger building is known, namely that in the Church of St. Sophia at Ohrid, Macedonia (Yugoslavia). The majority of the scenes that survive were drawn from the Old Testament. They date from about 1050. More numerous are the paintings that decorate numerous rock-cut chapels in Cappadocia (in what is now Turkey); these were executed by lay painters for the monks who lived there alone or in small communities. This material is most important for understanding the character and varieties of Byzantine painting and for giving records of the near-complete decoration of churches. Some churches (such as the 10th-century Tokalı kilise in the Göreme Valley, in central Turkey) represent the best achievements of the period. Some artists who painted the Cappadocian churches must have traveled out from Constantinople or other cities; others probably made their living locally. All levels of quality were found there; indeed Cappadocia contains a whole range of the subjects depicted in Byzantine painting of this period.

Illuminated manuscripts
      Two magnificent manuscripts of this period survive: the Paris Psalter and a book of sermons (Homilies of St. Gregory of Nazianzus), both in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. The former contains 14 full-page miniatures in a grand, almost classical style, which led scholars at one time to date it to the earliest Byzantine period. The miniatures in the other book are more varied in style, some of them recalling the narrative art of Cappadocia, but this latter book represents nevertheless the grandest type of Byzantine manuscript of the age. It was done for Basil I about 880. During the following centuries many illuminated psalters, octateuchs (the first eight books of the Old Testament), homilies, and copies of the Gospels were produced. (Gospels formed the most numerous category.) Notable examples include the Bible of Leo and the Mēnologion (a liturgical book relating lives of saints) of Basil II (976–1025), both in the Vatican, a psalter done for the same emperor and now in the Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana at Venice, and The Homilies of St. John Chrysostom in the Bibliothèque Nationale. A few of them contain many small-scale illustrations, as in a famous set of the Gospels in the Biblioteca Medicea-Laurenziana at Florence. The most common type of Gospel book had only a few illustrated scenes or only portraits of the Evangelists. The work is usually of high quality. Some psalters contained marginal illustrations referring to contemporary events (i.e., the Iconoclastic Controversy). The 10th-century Joshua Roll is interesting as an example of Byzantine illuminated manuscript that shows the tenacious influence of Greco-Roman painting.

      In 1204 Constantinople was sacked by crusaders, its treasures were destroyed or dispersed, and the brilliant middle period of Byzantine art was brought to an end.

Late Byzantine period (1204–1453)
      Painted panels assumed a new importance in the last phase of Byzantine art. The most sophisticated work was done at Constantinople, some of it for patrons from elsewhere (notably Russia), and a number of icons survive that can be associated with Constantinople on the basis of literary evidence or inscriptions. A particularly fine double-sided icon, with the Virgin on one face and the Annunciation on the other, now in the museum at Skopje in Macedonia, was brought from Constantinople about 1300.

      At this period the Russian school was the most important outgrowth of Byzantine icon painting; after the 13th century the influence of Byzantine models continued to be felt more in Russian icons than in the frescoes, but both wall and icon painting were showing local characteristics as early as the 13th century itself. The rigid Byzantine patterns, the dark colours, and the austere lines gradually became graceful, bright, and less solemn. Novgorod's style of icon painting, for example, gradually strengthened and took shape: the severity of faces was softened, composition was simplified, the silhouette became bold and increasingly important, and the palette was lightened by bright cinnabar, snow-white, emerald-green, and lemon-yellow tones.

      Icons were produced in many other places, notably at Salonika, on Mount Athos, and in many other centres in what are now the Balkan states and areas such as Russia and Ukraine. In a few instances icons can be assigned to a definite centre, thanks to inscriptions or other records, but the study of these panels has not progressed far enough to permit any reliable classification under localities on the basis of style alone. After the Turkish conquests of the mid-15th century, icons continued to be painted in large numbers in every part of the Orthodox world. In the 16th century Crete became an important centre, and many Cretan painters worked also in Venice, where there was a large Greek colony; many of the products of this school are to be found there today in the museum attached to the Church of St. George of the Greeks.

      The last phase really began in the 12th century with the decoration at Nerezi in Macedonia (1164). It was done for a Byzantine patron and is in the same emotional style as “Our Lady of Vladimir.” Work in a similar style is to be found in Russia from the late 12th century, and these models were followed by local craftsmen. In the 13th century new styles predominated in such paintings as those at Mileševa (1235) and the Church of the Trinity at Sopoćani (c. 1265), in Serbia, and in the church of Hagia Sophia at Trebizond (c. 1260; Trabzon), on the Black Sea.

      It is probable that artists who had fled the capital after 1204 established themselves in a number of different areas and that wall paintings such as those mentioned above were the work of men they had trained. By the end of the century, the local art in the Byzantine Empire emerged as the regional art of Salonika (Thessaloníki). Examples of this last school are found in the Chapel of St. Eugenius, attached to the Church of St. Demetrius at Salonika, in the Protaton (i.e., the First Church, in the sense of the first in rank, c. 1300), at Kariaí (Karyaes) on Mount Athos, on the north coast of the Aegean, and in some of the monasteries there, as well as in a number of churches in Serbia and Macedonia decorated under the patronage of King Stephen Uroš II Milutin at the end of the 13th century and in the early years of the 14th century. There has been some dispute among authorities as to whether King Milutin's painters were Greeks from Salonika or local Slavs. Throughout the 14th century a great deal of work was done by painters in the Balkan region, notably in Greece and Bulgaria.

      In Russia the Mongol invasion about the middle of the 13th century disrupted previous centres of production, such as Kiev and Vladimir-Suzdal. Only in the northern regions of Russia—particularly in the Novgorod (Novgorod school) district—did painting continue to develop. As early as the second half of the 12th century, the city of Novgorod had developed an individual style, combining Byzantine severity with a folk-art picturesqueness. (Examples are the frescoes in the Church of St. George in Staraya Ladoga [c. 1180] and the Church of Nereditsa.) Novgorod escaped damage by the Asiatic hordes and became virtually the metropolis and cultural centre of old Rus after the fall of Kiev (1240). Together with the city of Pskov and other northwestern Russian population centres, it harboured many Greek artists, who continued to work in the traditions of Byzantium.

      A prominent figure in Russian painting was Theophanes The Greek, a native of Constantinople who moved to Russia after about 1370. His paintings, though closely adhering to Byzantine styles, show distinctive Russian features, notably elongated proportions and delicacy of detail. Similar characteristics and features can be seen in his Novgorod frescoes and especially in the central part of the iconostasis in the Cathedral of the Annunciation in the Moscow Kremlin.

      Among the immediate followers and collaborators of Theophanes was Andrey Rublyov (Rublyov, Saint Andrey), whose religious types are imbued with a fresh spirituality. His best-known work is the icon “The Old Testament Trinity” (c. 1410), painted for the Trinity-St. Sergius Monastery at Sergiyev Posad. The subject—popular in Byzantine iconography—is the visit of three angels to Abraham and Sarah. But the severe symbolism of the old Byzantine tradition is transformed into something more human. It is one of the great creations of medieval Russian painting.

      Another inspired Novgorod painter of the 15th century was Dionisi, whose art is marked by the extreme elongated stylizing of his figures as well as a subtle and glowing colour scheme. He and his predecessor Rublyov succeeded in expressing the aura of spirituality that is the essence of the Russian icon.

      At Constantinople some paintings of outstanding quality were executed at the Monastery of the Chora, now known as Kariye Cami, and it is known from the texts that similar paintings existed in a number of other churches there. Several were painted in the third quarter of the 14th century by Theophanes the Greek before he went to Russia. The same style was also introduced to Mistrás, in the Peloponnese, and there the wall paintings of the Brontocheion (early 14th century), the Church of the Peribleptos (c. 1350), and the Pantanassa (1428) are all of high quality. Paintings in the monasteries of the Morava Valley in Serbia done at the end of the 14th century and beginning of the 15th are in the same refined style.

Illuminated manuscripts
      Illuminated manuscripts of the last Byzantine age are not as numerous as those of the middle period, but their quality is often just as high. A few seem to have been produced during the 13th century, both at Constantinople and in the cities where Orthodox nobles established themselves while the Latin crusaders were in possession of the capital, notably Nicaea and Trebizond. After the return to Constantinople in 1261 the noble families seem to have played a greater role than the emperors as patrons of all arts, and many of the more important works of art of the age were produced on their behalf. A copy of a work attributed to the 5th-century-BC Greek physician Hippocrates, now in the Bibliothèque Nationale, was made for the high admiral Alexius Apocaucos, and a beautiful copy of the Gospels in the same library was made for the emperor John VI Cantacuzenus between 1347 and 1355. Manuscripts were, of course, also copied and illuminated in the monasteries, and this process continued until printing made it obsolete. Few of the later ones contain illuminations of great quality. In the Slavic lands, however, fine work continued, and in Romania excellent manuscripts were executed in the 16th century.

Arthur Voyce David Talbot Rice Robin Sinclair Cormack

Post-Byzantine Russia
      In the 15th century, major changes began to take place in Russian (Moscow school) icon painting, leading to the birth of what may justifiably be called a national art. This evolution first became noticeable in the gradual elimination of the Mediterranean setting depicted in the background of icons, notably landscape and architecture. Greek basilicas with their porticoes and atria (patios or courts) were replaced by Russian churches with their cupolas and kokoshniki (literally “women's headdresses” but here, by extension, “gables”). Russian saints and episodes from their lives furnished subjects for the Russian artists; Muscovite types and native costumes began to appear in icon painting. The colours were extraordinarily brilliant, and there was particular emphasis on outline.

      Many of the great icon and fresco painters in the 16th century worked first at Novgorod and later at Moscow, thus linking Novgorod and Moscow closely in artistic terms and in particular introducing to Moscow features characteristic of the Byzantine and Novgorodian traditions. The literary movement of the 16th century strongly influenced contemporary painting, and artists looked to new subjects. Some illustrated church preoccupations and prayers or expressed the rites of the church in symbolic images; others represented parables and legends.

      At the end of the 16th century the Stroganov school made its appearance in Moscow, introducing a small-scale manner of icon painting. The masters of the Stroganov school became famous for the elegant attitudes of their figures, their Eastern choice of colours, and their elaborate detail. Some of them—Prokopy Chirin, Nikifor, and Istoma Savin—were later to join the ranks of the icon-painting studios in the Kremlin armory in Moscow.

      Moscow icons of the 17th century constitute the last authentically Russian (Russian Orthodox church) painting. As early as 1650 much of their Russian character had disappeared. From the end of the century, western European influences spread rapidly.

Arthur Voyce Robin Sinclair Cormack

Regional variations in Eastern Christian painting
      Christian painting in Georgia dates from the 4th century and shows both Eastern and Western influences, owing to the position of the region as a crossroads of trade between Europe and India. From the beginning of the 5th century the Georgian church approved the representation of the human form in religious painting. Accordingly Georgia was not affected by the wave of iconoclasm in the 8th and 9th centuries—a period that inhibited figural representation in most of Eastern Christendom for more than a century. In addition to a Christian tradition, Georgian painting also drew on a pagan one.

      Until the 9th century, mosaics—more or less Byzantine in technique and design—were frequently used in the decoration of Georgian churches. By the 11th century the entire interior of Georgian churches was usually covered with frescoes (fresco painting) instead. Many well-preserved examples survive from this period. Although following the Eastern Orthodoxy's general theological interest in church decoration, the Georgian murals deviated somewhat from Byzantine style and iconography, notably in extensive ornamentation between individual scenes.

      The art of manuscript illumination flourished in Georgia from the 6th century onward, and numerous examples survive from all periods. Characteristic of the early works are two Gospel books, the Adishi Gospels (897) and the first set of Gospels of Dzhruchi (936–940). These are distinguished by their decorative treatment of draperies and their excellent drawing.

      At the end of the 10th century Byzantine influence became strong in Georgia, and until the end of the 15th century Georgian manuscripts generally followed Byzantine models, differing only in an independent approach to the use of colour. These illuminations are of very high quality.

      In the 16th century Persian influence from the East transformed Georgian (Russia) manuscript illuminations. Ornamentation abounded, and the representation of figures and scenes was flat, decorative, and highly skillful.


      What little remains of the pagan art of Armenia strongly resembles late Greco-Roman art. With the establishment of Christianity as the official religion in the first years of the 4th century, however, a truly national art developed.

      From an early period the interiors of Armenian churches were adorned with frescoes and mosaics showing scenes from the Gospels and images of Christ, the Virgin, and saints. Surviving examples are less plentiful than illustrated manuscripts, however. Important specimens of the latter exist in an almost uninterrupted series ranging from the late 9th to the 17th century. They are executed in ornamental designs of great richness and diversity. Floral, geometric, and animal motifs are painted in vivid colours on a gold background around the canon tables of the Gospel manuscripts (concordances of the four Gospels), on the headpieces, and in the margins and are ingeniously adapted to the capital letters.

      As regards iconography (icon), the Gospel scenes follow early Christian and Byzantine models, but the Armenian painters, especially those of the medieval kingdom of Little Armenia, often displayed a marked independence and interpreted traditional formulas in a more lively or dramatic manner. Two artistic trends can be discerned in manuscript painting: one, more Eastern in character, tends to simplify the human form and subordinate it to ornamental interest; the other, under Byzantine influence, shows a subtle blending of naturalism and stylization. This latter trend was predominant in Little Armenia, where a flourishing school of painting developed under the patronage of the court and the church. The 13th-century manuscripts, in particular, belong in the first rank of medieval illumination. Through contacts with the crusaders and the Mongols, the painters of this period became acquainted with the art of the Latin West and of the Far East, and as a result they produced richly imaginative works.

      Manuscripts continued to be illustrated throughout the Middle Ages in Armenian monasteries and in the various centres outside the area of Little Armenia where Armenians had settled after the destruction of the kingdom in 1375. These works are often inferior to those of the earlier period, but some original schools developed—for instance, in the area of Lake Van, especially at Khizan and on Aghthamar (modern Akdamar).

Sirarpie Der Nersessian Robin Sinclair Cormack

      Coptic painting—strictly speaking, that practiced by Christians in Egypt from the time when Christianity first took hold there—consists primarily of wall paintings in monasteries, the earliest foundations of which date from the 4th and 5th centuries.

      Stylistically, Coptic painting differs from that of pagan Egypt in its emphasis on animal and plant ornamentation; less naturalistic rendering of the human form; simplified outline, colour, and detail; and increasingly monotonous repetition of a limited number of motifs.

      In content, the wall paintings resemble other Christian examples of the genre around the eastern Mediterranean. The most usual theme is a frieze of saints with an enthroned figure of Christ or the Virgin. There is little variety of pose, though the features of individual saints are distinguishable. An unusually lively piece is a fragment from Wādī Sarga (now in the British Museum) depicting the Old Testament story of the three Hebrews in the fiery furnace; the Hebrews are dressed in Eastern garb and Phrygian hats and are shown as being protected from death by an angel. A celebrated set of wall paintings (mural) are those from Bāwīṭ, now in the Coptic Museum at Cairo.

      Despite the 7th-century Muslim (Islamic arts) invasion of Egypt, there was no sudden break in the Coptic tradition. Indeed, some of the most notable surviving examples of manuscript illumination (illuminated manuscript) were produced during the first five centuries of Islāmic rule. It was only during the later Middle Ages that specifically Coptic painting ceased as Islāmic culture increasingly predominated.

Arthur Frank Shore Robin Sinclair Cormack

Western Dark Ages and medieval (Middle Ages) Christendom

Dark Ages
      Ancient Roman civilization in western Europe foundered and fell apart in the second half of the 6th century, and the changes that took place between late antiquity and the succeeding period, the Dark Ages, were fundamental and catastrophic. Urban life collapsed, patronage of the arts all but ceased, and the centuries-old Mediterranean traditions of artistic training and production died out almost everywhere. It was only in a few places in Italy that artistic production continued unbroken, albeit much reduced. Increasingly the cultural fabric of northern Europe was determined by the various tribal peoples—Franks, Vandals, Goths, Angles, and Saxons—who migrated into the western provinces of the old Roman Empire during the 4th to 6th centuries and who established new patterns of settlement and centres of authority. Painting was not one of the traditional arts of these newcomers, though their craftsmen were expert workers of fine metals, leather, wood, and semiprecious stones (known as hardstones) such as garnet.

      The reappearance of painting in northern Europe in the late 7th century was determined by two overriding factors. The first was the conversion of these peoples to Christianity. By the 6th century the Christian church had developed an extensive iconographic repertory, and Christian images were in use everywhere: both as icons, which functioned as focal points of worship, and as symbolic and narrative compositions, which proclaimed the mysteries of the faith and instructed the unlettered in the stories of sacred scripture. Painted images had become an indispensable apparatus of orthodox Christianity, and for the newly converted they would have been one of its most arresting and tangible features. The second factor that induced the new masters of Europe to develop the art of painting and figural imagery was their fascination with, and desire to emulate, the culture of the late Roman world, in which painting had been widely employed.

      Apart from a small number of images on wooden panels, two kinds of painting have survived from the early Middle Ages: large-scale painting on the walls (mural) of buildings and small-scale painting in manuscripts (illuminated manuscript). These two genres involved differing techniques and, to a large extent, constituted separate artistic traditions. Only a tiny percentage has survived of the wall paintings originally to be found in almost every church and in many public buildings throughout the West. Exposed to the destructive agencies of light, moisture, fire, general wear and tear, and changes in fashion, paintings on walls have little chance of surviving for more than a few hundred years. Illuminated books (book) of this period, on the other hand, have come down in large numbers. Made of resilient animal skin and protected by stout wooden boards, they last almost indefinitely, and their decoration usually remains in a remarkably good state of preservation. It is fortunate that book production and decoration were a major concern of the early medieval church. Christianity was the religion of the Book; the words of Jesus Christ, the Gospel, were written down in this book, which Christ, the Logos (literally the “Word”), and his saints are often represented as holding in their hands. Artists in the Middle Ages expended some of their greatest efforts on the illumination and embellishment of the Gospels, the books of the Old Testament, and the other liturgical, devotional, and instructional texts that the church required.

      The history of early medieval painting in the West is best examined in the art produced in five areas: Italy, the British Isles, France, Germany and Austria, and Spain.

Rome and Italy, c. 600–850
      Rome, the seat of the pope, was one place in the West where an unbroken tradition of artistic patronage and production endured from late antiquity into the high Middle Ages and beyond. This was of inestimable importance for the history of the period from about 600 to 850, since it was to Italy and to Rome that the people of northern Europe looked for direction and for example.

      The antique tradition of illusionistic naturalism continued in painting in Rome through the early Christian period; but toward 600 it weakened, and figures became flat and insubstantial. Increasingly, Jesus Christ, the Virgin, and the martyred saints of the church are represented alone or in groups, in strict hieratic frontality (in which the figures are arranged facing forward), gazing out to catch the eye of the onlooker. This development accompanied and served the growing cult of saints and the widespread practice of addressing images as focuses of prayer and veneration.

      In the 7th and early 8th centuries successive waves of Byzantine (Byzantine art) influence dominated Roman patronage and artistic production. Rome at this time was still under the rule of the Byzantine emperor, and contacts with the Eastern capital were close. Various distinct Eastern pictorial traditions seem to have flourished side by side: hieratic figures and strictly symmetrical compositions in mosaic at the church of Sant'Agnese (625–638) and the chapel of San Venanzio at the Lateran Baptistery (642–649); faces carefully and vividly modeled to achieve astonishingly lifelike appearances at Santa Maria Antiqua (e.g., the “Pompeian” Annunciation and St. Anne, early 7th century); and elsewhere in the same church figures fleetingly but effectively rendered in delicate washes of colour, so that they seem to scarcely materialize out of a dense, light-suffused atmosphere (e.g., Eleazar and Solomone and her seven sons, early 7th century).

      Another strong and distinctive Byzantine wave hit Rome during the short papacy of John VII (705–707). Under his direct patronage, Eastern artists introduced an iconographic repertory new to the West, compositional schemes that were to endure for more than a century, and a vigorous new figural style (see).

      In the late 8th century a highly effective technique for representing the human figure was developed, in which modeling was almost completely eschewed and an eloquent system of brightly coloured lines was employed to define the clothed body. Examples include the painting of the Ascension (c. 850) in San Clemente, Rome, and the crypt (c. 830) of San Vincenzo al Volturno, in central Italy. In this technique wall painting was often used in conjunction with elaborate systems of white highlighting (e.g., the Harrowing of Hell in the lower church of San Clemente and paintings [c. 870] in the Temple of Fortuna Virile).

      Some of the finest work in Italy of the 8th and the first half of the 9th century was done in the north. At Castelseprio, north of Milan, a Byzantine artist painted a wonderfully light and vigorous cycle of the early life of Mary and the Nativity of Christ in a manner that bafflingly recalls the fluid impressionistic painting of early imperial Rome. Other wall paintings of this time, by native Italian masters, are at Cividale del Friuli, in San Salvatore in Brescia, and at Müstair. Contemporary paintings in the south show clear connections with this new Byzantine-influenced art of northern Italy (e.g., San Vincenzo al Volturno, early 9th century).

England and Ireland, c. 650–850
      It is recorded that Roman missionaries, who played a major role in the conversion of England to Christianity in the early 7th century, brought painted images with them; but next to nothing is known about painting on panels or walls in the British Isles during the Dark Ages. There is, however, a good deal of information about the illumination of manuscripts.

      In the 6th and 7th centuries monasteries (monastery) were founded and prospered, first in Ireland, later in England. In their scriptoria (scriptorium) (writing rooms) manuscripts were written and decorated in increasingly elaborate fashion. In the Northumbrian (Northumbria) double monastery of Monkwearmouth and Jarrow, Italian books and their illustrations were imitated extraordinarily faithfully (e.g., the Codex Amiatinus, a great Bible, c. 700). But artists in other Northumbrian centres in the late 7th century began to adapt the standard decorative apparatus of late antique Italian manuscripts to very different effect. Portraits of the Evangelists became brilliant symbols, their bodies and clothes radically abstracted and brightly coloured; and, in the earliest books, they are sometimes shown in the guise of the four apocalyptic beasts, the man, the lion, the bull-calf, and the eagle, which represented the transcendental, celestial aspects of the four authors of the Gospels (e.g., the Durrow Gospels, c. 680; the Echternach Gospels, c. 700). Artists in the British Isles also introduced other new elements, the most striking being richly ornamented cross-pages, commonly called “carpet pages,” filled with ribbon interlace and wonderfully intertwined beasts, and large initial letters. The great full-page initial letters in Gospel books of the British Isles, besides articulating the text, serve as images, almost as icons, of the Word of God. These manuscripts are distinguished by their extraordinary ornamental repertory, drawn from the native Celtic tradition, from the Mediterranean, and from the tradition of fine metalworking introduced by Anglo-Saxon settlers in Britain in the 6th century.

      In the 8th century there were flourishing scriptoria also in the south of England, and several manuscripts prepared at Canterbury have been identified (e.g., the Vespasian Psalter, c. 730–740; the Stockholm Codex Aureus, or “Golden Gospels,” c. 750). In early 9th-century books from the south, formal and iconographic elements introduced from Frankish scriptoria across the Channel are in evidence.

      It is not yet possible to distinguish between different Irish schools of illumination. The outstanding manuscripts are the St. Gall Gospels (c. 750), the great Book of Kells (c. 800), the Gospels of Macregol (early 9th century), and a group of little “pocket Gospel books.”

      The innovations of these early Irish and English scribes and artists left a lasting imprint on the subsequent development of book decoration throughout Europe. The elaborate initial letters that are found in nearly all later decorated manuscripts were first devised in the British Isles, and the decorative vocabulary of later continental illumination owed much to English and Irish invention.

      It was only in the first half of the 8th century that manuscripts began to be elaborately decorated in the Frankish kingdom (an area roughly comprising northern France and southwestern Germany as far as the Rhineland). This production is known as Merovingian, after the Frankish dynasty that ruled, in name at least, until 751. In its subject matter, early Frankish illumination is decorative and symbolic rather than narrative. The idea of stressing the initial letters of a text was adopted from the British Isles, but the results were rather different. The strokes of letters are shaped like doves and fish with swelling bodies, or they are filled with simple ornamental motifs. A favoured frontispiece is a large cross standing within an arch, incorporating or surrounded by animals and birds of all kinds (e.g., the Gelasian Sacramentary; St. Augustine, Quaestiones in Heptateuchon, Laon, c. 750). The rare instances of figural composition from mid-8th-century France are usually rather ungainly copies of late antique prototypes (e.g., the Gospels of Gundohinus, Laon, 754). It was only in the second half of the century, probably as a result of English influence, that figure drawing was subjected to a controlled linear discipline (as in the Flavigny Gospels). This development culminated about 800 in the wonderfully inventive historiated (decorated with figures of men or animals) initials in the Corbie Psalter.

Early Middle Ages
      In the mid-8th century a new Frankish dynasty came to power. Under Charlemagne, whose long reign lasted from 768 to 814 and who was crowned the first emperor of the Romans (Holy Roman Empire) in 800, a new courtly culture was created to rival those of late antique Rome and of contemporary Byzantium. The achievements of two groups of artists, members of both of which worked for the Emperor and his court, were to determine the overall development of painting in northern Europe for the next three centuries. One group, the so-called Court school, produced a series of splendidly rich Gospel books. Their decoration is extremely inventive, even witty, and the figures, with carefully modeled limbs issuing from dense carapaces of brilliantly coloured, elaborately folded drapery, show a completely new mastery of the human form. The second group concentrated on figures dressed in archaic white garments, with faces and limbs modeled in dramatic chiaroscuro (contrasts of light and shade)—a conscious and very successful evocation of the painting of antiquity (e.g., the Coronation Gospels in Vienna, c. 795–800).

      During the years from about 815 to 835 an extremely active and inventive scriptorium flourished at Rheims (Reims), under the patronage of the archbishop, Ebbo. Inspired by the masters of the Coronation Gospels, the Rheims artists aimed at producing work intentionally reminiscent of the art of classical antiquity. However, an extraordinary new spirit of linear excitement pervades their compositions, in such works as the Gospels of Ebbo, the Utrecht Psalter, and the Physiologus at Bern. These are some of the most vital and ecstatic creations of the early Middle Ages.

      Leading schools of later Carolingian illumination were located at Tours, Saint-Amand (in what is now Belgium), Metz, St. Gall, and at an unidentified scriptorium from which Charlemagne's grandson, Charles the Bald, commissioned a number of extraordinarily lavishly decorated manuscripts in the 860s and 870s.

      The early Carolingian artists reintroduced figurative painting and pictorial narrative to northern Europe. To achieve this, they studied monuments and manuscripts surviving from late antiquity and contemporary works from Italy, the British Isles, and Byzantium. They borrowed freely and exuberantly, but they were rarely mere copyists. Vitality and invention were always paramount. This remarkable achievement was the result of determined and demanding patronage and of intense creative effort.

The 10th century
      The late 9th and the first half of the 10th century had been a time of economic depression, social upheaval, and political reorganization throughout western Europe. There had followed a period of reconstruction, with new ruling dynasties emerging and consolidating their power. Although production of wall paintings and manuscripts had continued, the energies of patrons had been directed elsewhere, and there had been a distinct decline in production. Only in the third quarter of the 10th century did renewed patronage lead to an outburst of artistic activity and invention.

Late Anglo-Saxon England
      In England a coherent and magnificent style of book illumination was developed in the 960s in the scriptorium at Winchester. Narrative compositions and initial letters are framed in arched and rectangular bossed (articulated with circular and square ornamental motifs) trellises of golden bars filled with rampant foliage; figures are clothed in shells of brittle broken drapery, with elaborate zigzagged contours and fluttering hems (e.g., King Edgar's Charter to the New Minster, Winchester, 966; the Benedictional [a book of episcopal Eucharistic blessings] of St. Ethelwold, 971–984). During the following century scriptoria in southern England produced a considerable number of books of this kind, filled with flickering colour and glinting gold and intended for ceremonial liturgical use. Behind this initiative in lavish book production lay a movement of religious reform, instituted by the leading churchmen of the realm and supported by the king.

      In the scriptoria at Glastonbury and Canterbury a lively tradition of expressive outline drawing developed, and some of the most arresting Anglo-Saxon works of the period are filled with animated figures in flying ruffled drapery (e.g., the Leofric Missal, 970s; Harley Psalter, early 11th century).

      English artists of this time delighted in iconographic invention. The results were sometimes startling, and the innovations often endured: the horns of Moses and Christ disappearing into clouds at his Ascension were both English inventions of the early 11th century.

      Continuing Carolingian traditions of illumination can be traced in many centres in France, but it is only at the very end of the 10th century that a new energy is apparent in scriptoria in the north, reflecting a reforming spirit in the church. At Fleury, Saint-Bertin, and Saint-Vaast at Arras, imported works from England and the presence of English artists gave a fresh impetus to manuscript illumination. Spirited outline drawings, inspired by English example, were set alongside frames and initial letters of Carolingian ancestry (e.g., the Psalter and Gospels of Odbert of Saint-Bertin, c. 1000; Bible of Saint-Vaast, early 11th century).

      In Germany, now under the Saxon Ottonian dynasty, concerted royal and ecclesiastical patronage also brought about a great revival in the arts. As in England, this revival followed a reform movement that touched all the leading monastic communities and revitalized religious life throughout the land.

      Ottonian art, like Anglo-Saxon, was solidly based on earlier Carolingian invention; and the illustrations in one of the earliest Ottonian books, the Gospel Lectionary (a book of Gospel lessons for the church year) of Gero (c. 960), were copied line for line from a manuscript of Charlemagne's Court school. The dominant figure in the late 10th century was an artist known as the Master of the Registrum Gregorii, who seems to have been based at Trier. Drawing inspiration from both early Christian and Carolingian manuscripts, he developed a new manner of painting, in which meticulously detailed, smoothly modeled figures are placed in elaborate and precisely calculated spatial settings. In his work, volume and planar design interact in dynamic tension (as in the Letters of Gregory the Great, c. 983; the Gospel Lectionary of Egbert of Trier, from the 980s; and the Gospels of Sainte-Chapelle, c. 1005).

      In about 1000, younger contemporaries of this man who had learned much from his art produced, on royal commission, a series of magnificently illuminated books in which brilliantly lighted figures move with a supernatural grandeur against golden grounds and bands of colour (examples include the Gospel Books of Otto III in Aachen and Munich, c. 1000; the Gospel Lectionary of Henry II, 1002–14; and the Apocalypse and Commentaries on Daniel and Isaiah, early 11th century). The portraits of the Evangelists and the imperial images in these books are remarkable for their formal subtlety and iconographic ingenuity.

      During the first half of the 11th century, manuscript illumination flourished in various monastic scriptoria in Germany. The inventions and example of the Master of the Registrum Gregorii largely determined developments at Echternach and Cologne. At Cologne, Eastern painted books must also have been available as models, since the wonderfully fluid painterly compositions of the early works of the school appear to have been inspired by contemporary Byzantine painting (as in the Gospels of Abbess Hitda of Meschede, early 11th century). At Regensburg the splendid house style was based largely on one grand Carolingian book, the golden Gospels of Charles the Bald, in the possession of the Abbey of St. Emmeram. In this scriptorium, illustrations became vehicles for elaborate theological arguments, laid out in complex schematic compositions and glossed with explanatory inscriptions (e.g., the Sacramentary [a service book typically containing the celebrant's part of the mass together with various prayers] of Henry II, 1002–14; the Gospels of Abbess Uta, early 11th century). At Corvey, on the other hand, book illumination was ornamental and largely aniconic. The ornamentation consisted chiefly of darkly brilliant initial pages, with large gilded capital letters set on densely patterned purple grounds (as in the Wernigerode Gospels, c. 970).

      From literary sources and fragmentary remains it is known that wall painting was common in Germany during this period. But only one extensive program survives, in the Church of St. George on the island of Reichenau, in Lake Constance. This dates from the late 10th century and consists of a sequence of the miracles of Christ's ministry, narrated with great drama and psychological intensity.

Romanesque (Romanesque art)
      In the second half of the 11th century in many parts of Europe new energies and new initiatives are apparent in painting, sculpture, and architecture. It is impossible to categorize these changes fully or to reduce them to a common denominator, but in many places there was a tendency toward greater schematization and bold configurations in design, in which strong and abstract structures of line and colour predominate. The surfaces of clothed bodies are enlivened by intricate schemes of folds and pleats and highlights in regular patterns of reiterated parallel and converging lines. These developments are partly explained by the arrival in the West of examples of recent Byzantine painting, with its elaborate patterned highlighting. Another factor seems to have been an aesthetic that defined beauty in terms of symmetry and order and the juxtaposition of pure, bright saturated colours.

      In Italy the critical role played by Byzantine art is clearest of all. It is evident both in the north, particularly in Venice, and in the south at Montecassino, where Byzantine artists were summoned by the abbot Desiderius in the 1060s to work on the decoration of his new abbey church. The wall paintings commissioned by the same Desiderius at Sant'Angelo in Formis, near Capua, are the outstanding surviving example of the consequent fusion of Eastern and Western traditions. In Rome and central Italy in the first decades of the century, the dominant fashion was for figures whose garments hung in a multitude of fine parallel pleats (as in the triptych of the Redeemer in the cathedral at Tivoli and in the wall paintings at Castel Sant'Elia di Nepi and in Santa Pudenziana in Rome). In the 12th century Italian artists took an increasing interest in ancient Roman art, nowhere more so than in Rome itself, where there was a veritable renaissance of classical and early Christian compositional formulas, motifs, and even styles.

      An early Romanesque art emerged in scriptoria throughout France in the late 11th century—at Saint-Omer in the north, at Mont-Saint-Michel in the northwest, at the abbey of Saint-Aubin at Angers in the west, at Limoges in central France, and at Toulouse in the south.

      In the early 12th century, major schools of painting flourished in Burgundy, at the great Benedictine abbey of Cluny, and at the newly founded Cistercian house of Cîteaux. From Cluny there is a lectionary in which Byzantine influence is strong and a copy of St. Ildefonsus' treatise on the virginity of Mary, with stiff, gorgeously coloured and gilded compositions owing more to late Ottonian examples than to Byzantium. There are also wonderful wall paintings in the Cluniac chapel at Berzé-la-Ville, where the various compositions are filled with energy and colour, and a tumult of fine sweeping folds and flickering highlights plays over the surface of the drapery. At Cîteaux the early manuscripts show evidence of strong Norman and English influence in their decoration and a satirical delight in observation (as in Gregory the Great's Moralia in Job, 1111). Later, in a group of manuscripts of the second quarter of the century, the illustrations are colour-washed drawings with slender, lyrically conceived figures whose drapery falls in cascades of parallel rounded pleats, apparently inspired by contemporary southern Italian work (e.g., St. Jerome's Commentary on Isaiah, the Cîteaux Lectionary).

      The most complete surviving set of early Romanesque wall paintings (mural) in France is in the church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe, where the compositions show great narrative vigour and inventiveness. Quite startling formal mannerisms sometimes occur in provincial French painting of the first half of the 11th century. Two examples are the wonderfully highlighted and emphatically banded and pleated figures at Vicq-sur-Saint-Chartrier and the violently expressive gesturing figures on the vaults of the crypt of Saint-Nicolas at Tavant. In general, wall painters in the early Middle Ages had very limited means at their disposal, and it is remarkable how skilled artists were able to deploy three or four colours to impressive and unifying effect. An example of this is at Montcherand, in the Swiss Jura, where simple hues of brown, ochre, dull blue, and white have been used to depict ecstatically disputing Apostles beneath a huge Christ in Majesty, in a composition of bright abstract subtlety and strength.

      In the 1120s in England artists at the abbey of St. Albans, drawing on earlier English traditions and Ottonian painting from Germany, devised cycles of full-page scenes with large, emphatically gesturing figures set off against rectangular panels of colour, often within architectural settings. In structural density, in their use of accumulated motifs and bright areas of colour, and in the intensity of their storytelling, these images (e.g., the Psalter in St. Godhard, Hildesheim, and the Life of St. Edmund) have few parallels in earlier English art.

      In the second quarter of the century acquaintance with contemporary Byzantine painting—probably via illuminated manuscripts—and recent developments on the Continent led English artists to a more organic, if expressively attenuated, conception of the human body. Drapery is now stretched and gathered, with sinuous folds isolating curving islands of taut cloth (so-called damp-fold drapery) to describe three-dimensional forms in torsion. Faces are more heavily modeled than before, and glances and gestures are even more piercing and insistent. This is first seen about 1130 in the great Bible of the Abbey of St. Edmund at Bury; later stages of the development can be traced in a series of magnificent manuscripts from southern English scriptoria (e.g., the Dover Bible, the Lambeth Bible, the Psalter of Henry of Blois, and the Bodleian Terence) and in the wall painting of St. Paul and the viper in St. Anselm's Chapel in Canterbury cathedral (1160s).

      In the late 11th century in southern England and in northern France a type of initial letter emerged in which men, monsters, beasts, and birds climb and struggle in “tanglewoods” of rinceaux (ornamental motifs consisting of sinuous and scrolling foliate branches). These ingenious constructions, full of movement and variety, fired the imaginations of artists throughout Europe. On the surface they are an expression of that love of joyously outlandish, grotesque, and even warring imagery that is a ubiquitous feature of 12th-century art; but at a deeper level they are concerned with man's unending conflict with sin and the Devil.

      An extraordinary and idiosyncratic tradition of manuscript illumination evolved in Spain in the 10th and 11th centuries. The chief vehicle for this art was the commentary on the book of Revelation (Revelation to John) of Beatus of Liebana, a text that seems to have been taken by contemporaries as a symbol of Christian resistance to the Muslim (Islamic arts) Arabs who dominated much of the Iberian Peninsula in the early Middle Ages. The Arab cultural presence in Spain was all-pervasive, and—even if it did not account for the strongly patterned, sometimes barbaric compositions and for the brilliant jarring use of colour—it was responsible for particular motifs adopted by these illuminators (such as the horseshoe arch) and for the common practice of recording in a manuscript's colophon the scriptorium, the scribe and artist, and the date of the manuscript itself.

      Northern Spain also produced some of the most splendid Romanesque wall paintings. Spanish artists favoured formal symmetrical and hieratic compositions and strong, barely modulated colours. The human form and the stiff, banded drapery that encases it are consistently more idealized and abstracted than in other European painting of the time. At their finest, these works possess a hypnotic numinous power.

The Meuse Valley
      The results of the great increase in artistic production, the sudden intensification of patronage, and the wealth of artistic invention found throughout Europe in the late 11th and early 12th century are nowhere more clear than in the valley of the Meuse, in what is now eastern Belgium. One of the leading centres of artistic production was the abbey of Stavelot. The decoration of the outstanding early manuscript from its scriptorium, the Stavelot Bible, of about 1094–97, is thework of various hands and is a perfect microcosm of the influences and interests that gave rise to the first Romanesque painting. The majestic enthroned Christ clearly has his ancestry in Ottonian compositions from the nearby scriptorium at Echternach. Some of the historiated initials are inhabited by delicately drawn figures that seem to stem from the old English tradition of outline drawing. Others incorporate large, darkly modeled figures that look strikingly Byzantine. And the great initial of the book of Genesis has a complex program in which scenes from the Old and New Testaments are juxtaposed in a tree of medallions to demonstrate the scheme of Redemption. The concept of expounding a theological argument in a composition of diagrammatic complexity is something that was dear to the 12th century.

      Full-page compositions of complex iconography in elaborate formal settings are also a characteristic of north German manuscripts of the 12th century. They are found above all in a group of books associated with the all-powerful duke of Saxony Henry the Lion (Henry III) (1142–95) and prepared in the abbey of Helmarshausen on the Weser River. This scriptorium's masterpiece is a Gospel book presented by Henry and his wife Matilda to Brunswick cathedral in 1173–75. The illumination is extraordinarily rich and dense, with a solemn and magisterial palette of gold, purple, dark green, azure, ochre, and white. The elaborate iconographies are glossed in long scrolls, which form undulating accents across the pages.

      A very different art was practiced in the southeast, where Salzburg was the leading centre. A strong Italian element is detectable in the illustrations in books of the first half of the 12th century, such as the giant Bible at Michaelbeuern and the Admont Bible of 1140–50. The latter manuscript—which features large, full-page compositions dominated by tall turning figures, unreal landscapes, and bright colours—is a parallel phenomenon to the great contemporary English books, such as the Lambeth Bible and the Psalter of Henry of Blois. Each shows a preoccupation with Byzantine models for figures and faces. But the strong Italian influence in the Salzburg scriptorium ensured that the German figures are calmer and more solid than their exuberant English cousins. In the middle of the century a wonderfully elegant art of pen drawing emerged at Salzburg, with expressive swaying and gesticulating figures set against backgrounds of blue and green (the Antiphonary of St. Peter's at Salzburg).

      A number of early wall paintings survive in Austria and Germany, but many of those in Germany have suffered disastrously from over-restoration. In Austria the major monument is the late 11th-century Christological cycle in the west choir of the abbey Church at Lambach, apparently by artists from Salzburg. This work was strongly influenced by the contemporary Byzantinizing art of the Veneto. Salzburg painting of the 1150s can be seen in a lyrical female figure personifying the Third Hour, in the monastic Church of St. Peter.

      In Germany well-preserved paintings of the early 12th century at Idensen, in lower Saxony, have strong four-square compositions and clearly contoured, stern-faced figures, which stem from late Ottonian tradition. Half a century later, on the lower Rhine, a new spirit and mentality were expressed in two splendid but drastically repainted cycles at Schwarz Rheindorf and at Brauweiler, near Cologne, where elegantly drawn figures play against panels and frames of blue and green, illustrating recondite and complicated iconographic programs.

Late 12th century
      In the late 12th century two broad developments took place in wall painting and manuscript illumination throughout the West. On the one hand, forms became smoother and more fluent, and a less abstract and less aggressively patterned interpretation was put on nature. On the other hand, the perennial interest that Western artists had shown in contemporary Byzantine art grew more intense, and this sometimes led to the opposite extremes of turbulent and mannered design. Both of these tendencies probably aimed at representing human actions and interactions with greater conviction and increased psychological power.

      In England a new soft style is apparent in the later hands responsible for illuminating the great Winchester Bible in the 1170s. There, all traces of the elaborately patterned damp-fold drapery of mid-century painting have vanished, to be replaced by material that falls in tiny ripples and soft irregular undulations to reveal firm limbs beneath. A later, simplified, mannered, and frenzied version of this style is found in the illustrations of a bestiary from the Midlands of the early 1200s. But the rounded, billowing drapery of the enthroned Christ in the contemporary Westminster Psalter seems to have left the 12th century far behind. This is pure Early Gothic painting.

      A similar evolution can be traced in northern France, in books such as the Capucin's Bible from Champagne and in the Souvigny Bible from central France, in which Byzantine influence is strong. A variation, which originated in the Meuse Valley, was the so-called Muldenfaltenstil, named after the small, troughlike folds into which drapery breaks (e.g., the Psalter of Queen Ingeborg, northern France, c. 1200). In Germany this style is found in manuscripts made on the middle Rhine and at Regensburg.

      The other major factor in European art about 1200 was a widespread interest in Byzantium. Byzantine (Byzantine art) mosaicists in the late 12th century undertook vast commissions in Venice and Sicily, and these provided Western artists with the opportunity of studying monumental Byzantine art of the finest quality at first hand. Imported Byzantine illuminated manuscripts and panel paintings, enamels, and ivory carvings were also available as models. The purest and most striking instances of Byzantinizing painting are found in Italy. In Venice local craftsmen, trained by Byzantine masters, designed and laid mosaics that are almost indistinguishable from genuine Byzantine work; and in the cathedral at Aquileia the standing prophets and saints painted on the vaults of the crypt look as if they had walked straight out of an Eastern atelier. In Rome and its environs, too, the development of painting in the first half of the 13th century was determined largely by the extensive new programs of mosaics in Norman Sicily, at Palermo, Cefalù, and Monreale.

      This swirling, contrived Byzantine art of the middle to late 12th century gave rise to many experiments in northern Europe. It strongly affected artists at Salzburg (e.g., the drawing of Christ in Majesty in Vienna, Österreichisches Nationalbibliothek, MS. 953) and on the upper Rhine (e.g., the Gospel Lectionary from Speyer of 1196, in Karlsruhe), and it underlies the many figures in the great Tree of Jesse on the ceiling of the Church of St. Michael at Hildesheim, figures conceived in elaborate three-dimensional attitudes, with angular broken drapery. Finally, the Zackenstil—the new, elegant, early Gothic, jagged style of early 13th-century Germany, most magnificently exemplified in the Saxon Gospels in Goslar—was directly inspired by contemporary Byzantine painting.

      In the early Middle Ages, wall painters had largely been laymen, whereas the illumination of manuscripts had been practiced almost exclusively in monastic scriptoria. In the late 12th century the production of books began to be taken up by lay scribes and painters working in their own shops. At the same time, illuminated books of private devotion and both religious and secular illustrated texts became increasingly popular. This process continued in the 13th century, when growing literacy and learning among laymen and the rise of the universities created a demand for illuminated and illustrated texts of all kinds.

John Burnett Mitchell

Gothic (Gothic art)
      Gothic is the term generally used to denote the style of architecture, sculpture, and painting that developed from the Romanesque during the 12th century and became predominant in Europe by the middle of the 13th century. The many variations within the style are usually distinguished by the use of chronological or geographical terms (for example, early, high, Italian, International, and late Gothic).

Early Gothic
      One of the moves away from Byzantine influence took the form of a softer, more realistic style whose general characteristics survived until the middle of the 13th century. In France the style is particularly noticeable in a series of magnificent Bibles Moralisées (books of excerpts from the Bible accompanied by moral or allegorical interpretations and illustrated with scenes arranged in eight paired roundels, resembling stained glass windows) done probably for the French court c. 1230–40. In England the new style appears in numerous manuscripts—for instance, the psalter done for Westminster Abbey (British Museum, London; Royal MS. 2a XXII) and the Amesbury Psalter (c. 1240; All Souls College, Oxford). A particularly individual application of it is found in the manuscripts attributed to the chronicler Matthew Paris and in a series of illustrated manuscripts of the Apocalypse.

      In Germany the graceful pictorial style did not become popular. Instead the successor to the Byzantine conventions of the 12th century was an extraordinarily twisted and angular style called the Zackenstil. In the Soest altar (c. 1230–40; now in the Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin), for example, the drapery is shaped into abrupt angular forms and often falls to a sharp point, like an icicle.

High Gothic
      Certain characteristics of high Gothic sculpture spread to influence painting about 1250–60. Probably the first place where this became evident was Paris, where Louis IX (St. Louis) was a leading patron. In an evangelary (a book containing the four Gospels) prepared for use at the Sainte-Chapelle (Louis IX's palace chapel), one can see the early Gothic pictorial style superseded quite abruptly by a drapery style incorporating the large, rather angular folds of the Joseph Master (Bibliothèque Nationale). Combined with this style was a growing emphasis on minute detail almost as an end in itself; faces, in particular, became tiny essays in virtuoso penmanship.

      Although details such as faces and hands continued to be described chiefly by means of line, in a subsequent development drapery and other shapes were modeled in terms of light and shade. This “discovery of light,” partial and piecemeal as it was, began around 1270–80 but is particularly associated with a well-known Parisian royal illuminator called Master Honoré, who was active about 1288–1300 or later.

      It is possible that this new use of light was stimulated by developments in Italian painting. However that may be, Italian influence emerged quite clearly in the second quarter of the 14th century, in the workshop of the Parisian artist Jean Pucelle (Pucelle, Jean). More than a dozen books have been associated with this artist; most show an awareness of the recent Italian discovery of perspective in the portrayal of space and some an awareness of Italian iconography.

      The French style was introduced fairly rapidly into England. Although Henry III apparently was not a bibliophile, various manuscripts executed for his immediate family contain echoes of the dainty and minute style of Louis IX's artists. Some large-scale paintings that demonstrate similar stylistic traits, notably the “Westminster Retable,” survive in Westminster Abbey.

      Subsequent changes in English painting involved greater decorative elaboration. A number of large psalters (Psalms), such as the Queen Mary Psalter (in the British Museum), survive from the first half of the 14th century, many of them done for East Anglian patrons and almost all laying heavy emphasis on marginal decoration. Although some books with elaborate border decorations date from as early as the 13th century, such decorations became much more lavish in the 14th. There are occasional indications of Italian (Italy) influence in figure poses and compositions but nothing really comparable to that found in books from Jean Pucelle's Parisian workshop.

      Italian influence reached other European countries. An Italianate style of painting developed in Spain in the 14th century and, to a lesser extent, parts of German-speaking Europe—in Austria, for instance, paintings in the Italianate style were added around 1324–29 to make up the present Klosterneuburg altarpiece.

Italian Gothic
      In the 13th century both Rome and Tuscany had flourishing pictorial traditions, and both, until the middle of the century, were strongly influenced by Byzantine art. The transitional period 1250–1300 is poorly documented. Since much of the Roman work was subsequently destroyed, evidence for what was happening in Rome must be sought outside the city. The most important location where such evidence exists is Assisi, where the upper church of St. Francis (San Francesco) was decorated by Roman-trained fresco (mural) painters between about 1280 and 1300. In Tuscany the stylistic changes are probably best revealed by Duccio di Buoninsegna's (Duccio) “Maestà” (1308–11), formerly the high altarpiece of Siena cathedral.

      As with all Gothic decorative art, the changes are in the direction of greater realism. By the end of the 13th century, painters in Rome, such as Pietro Cavallini and probably Duccio in Tuscany, had discovered, like their contemporaries in Paris, the use to which light could be put in figure modeling. The Italian painters also made sudden and unexpected advances in the manipulation of perspective to describe the space of the scenes they were painting. More than this, the best painters developed an extraordinary ability to create figures that really look as if they are communicating with each other by gesture and expression; the work of the Isaac Master in the upper church at Assisi is an especially good example.

      How far the Italian tradition of painting on a large scale magnified problems such as perspective, it would be hard to say. The survival of a large-scale mural tradition certainly marks Italy off from the north. Italian mural paintings were executed with a technique involving pigment applied to, and absorbed by, lime plaster that was still fresh (hence the name of this type of painting—fresco (fresco painting)). It was with work in this medium as much as in tempera (a substance binding powdered pigments, usually made from egg at this date) on panel that artists in Italy won their reputations. The typical subjects of fresco painting were series of biblical or hagiographic narratives. The painting of such fresco narratives (in Italian, istorie, hence “history painting”) was to be regarded in the 15th century as the most important part of an artist's work by Leon Battista Alberti (Alberti, Leon Battista), an architect, painter, sculptor, and the founder of “modern” or “Renaissance” art theory. In making such claims, Alberti had in mind the work of the painter Giotto di Bondone, better known as simply Giotto, of the late 13th to early 14th century.

 Trained in Rome, Giotto executed his first important surviving work for the papal financier Enrico Scrovegni at the latter's family palace in Padua. The palace chapel, called the Arena Chapel (decorated c. 1305–13; see photograph—>), is a masterpiece in which all the lessons of Roman mural painting were translated into a narrative sequence of great economy and expressiveness. In spite of the apparent realism of Giotto's work, however, the Byzantine past makes itself felt in the extremely strong sense of pattern and design noticeable throughout the compositions.

      In Tuscany somewhat similar developments took place. Duccio's altarpiece, the “Maestà,” contains a large number of small narrative scenes reminiscent of Giotto's fresco paintings. The figures, which have firmly modeled faces and expressive gestures, are arranged in buildings or landscapes that convincingly enclose them. Duccio's interest in realistic space, however, was much weaker than Giotto's. Although Duccio's scenes feature a variety of action and wealth of detail that, on the whole, is lacking in Giotto's early work, they do not make the same simple but dramatic impact.

      These conflicts are inherent in all realistic painting. In Giotto's work a shift in the balance between the two conflicting elements takes place. He completed two chapels in Santa Croce, Florence (c. 1315–30), of which one, the Bardi Chapel, is smaller but not unlike the Arena Chapel. The other, the Peruzzi Chapel, tends toward greater detail and less stability in the settings.

      Subsequent Florentine and Sienese painters also moved in this direction. Of the Sienese, Simone Martini (Martini, Simone) was probably the most famous, since he worked outside Italy at the papal court in Avignon and was a friend of the great Italian poet Petrarch. His painting has strong suggestions of northern influence in its elegance and grace, but his care over detail is reminiscent of Duccio, and the careful structure of his setting recalls Giotto and the Roman painters. His major surviving work is now in Siena and Assisi, but some impressive remains have been recovered at Avignon.

      Among other Tuscan painters were the brothers Pietro (Lorenzetti, Pietro) and Ambrogio Lorenzetti (Lorenzetti, Ambrogio), who worked for almost their entire lives in that part of Italy. Their major works are in Siena, but, again, there are important frescoes at Assisi, where, probably, it was Pietro Lorenzetti and his workshop who decorated a transept in the lower church (c. 1330). Ambrogio Lorenzetti is especially famous for an enormous landscape, illustrating the effect of good government, painted in the Palazzo Pubblico Siena (1338–39). Historically, it is the first large, realistic landscape in which Byzantine conventions were entirely discarded. It had strangely few imitators, suggesting that the process of discarding convention and using the evidence of the eye is a slow one.

      By the middle of the 14th century, Italian painters had achieved a unique position in Europe. They had made discoveries in the art of narrative composition that set them quite apart from painters anywhere else. Their achievements in capturing reality were not easily ignored. Many subsequent changes in northern painting consist of the adaptation of Italian compositional realism to northern purposes.

      The style of European painting prevalent during the last half of the 14th century and the early years of the 15th is frequently called International Gothic. There were certainly at that time features common to European painting generally. In particular, figures were elegant and graceful, yet at the same time there was a certain artificiality about such figures, and a taste grew for realism in detail, general setting, and composition. The degree of internationalism about this phase of Gothic painting owes something to the fact that much of the most important work was executed under court patronage, and most European royal families were closely linked by marriage ties. Local idiosyncracies, however, persisted; seldom can the art of Paris, for example, be mistaken for that of Lombardy.

      The main European courts were those of the Holy Roman (Holy Roman Empire) emperors (who had nominal suzerainty over central Europe and who at this time had their capital at Prague), the Visconti of Milan, the Valois of France, and the Plantagenets of England. But other sources of patronage existed—in Florence, for example, where the art of Lorenzo Ghiberti and Lorenzo Monaco merged with that of the early Renaissance. And an extraordinary number of important painters were associated about 1350–1400 with the linguistic area of Low Germany—the Low Countries and Westphalia especially—and the Rhineland.

      Under the Holy Roman emperor Charles IV and his son Wenceslas, Prague was the seat of a flourishing and enlightened court for about 60 years. Brought up in Paris, Charles had also traveled in Italy. Indeed, his main palace chapel at Karlštejn Castle near Prague, which is the chief monument to Charles's patronage, had an altarpiece by an Italian painter called Tommaso da Modena. The chapel itself was decorated chiefly by a local painter called Theodoric of Prague, whose work is Italianate. A group of his panel paintings, especially the altar of Vyšší Brod (c. 1350), shows a curiously Sienese character, though he did not achieve the delicacy associated with paintings from Siena. The emphasis instead is on heavily modeled faces and thick, heavy drapery. Theodoric's style seems to have initiated the “soft style” that remained a part of German painting well into the 15th century. He certainly determined the character of Bohemian panel painting up to the outbreak of the disastrous Hussite wars (1419).

      Charles IV apparently did not collect manuscripts. His ministers and courtiers, however, stimulated an important school of manuscript painting, influenced by French and Italian styles but with distinctive decorative characteristics. Two of the more important manuscripts were a missal (a book containing the office of the mass) done for the chancellor Jan of Streda (c. 1360; Prague, National Museum Library, MS. XIII. A. 12) and a huge Bible begun for Charles's son Wenceslas (1390s; Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. 2759–2764).

      Styles similar to this Bohemian (Bohemia) painting soon appeared elsewhere—the paintings of Master Bertram of Minden at Hamburg (c. 1380), for example.

      In Paris a style appeared that had some of the characteristics of Bohemian work, especially a strong emphasis on faces and facial expression. An early example, probably executed before 1364, is a portrait of John II (Louvre, Paris), which is firmly modeled in a rather Italianate manner. More important, however, is the workshop of the master of the “Parement de Narbonne” (1370s; Louvre), an altar hanging (parement) found at the Cathedral of St. Justin Narbonne. These artists, who were active c. 1370–1410, worked in a very distinctive style: their figures, while graceful, have markedly heavy heads and expressive faces. That some interest in settings had developed is suggested by the care that must have been taken to render them reasonably three-dimensional. In this respect the works have much in common with earlier Italian painting.

      An interest in the settings of paintings was shared by panel painters such as Melchior Broederlam, who executed the Dijon altar wings (1390s; Museum of Fine Arts, Dijon). The interest quickly spread during the early 15th century to the manuscript painters, who produced a series of extremely impressive landscape and architectural settings. Especially fine are the so-called Brussels Hours (Brussels, The Belgian National Library, MS. 11060–1) and the Hours of the Maréchal de Boucicaut (Jacquemart-André Museum, Paris). The best of the manuscript painters worked for the royal family, among whom Jean, duc de Berry, the brother of King Charles V of France, has achieved permanent fame as a patron. The most notable painters who enjoyed his patronage were Pol de Limburg and Pol's two brothers. Their illuminations are frequently reminiscent of contemporary Italian painting. The largest and most sumptuous work, the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (left unfinished in 1416, Condé Museum, Chantilly, Fr.), includes calendar pictures representing each month in terms of the seasonal activities of nobility and peasants. At least one Italian artist—identified tentatively as Zebo da Firenze—was painting in Paris at this period (c. 1405). Manuscripts associated with him are usually sumptuously, if erratically, decorated. Indeed, in the matter of erratic decoration they seem to have had a baleful influence. The border decoration of Parisian manuscripts c. 1410–25, such as those of the artist called the Master of the Duke of Bedford, often seems to run wild and to lack the restraint characteristic of Parisian painting up to this date.

      The most eminent Italian artist of this period was perhaps Gentile da Fabriano. Trained probably in Venice, he painted there in the Doges' Palace (first decade of the 15th century) and also at Brescia. Subsequently he moved to Florence and thence to Rome, where he died. Most of his north Italian work has been destroyed, and his style must be assessed chiefly by the work done in Tuscany, the “Adoration of the Magi” altar (1423; Uffizi, Florence). His faces and drapery tend to have a soft, rounded modeling, somewhat reminiscent of the northern “soft style.” The subject matter of his painting includes detailed studies of birds, animals, and flowers.

      His style forms an interesting contrast to that of Lorenzo Monaco in Florence, who, though equally an International Gothic artist, tended to draw figures with finer, more incisive lines. In many ways Gentile's style resembles painting done at the Milanese court during this period. Many illustrated manuscripts survive, giving an impression of a transition about 1370–1410 from a strongly traditional Lombard style to something that has much in common with northern work. In particular, Michelino da Besozzo seems as court artist to have worked in a soft style similar to that of Gentile. Also dating from around 1400 is a distinguished group of illuminated manuscripts including the Book of Hours of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, herbals (manuals containing botanical drawings), and a famous sketchbook (c. 1395) containing a large number of drawings of animals (Bergamo, Municipal Library, Δ VII 14) from the workshop of an earlier court artist, Giovannino de' Grassi.

      In England the decoration of the royal Chapel of St. Stephen's (c. 1360) was apparently, for the period, outstandingly Italianate. (Surviving fragments are in the British Museum, London.) Subsequently, however, in the Chapter House of Westminster Abbey (probably executed c. 1370) there was strong Germanic influence, which has been tentatively compared with the work of Master Bertram at Hamburg.

      The court style of the second half of the 14th century is best illustrated by a series of manuscripts done for members of the Bohun family and by a sumptuous missal given to Westminster Abbey by its abbot, Nicholas Litlington, in 1383–84. The work is decoratively lavish, but the figure style conveys only distant reflections of Italian painting.

      A great change in English manuscript painting occurred about 1400 and is associated with an artist named Herman Scheerre, who seems to have come from the region of Cologne. His figures have a rather plump softness that brings them into line with stylistic developments elsewhere; he also had a command of perspective and compositional structure lacking in the work of most previous artists in England. The style of John Siferwas, another painter active during this period, is similar, but his page decoration is usually more lavish; he produced a series of beautiful bird studies reminiscent of Lombard work. It should be noted, however, that this sort of realistic observation had long been a feature of English work—in the 14th-century East Anglian manuscripts (illuminated manuscript), for example, and in English embroidery from about 1300.

      In view of the number of good painters who came from the region of the Low Countries, Westphalia, and the Rhineland, it is puzzling that these areas should themselves have produced little important painting from the period about 1350–1410. Judging from the surviving works, easily the most distinguished of the painters active in this part of Europe was the Duke of Burgundy's painter, Melchior Broederlam, who lived and worked at Ypres. Other artists, such as Konrad von Soest, who executed the “Niederwildungen Altar” about 1403, seem to have reflected developments elsewhere without pioneering anything strikingly new. It was not until the 1420s that the Low Countries became the centre of intense pictorial development.

Late Gothic
      The key to much 15th-century painting in northern Europe lies in the Low Countries. The influence of Paris and Dijon decreased, partly because of the renewal of the Hundred Years' War between England and France and partly because of the removal of the Burgundian court, after the mid-1420s, from Dijon to Brussels, which subsequently became the centre of an extensive court patronage.

      The founder of the Flemish school (Flemish art) of painting seems to have been Robert Campin (Campin, Robert) of Tournai. The works of Campin, his pupil Rogier van der Weyden (Weyden, Rogier van der), and Jan van Eyck (Eyck, Jan van) remained influential for the whole century. One of the most important discoveries of the period of about 1430—especially in the work of van Eyck—was the multifarious effects a painter can achieve by observing the action of light. These early Flemish artists found that light can define form, shape, and texture and that, when captured in a landscape, it can help convey a mood. Rogier van der Weyden also explored the problems of conveying emotion. A development in the rendering of the drapery—the so-called crumpled style of hard angular folds—is particularly clear in the paintings of Campin. Portraiture made dramatic progress during this period. Portraits were obviously not new; sculptors were already experimenting in the 14th century with life—and death—masks. But the brilliant use of lighting gives the portraits of Jan van Eyck, for instance, a vivid life hitherto quite unknown.

      A great deal of later 15th- and 16th-century Flemish painting seems to play variations on these themes. Although there were painters with distinctly individual styles, such as Hugo van der Goes, with his highly accomplished technique and somewhat contemplative depictions, Hans Memling was more typical (despite having been born in the Rhineland).

      The influence of van Eyck's paintings was felt to a limited extent outside the Low Countries—for example, by Konrad Witz of Basel, Switz., by the Master of the Aix Annunciation (1442) of Aix-en-Provence, Fr., and by the Neapolitan artist Colantonio and his illustrious pupil Antonello da Messina. In the course of the century, however, the style of Rogier van der Weyden and his immediate successors, such as Dirck Bouts, became more influential, being felt in Germany, England, Spain, and Portugal. Evidence of Rogier van der Weyden's influence can be seen in the works of Hans Pleydenwurff of Nürnberg, in the wall paintings in Eton College Chapel (c. 1480), and in the paintings of Nuno Gonçalves in Portugal. This new “international style” also influenced the great German engraver Martin Schongauer and, ultimately, the outstanding representative of the German Renaissance school of painting, Albrecht Dürer.

  Any individualists at this time were usually painters who chose to go to the extreme of emphasizing the bizarre or the horrifying. Hugo van der Goes (Goes, Hugo van der) veered in this direction. Much more disquieting is the painting of Hiëronymus Bosch (Bosch, Hiëronymus), whose strange scenes still puzzle and perplex (see photograph—>). The work of Matthias Grünewald (Grünewald, Matthias), whose main surviving work is the altarpiece for a monastery (Christianity) at Isenheim, Ger. (Germany) (Unterlinden Museum, Colmar, Fr.; see photograph—>), is grotesque and horrifying.

      A very different sort of extreme individuality is found in the work of the Tirolean painter and sculptor Michael Pacher (Pacher, Michael). His pictorial work is so strongly marked by a concern with the structure of the composition and with effects of perspective—particularly foreshortening—that it seems clear he knew the work of Andrea Mantegna of Padua. Although virtually free of antique motifs, Pacher's painting demonstrates the growing fascination of Italian Renaissance art for northern artists.

      Rather different were the French painters of the 15th century. Court art revived, especially during the reign of Louis XI (1461–83), as exemplified by the illuminated manuscript Le Livre du coeur d'amours éspris (1465; Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna). The most interesting painter was probably Jean Fouquet (Fouquet, Jean), who, apparently early in his career, visited Italy. Italian details certainly appear in his work, but, as is evident in the Hours of Étienne Chevalier (Condé Museum, Chantilly) and the “Melun Diptych” (now divided between the Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, and the Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp), he still painted within the northern tradition. The restrained and somewhat reticent character of much French painting is interestingly similar to much of the sculpture.

Andrew Henry Robert Martindale Ed.

      The term Renaissance was first used by French art historians of the late 18th century in reference to the reappearance of antique architectural forms on Italian buildings of the early 16th century. The term was later expanded to include the whole of the 15th and 16th centuries and, by extension, to include sculpture, painting, and the decorative arts. There is still considerable disagreement among art historians as to whether the term should be restricted to a phenomenon that had its origins in Italy and then spread through western Europe (the point of view taken here) or whether directly contemporary developments north of the Alps, and especially in the Low Countries, should be included on an equal footing with what was happening in Italy.

      The controversies that raged after the publication of Jacob Burckhardt's Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (English translation, 1878) have abated, and the time span of the Renaissance is generally accepted as the period from roughly 1400 to about 1600, although certain geographical areas and certain art forms require greater latitude. This period is characterized as a rebirth or, better, the birth of attitudes and aims that have their closest parallel in the art of classical antiquity. Classical literature and, less often, classical painting were invoked as a justification for these new aims. The theoretical writings on art from the period indicate that man was the dominant theme. In religious painting, drama and emotion are expressed in human (humanism) terms. From the late Middle Ages the theme of the Madonna enthroned with Christ Child is presented in an earthly setting peopled by mortals. This strongly humanistic trend serves to explain, at least in part, the development of portraiture as an independent genre and the ever-increasing number of profane, usually classical mythological, subjects in the art of the Renaissance. The painting of landscapes, as the earthly setting of man's activity, has its first modest beginnings in this period.

      The role of art (arts, the) and of the artist began to take on modern form during the Renaissance. Leon Battista Alberti's (Alberti, Leon Battista) De pictura (Della pittura), a treatise on the theory of painting, as opposed to the techniques of preparing and applying colours, appeared in Florence in 1435–36. The directions that art and art theory were to follow for the next 470 years are already present in this little book. The artist is considered to be a creator rather than a technician because he uses his intellect to measure, arrange, and harmonize the elements of his creation. The intellectual activity of art is demonstrated, by a series of comparisons, to be equivalent to that of the other liberal arts. Influences such as Alberti's book led to a new evaluation of the artist, with painters and their works being sought after by the rulers of Europe (Michelangelo and Titian were actually ennobled); the result was that great collections containing the works of major and minor masters were formed. At the same time the artist slowly began to free himself from the old guild system and to band together with his colleagues, first in religious confraternities and later in academies (education) of art, which, in turn, were to lead to the modern art school. During the Renaissance, practitioners of all the arts evolved from anonymous craftsmen to individuals, often highly respected ones. Painting became more intellectual, sometimes to its own disadvantage, and changed from serving as a vehicle for didacticism or decoration to becoming a self-aware, self-assured form of expression.

      For the sake of convenience, painting of the Renaissance is divided into three periods, although there is considerable overlap depending upon the painter and the place. The early Renaissance is reckoned to cover the period from about 1420 to 1495. The High Renaissance, or classic phase, is generally considered to extend from 1495 to 1520, the death of Raphael. The period of Mannerism and what has more recently been called late Renaissance painting is considered to extend from the 1520s to approximately 1600.

Early Renaissance in Italy
      The early Renaissance in Italy was essentially an experimental period characterized by the styles of individual artists rather than by any all-encompassing stylistic trend as in the High Renaissance or Mannerism. Early Renaissance painting in Italy had its birth and development in Florence, from which it spread to such centres as Urbino, Ferrara, Padua, Mantua, Venice, and Milan after the middle of the century.

      The political and economic climate of the Italian Renaissance was often unstable; Florence, however, did at least provide an intellectual and cultural environment that was extremely propitious for the development of art. Although the direct impact of humanist literary (literature) studies upon 15th-century painting has generally been denied, three writers of the 15th century (Alberti, Filarete, and Enea Silvio Piccolomini, later Pope Pius II) drew parallels between the rebirth of classical learning and the rebirth of art. The literature of antiquity revealed that in earlier times both works of art and artists had been appreciated for their own intrinsic merits. Humanist studies also fostered a tendency, already apparent in Florentine painting as early as the time of Giotto, to see the world and everything in it in human terms. In the early 15th century Masaccio emphasized the human drama and emotions in his painting “The Expulsion” (Brancacci Chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence) rather than the theological implications of the act portrayed. Masaccio in his “Trinity” (Santa Maria Novella, Florence) and Fra Angelico in his San Marco altarpiece seem to be much more concerned with the human relations between the figures in the composition than with the purely devotional aspects of the subject. In the same way, the painter became more and more concerned with the relations between the work of art and the observer. This latter aspect of early 15th-century Florentine painting relies in great part on the invention of the one-point perspective system, which derives in turn from the new learning and the new vision of the world. The empirical system devised through mathematical studies by the architect Filippo Brunelleschi (Brunelleschi, Filippo) was given theoretical form and universal application by Alberti in De pictura. In this system all parts of the painting bear a rational relation to each other and to the observer, for the observer's height and the distance he is to stand from the painting are controlled by the artist in laying out his perspective construction. By means of this system the microcosm of the painting and the real world of the observer become visually one, and the observer participates, as it were, in what he observes. To heighten the illusion of a painting as a window on the world, the Italian artists of the early 15th century turned to a study of the effects of light in nature and how to represent them in a painting, a study of the anatomy and proportions of man, and a careful observation of the world about them. It is primarily these characteristics that separate early Renaissance painting from late medieval painting in Italy.

      Masaccio has rightly been called the father of Renaissance painting, for every major artist of the 15th and 16th centuries in Florence began his career by studying Masaccio's murals in fresco. Masaccio is the artistic heir of Giotto, yet there is no indication of direct borrowing from the older master. He was also a friend of Brunelleschi and from him may have learned perspective and the concept of a clear and rationally articulated space. He was a friend, too, of the Florentine sculptor Donatello and may have learned from him the effectiveness of simple drapery folds over a full and powerful figure. Whatever his artistic sources, Masaccio's extant work reveals a concern with large and simple figures clad in simple draperies. He was concerned with light and the way it gives the illusion of solidity to the painted figure. He created a deep and clearly articulated space in his paintings, and he was above all concerned with his actors as humans carrying out some purposeful human activity. The only extant work by Masaccio that can be clearly dated is the Pisa altarpiece of 1426 (the central panel depicting the Madonna enthroned with Christ (Jesus Christ) Child and angels, now in the National Gallery, London, is the largest surviving section). Although Masaccio continued the medieval tradition of using a gold background, the architectural elements of the throne indicate his awareness of the influence of Roman antiquity on the architecture of his friend Brunelleschi. The Madonna is no longer an elegant queen of heaven but an earthly mother with a human child on her lap. The figure of the Christ Child is a clear demonstration for future generations of the way light and shade can be manipulated in a painting to give the illusion of a solid three-dimensional body. In this painting Masaccio laid the foundations for one major current in all Florentine painting. His concern with the sculpturally conceived figure, bathed in light and presented in a strong and simple manner, created a work of quiet dignity and great monumentality in that it appears to be larger than it really is.

 Masaccio's great fresco series in the Brancacci Chapel of Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence adds yet another dimension to early Renaissance painting. In this narrative sequence devoted to the life of St. Peter, he chose the most important moment in the narrative and then emphasized the drama by the human reactions to it. “The Tribute Money” is a simple yet powerful illustration of Christ's words, in which each apostle reacts individually to the tax collector's claim and Christ's reply (see photograph—>). In this same chapel Masaccio also demonstrated his awareness of the real world, for the light of the paintings, indicated by the cast shadows, is the same as the natural light falling into the chapel.

      “The Trinity” in Santa Maria Novella, Florence, provides a summary of Masaccio's brief career and indeed of the aesthetic principles of early Renaissance painting generally. The simple sculptural figures have acquired even greater dignity. The drama and emotion are presented in touching human terms as the Madonna turns to the observer to point out her crucified Son. In addition to the use of light to unite the space of the painting with the space of the observer, Masaccio also employed what appears to be the earliest practical example of the one-point perspective system, later to be formulated in words by Alberti. All the highest aims of early Renaissance painting are here: simplicity, strength, monumentality; man as observer, as actor, and as participant in the work of art.

Florentine painters of the mid-15th century
      Masaccio had no true followers or successors of equal stature, though there was a group of other Florentine painters who were about the same age as Masaccio and who followed in his footsteps to a greater or lesser degree: Fra Filippo Lippi (Lippi, Fra Filippo), Fra Angelico, and Paolo Uccello.

      Fra Filippo Lippi was a Carmelite monk who spent his youth and early manhood at Santa Maria del Carmine, where Masaccio's work was daily before his eyes. His earliest datable work, the “Madonna and Child” (1437) from Tarquinia Corneto, relies on the Madonna from the Pisa altarpiece, but in his Christ Child Fra Filippo already reveals an earthiness and sweetness unlike anything by Masaccio. “The Madonna and Child with Two Angels” (Uffizi, Florence)—with its urchin-angels, lumpy Christ Child, and elegant Madonna—is perhaps one of his best-known late works; the placement of the Madonna before an open window is one of the key sources for later Renaissance portraiture, including Leonardo da Vinci's “Mona Lisa,” while the elegance and sweetness of the Madonna were to have their greatest reflection in the work of Fra Filippo Lippi's student, Botticelli.

 Born about the same time as Masaccio, Fra Angelico (Angelico, Fra) was a Dominican monk who lived at Fiesole (just outside Florence) and at San Marco in Florence. His earliest documented work, the “Linaiuoli Altarpiece” (Museum of San Marco, Florence) of 1433, continues much that is traditional to medieval art, although the male saints in the wings (side pieces of a composite painting, typically a tripartite altarpiece) already reveal the influence of Masaccio. The altarpiece that he executed between 1438 and 1440 for the high altar of San Marco is one of the landmarks of early Renaissance art. It is the first appearance in Florence of the sacra conversazione, a composition in which angels, saints, and sometimes donors occupy the same space as the Madonna and Christ Child and in which the figures seem to be engaged in conversation. In addition to inaugurating a new phase of religious painting, the altarpiece reveals the influence of Masaccio in the sculptural treatment of the figures and an accurate awareness of the perspective theories of painting expressed by Alberti in his treatise. At about the same date, Fra Angelico was commissioned to decorate the monks' cells in San Marco. The nature of the commission—traditional devotional images whose execution required assistants—apparently turned Fra Angelico toward the religious and didactic works that characterize the end of his career; e.g., the Chapel of Nicholas V in the Vatican.

      Paolo Uccello's (Uccello, Paolo) reputation as a practitioner of perspective is such that his truly remarkable gifts as a decorator tend to be overlooked. Studies of his extant works suggest that he was more interested in medieval optics than in the rational perspective system of Alberti and Brunelleschi. His earliest documented work, the “Sir John Hawkwood” fresco of 1436 in Florence cathedral, is a decorative work of a very high order and one that respects the integrity of the wall to which it is attached. Uccello is perhaps best known for the three panels depicting “The Battle of San Romano,” executed about 1456 for the Medici Palace (now in the National Gallery, London; the Louvre, Paris; and the Uffizi). The paintings were designed as wall decoration and as such resemble tapestries: Uccello is concerned only with creating a small boxlike space for the action, for he closes off the background with a tapestry-like interweaving of men and animals. His primary concern is with the rhythmic disposition of the elements of the composition across the surface, an emphasis that he reinforces with the repetition of arcs and circles. Uccello's concern with the decorative and linear properties of painting had a great impact on the cassone (chest) painters of Florence and found its greatest reflection and refinement in the work of Botticelli.

      Masaccio's greatest impact can be seen in the works of three younger painters, Andrea del Castagno (Castagno, Andrea del), Domenico Veneziano, and Piero della Francesca. Castagno was the leader of the group. His “Last Supper” of about 1445, in the former convent of Sant'Apollonia in Florence, reveals the influence of Masaccio in the sculptural treatment of the figures, the painter's concern with light, and his desire to create a credible and rationally conceived space. At the same time Castagno betrays an almost pedantic interest in antiquity, which roughly parallels a similar development in letters, by the use of fictive marble panels on the rear wall and of sphinxes for the bench ends, both of which are direct copies of Roman prototypes. In the last years of his life, Castagno's style changed abruptly; he adopted a highly expressive emotionalism that paralleled a similar development in the work of his contemporaries. His “The Trinity with Saints” in the church of the Santissima Annunziata, Florence, was originally planned with calm and balanced figures, as the underpainting reveals. In the final painting, however, the figures, though sculpturally conceived, project an agitation heightened by the emaciated figure of St. Jerome and the radically conceived figure of the crucified Christ. The optimism, rationality, and calm human drama of earlier Renaissance painting in Florence were beginning to give way to a more personal, expressive, and linear style.

      One aspect of this new direction is met in the work of the enigmatic Domenico Veneziano, the second of the three principal painters who looked to Masaccio. His name indicates that he was a Venetian, and it is known that he arrived in Florence about 1438. He was associated with Castagno, and perhaps Fra Angelico, and helped to train the somewhat younger Piero della Francesca. His St. Lucy altarpiece of about 1445–50 (Uffizi) is an example of the sacra conversazione genre and contains references to the painting of Masaccio and the early 15th-century sculpture of the Florentine Nanni di Banco. The colour, however, is Domenico's own and has no relation to the Florentine tradition. His juxtaposition of pinks and light greens and his generally blond tonality point rather to his Venetian origins. In the painting he has lowered the vanishing point in order to make the figures appear to tower over the observer, with the result that the monumentality of the painting is enhanced at the expense of the observer's sense of participating in the painting.

  Piero della Francesca received his early training in Florence but spent the active part of his career outside the city in such centres as Urbino, Arezzo, Rimini, and his native Borgo San Sepolcro, in Umbria. His “Flagellation of Christ” (late 1450s; see photograph—>), in the National Gallery of the Marches, Urbino, is a summary of early 15th-century interest in mathematics, perspective, and proportion. The calm sculptural figures are placed in clear, rational space and bathed in a cool light. This gives them a monumental dignity that can only be compared to early 5th-century-BC Greek sculpture. Much the same tendency can be seen in Piero's great fresco cycle in the church of San Francesco in Arezzo.

Late 15th-century Florentine painters
      A hiatus occurred in Florentine painting around 1465–75. All the older artists had died, and the men who were to dominate the second half of the century were too young to have had prolonged contact with them. Three of these younger artists, Antonio Pollaiuolo, Sandro Botticelli, and Andrea del Verrocchio, began their careers as goldsmiths, which perhaps explains the linear emphasis and sense of movement noticeable in Florentine painting of the later 15th century.

 As well as being a goldsmith, Antonio Pollaiuolo was a painter, sculptor, engraver, and architect. His work indicates his fascination with muscles in action, and he is said to have been the first artist to dissect the human body. In the altarpiece “The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian” (1475; National Gallery, London) he presents the archers from two points of view to demonstrate their muscular activity. His painting (formerly in the Uffizi but now lost) and small sculpture (Bargello, Florence) of “Hercules and Antaeus,” like the engraving of “The Battle of the Nudes” (see photograph—>), depict struggle and violent action. “The Rape of Deianira” (Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Conn.) emphasizes yet another new element in Florentine painting, the landscape setting, in this case a lovely portrait of the Arno Valley with the city of Florence in the background.

 A similar concern with moving figures, a sense of movement across the surface of the panel, and landscape is found in the earlier works of Sandro Botticelli (Botticelli, Sandro). In his well-known painting “The Primavera” (Uffizi; see photograph—>) he uses line in depicting hair, flowing draperies, or the contour of an arm to suggest the movement of the figures. At the same time the pose and gesture of the figures set up a rising and falling linear movement across the surface of the painting. Botticelli's well-known paintings of the Madonna and Child reveal a sweetness that he may have learned from Fra Filippo Lippi, together with his own sense of elegance and grace. A certain nervosity and pessimistic introspection inherent in Botticelli's early works broke forth about 1490. His “Mystic Nativity” of 1501 (National Gallery, London) is even, in one sense, a denial of all that the Renaissance stood for. The ambiguities of space and proportion are directed toward the unprecedented creation of a highly personal and emotionally charged statement.

      Florentine painters active in the closing decades of the 15th century include Andrea del Verrocchio, who is best known as the master of Leonardo da Vinci and Perugino. There was also Filippino Lippi (Lippi, Filippino), who was apparently apprenticed to Botticelli when his father, Fra Filippo Lippi, died; he painted a group of madonnas that are easily confused with Botticelli's early work. By 1485, however, he had developed a somewhat nervous and agitated style that can be seen in the highly expressive “Vision of St. Bernard” in the Badia, Florence. His last works, such as the series of frescoes he painted in Santa Maria Novella (1502), reveal a use of colour and distortion of form that may have influenced the later development of Mannerism in Florence a generation or so later. Another painter active at this time was Domenico Ghirlandajo (Ghirlandaio, Domenico), whose artistic career was spent as a reporter of the Florentine scene. The series of frescoes on the “Life of the Virgin” in Santa Maria Novella (finished 1490) can be viewed as the life of a young Florentine girl as well as a religious painting. His art was already old-fashioned in his own time, but he provided a large number of Florentine artists, among them Michelangelo, with training in the difficult art of fresco painting.

Diffusion of the innovations of the Florentine school
      The discoveries and innovations of the early 15th century in Florence began to diffuse to other artistic centres by mid-century. Siena painters in general continued the traditions of the 14th century except for such artists as Matteo di Giovanni, Neroccio di Bartolomeo, and Vecchietta, who alone in that city were to a certain degree under Florentine influence. In Ferrara, Cosimo Tura, Francesco del Cossa, and Ercole de' Roberti felt the influence of Florence as transmitted by Piero della Francesca. Only in Padua and Venice, however, did painters arise who could actually challenge the preeminence of Florence.

      Andrea Mantegna (Mantegna, Andrea) was influenced by the sculpture executed by Donatello in Padua, the art of antiquity around him, and the teaching of his master, Francesco Squarcione. The frescoes he completed in 1455 in the Ovetari Chapel of the Eremitani Church in Padua (destroyed in World War II) grew out of the traditions of Florence, traditions to which Mantegna gave his own special stamp, however. His space is like that devised by the Florentines except that he lowers the horizon line to give his figures greater monumentality. His sculptural and often stony figures descend from Donatello and from ancient Roman models. His use of decorative details from antiquity reveals the almost archaeological training that he had received from Squarcione. By 1460 Mantegna had moved to Mantua, where he became court painter for the Gonzaga family, executing a number of family portraits (see ) and pictures depicting ancient myths. His altarpieces, interpretation of antiquity, and engravings made him preeminent in northern Italy and a strong influence on his contemporaries and successors.

      The Bellini (Bellini, Jacopo) family of Venice forms one of the great dynasties in painting. The father, Jacopo, who had been a student of Gentile da Fabriano, adopted a style that owed something to both that prevailing in the Low Countries and that in Italy; he also compiled an important sketchbook (British Museum; Louvre). A daughter of Jacopo's was married to Mantegna, and the two sons—Gentile (Bellini, Gentile) and, more especially, Giovanni Bellini (Bellini, Giovanni)—dominated Venetian painting until the first decade of the 16th century. Gentile followed more closely in his father's footsteps and is perhaps best known for his portraits of doges and sultans of Constantinople and his large paintings of Venetian religious processions. Giovanni early fell under the influence of Mantegna. The paintings each executed of “The Agony in the Garden” (both in the National Gallery, London) indicate how close they were stylistically and also their common reliance on Jacopo Bellini's sketchbook. At an unknown point in his career, Giovanni was in addition introduced to Flemish painting. These different influences permitted him about 1480 to evolve a highly personal style that greatly influenced the work of subsequent Venetian painters. This style consists above all of a softly diffused Venetian light that can only be achieved in an oil medium. Giovanni's work in the traditional medium for painting on panels—egg tempera—retains the crispness of contour and tightness of composition that the medium seems to require. The oil paintings, however, emphasize by their use of light the textures of the objects represented, softening the outlines and creating an elegiac mood. The “Madonna and Child with Saints” of 1488, in Santa Maria dei Frari, Venice, derived its composition from the Florentine sacra conversazione and two earlier altarpieces by Mantegna in which the Madonna and attendant saints are located in a unified but compartmentalized architectural setting. Giovanni's greatest innovation is the way in which the soft light suffuses the entire space, an effect particularly remarkable where it strikes the golden half dome of the apse and the ample draperies of the figures, which seem almost palpable. The “Enthroned Madonna from San Giobbe” (Gallerie dell'Accademia di Venezia) of about the same date goes even further in defining a composition and a way of painting that endured in Venice for centuries. The painting of “St. Francis in Ecstasy” (c. 1480; Frick Collection, New York City) adds yet another dimension to Giovanni's art. The observer's eye tends to wander from the saint and his cell into the distant landscape, for Giovanni was one of the greatest 15th-century masters of landscape painting. Figures, animals, trees, and buildings provide a series of guideposts leading the eye back into space. Giovanni influenced several Venetian painters: Lorenzo Lotto and Vittore Carpaccio and also, more importantly, Giorgione and Titian.

      The richness, the variety, and even the inherent contradictions of 15th-century Florentine painting are both embodied and transformed in the art and the person of the multifaceted genius Leonardo da Vinci. Although he devoted a great deal of his career to a theoretical treatise on the art of painting, he was above all interested in the appearance of things and in the way they operated. This curiosity led him to a study of the flight of birds, the movement of water, the features of the land, the mechanical advantage obtainable in gears and gear trains, the growth of plants, the anatomy of man, and many other things. His consummate skill as a draftsman made it possible for him to record these discoveries as no man before him had done. All the knowledge that he gained was directed toward enriching his art, for Leonardo thought of himself primarily as a painter.

      As a youth Leonardo was apprenticed to Verrocchio (Verrocchio, Andrea del), in whose shop he learned to draw, prepare and mix colours, and paint. He probably also learned how to model in wax and clay and how to cast bronze. He may even have been introduced to the art of sculpting in marble, although he clearly stated in his writings that he did not relish this difficult craft. Leonardo's genius is already apparent in his collaboration with Verrocchio in the “Baptism of Christ” (c. 1474–75; Uffizi), in which his contributions to the landscape and his figure of an angel clearly reveal his superiority. The unfinished “Adoration of the Magi” (Uffizi) for the monastery of San Donato a Scopeto outside the walls of Florence, together with the preparatory drawings (Louvre; Uffizi), is at once a summary of 15th-century Florentine painting and a forecast of the High Renaissance style. In his studies Leonardo reveals his debt to Pollaiuolo and Botticelli and his awareness of the rational compositions of the first half of the century, with their strong sense of perspective. In the painting, however, he makes a synthesis of these divergent tendencies and creates a composition that is at once ordered and free, calm and full of movement, simple and varied. Pose, gesture, and glance in the attendant figures create a movement leading toward and coming to rest in the figure of the Madonna and Christ Child. The figures are placed in a free yet ordered space that gives a sense of grandeur and expansion, the expansion in turn being balanced by the concentration of the group around the Madonna. The appearance of the finished painting and the final direction Leonardo's planning would have taken can only be guessed, yet the nature of the composition and the preparatory underpainting of the figures and landscapes clearly demonstrate that Leonardo had advanced so far beyond his contemporaries that his innovation would only be comprehended by the group of younger painters who emerged some 20 to 25 years later.

John R. Spencer Ed.
      In 1481 Leonardo wrote a famous letter to the Duke of Milan offering his services. The offer was accepted, and for the next 18 years he remained in Milan, where he executed a number of paintings and innumerable drawings, worked on a never-completed equestrian monument to the Sforza dynasty, planned additions to the canal systems of the city, designed costumes for ducal entertainments, and wrote extensively. “The Virgin of the Rocks” (Louvre), painted in Milan about 1483, stands at the threshold of the High Renaissance. In this painting Leonardo introduced the pyramidal composition that was to become a hallmark of the High Renaissance. The placement of the Madonna, the Christ Child, the young St. John the Baptist, and the angel creates a movement that the eye willingly follows, yet the movement is contained within the implied pyramid, giving a sense of stability and calm grandeur to the composition. The mysterious landscape that surrounds them implies adequate space in which the figures can exist and move and an extension into depth that the eye cannot follow. The light that falls on the figures delicately models them in a subtle juxtaposition of light and shade. The contours of the figures seem to dissolve into the background, and the light seems to flow gently over a surface. The subtle and delicate modeling and the suggestive smoky atmosphere are known as sfumato and were much imitated, but what was more important and eventually more influential was Leonardo's use of light and shade as a unifying compositional factor. This was unprecedented in painting. It was achieved by the tonal continuity of the shadows—a tonal continuity conditional upon a severe restriction of local colour.

      These effects, as well as the softly diffused light characteristic of Venetian painting, were only possible in the oil (oil painting) medium, which, because of its lengthy drying period, enables all parts of a painting to be advanced and adjusted together and the transparent glazes of which make possible unity of atmosphere and chiaroscuro. The rich effects of impasto (deliberately rough and thick paint textures) were also made possible in oil and were particularly exploited in Venice, where the use of canvas as a support first became truly popular. But there is no doubt that oil painting is a technique that originated in the Low Countries.

John R. Spencer Nicholas B. Penny  Leonardo's attempts to transfer this new concept of painting to the difficult genre of murals (mural) led to the triumph and the tragedy of “The Last Supper” (see photograph—>). Because the traditional technique of fresco painting was too final for Leonardo's method of working, he invented a new technique—still not fully understood—that permitted him to revise in the manner of oil painting. The technique was not permanent, and the painting began to deteriorate in Leonardo's own lifetime. Despite its deterioration the painting stands as one of man's greatest achievements. All elements of the painting lead the eye to the calm and pyramidal figure of Christ. The room is depicted according to the rules of perspective, with all the direction implied by the lines of the architecture meeting at the vanishing point in the head of Christ. In this painting Leonardo has combined the sense of drama of the groups of disturbed apostles, the sculptural figure of Christ, and the rationally constructed space of the first half of the 15th century with the movement and emotion of the second half, achieving a new synthesis that goes far beyond anything his predecessors had dreamed was possible. Leonardo's “The Last Supper” marks the actual beginning of the High Renaissance in Italy.

High Renaissance in Italy
      In painting, the style called High Renaissance or classic is, in a sense, the culmination of the experiments of the 15th century, for it is above all characterized by a desire to achieve harmony and balance. Movement is important and necessary, yet the eye is always given a point of focus and rest. The composition is self-contained and conforms to Alberti's definition of beauty as “that harmony of parts to which nothing can be added or taken away without destroying the whole.” Although there is movement implied in the poses of the figures and movement across the surface of the composition, it is always dignified movement, giving the impression of calm. The style exhibits variety and richness, yet maintains simplicity and unity. It is never as self-conscious as 15th-century painting had been, nor is it as laboured as much of Mannerist painting. It is frequently compared to Greek art of the 5th century BC for its calm and monumentality. Its greatest practitioners were the Florentines Leonardo da Vinci (although Leonardo's earlier work is usually assigned to the early Renaissance) and Michelangelo, the Urbino-born Raphael, and the Venetian Titian. Other artists, such as Andrea del Sarto and Fra Bartolomeo in Florence, Correggio in Parma, and Giovanni Bellini and Giorgione in Venice, were more or less attracted to the style at some point in their careers.

Leonardo, Raphael, and Michelangelo
 The new style of painting that Leonardo had invented in Milan was continued with modifications by Bernardino Luini and others. It had no immediate repercussions in his native Florence, although the example of his unfinished “Adoration” remained there. It is true that Botticelli, Ghirlandajo, and Filippino Lippi borrowed the broad outlines of the composition, but they did not penetrate completely to the innovational features inherent in it. The full impact of Leonardo's art was felt only upon his return to Florence in 1500. Crowds flocked to the church of the Santissima Annunziata to see his cartoon (a full-scale study for a finished painting) of “The Virgin and Child with St. Anne.” Leonardo's great mural of the “Battle of Anghiari” (1503–06) pitted him against his rival Michelangelo in a competition to record the history of the city in the seat of city government. Neither painting was finished. Yet, despite the inconclusive nature of the works partially executed during his brief Florentine stay, Leonardo left a deep impression on that city. The “Mona Lisa” (Mona Lisa) (Louvre; see photograph—>) revolutionized portrait painting. Leonardo's drawings encouraged fellow artists to make more and freer studies for their paintings and encouraged connoisseurs to collect those drawings. Through the drawings his Milanese works were made known to the Florentines. Finally, his reputation and stature as an artist and thinker spread to his fellow artists and assured for them a freedom of action and thought similar to his own.

 The painter who benefited most from the example of Leonardo was undoubtedly Raphael. Born Raphael Sanzio, he was as a youth under the influence of Perugino. He was already a successful and respected artist when, at the age of 21, he came to Florence only to discover that all he had learned and practiced was old-fashioned and provincial. He immediately set about learning from the Florentines. His drawing style changed from the tight contours and interior hatching he had learned from Perugino toward the freer, more flowing style of Leonardo. From Leonardo's “Virgin of the Rocks” he evolved a new Madonna type seated in a soft and gentle landscape, such as “The Madonna of the Goldfinch” in the Uffizi or those in the Louvre and the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. He adopted the “Mona Lisa” format for his portraits (see photograph—>), and he also studied closely the sculpture of Michelangelo. By 1509, when he departed for Rome, Raphael had assimilated all Florence had to offer and was ready to make his own unique statement.

      The Stanza della Segnatura (the first of a series of rooms in the Vatican constituting Pope Julius II's (Julius II) apartments), particularly the “School of Athens,” which Raphael painted between 1508 and 1511, is one of the clearest and finest examples of the High Renaissance style. In the “School of Athens” Raphael, like Leonardo before him, made a balance between the movement of the figures and the ordered and stable space. He peopled this space with figures in a rich variety of poses yet controlled poses and gestures to make one group lead to the next in an interweaving and interlocking pattern, bringing the eye to the central figures of Plato and Aristotle at the converging point of the perspective construction. The unity, variety, and harmony of High Renaissance felicitously combine in the frescoes (fresco painting) that decorate the Stanza della Segnatura.

 At about the same time Raphael was working in the papal apartments in the Vatican, Michelangelo had undertaken the formidable task of decorating the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (1508–12), also for Pope Julius II. In 1481–82 under Pope Sixtus IV, the uncle of Julius, the chapel had been completed and the walls decorated with frescoes depicting scenes from the life of Moses and the life of Christ executed by Botticelli, Ghirlandajo, Perugino, and others. Against his will Michelangelo was assigned to paint in fresco scenes from the creation. Although he had been trained in fresco painting in the shop of Ghirlandajo and although he had already executed a few paintings of considerable power, Michelangelo thought of himself as a sculptor. He engaged a group of his former colleagues from the shop of Ghirlandajo and with them began to paint the “Drunkenness of Noah” above the entrance to the chapel. Michelangelo had little patience with his less gifted associates, dismissed them, and executed the entire ceiling alone. The scenes were painted in reverse chronological order, beginning with the “Drunkenness of Noah” over the door and ending with the act of creation over the altar. In the first three frescoes Michelangelo seems to be feeling his way. With the second three—“Temptation and Expulsion,” “Creation of Eve,” “Creation of Adam”—he returns to the models of his youth (Masaccio for the “Expulsion” and Jacopo della Quercia for the “Creation of Eve” [see photograph—>]) to create a powerful High Renaissance composition. The balance between the kinetic energy of God the Creator with his whirlwind of figures around him and the flaccid lifeless form of Adam comes to a focus in the two hands and the significant void between them (see ). In the final three scenes of creation, Michelangelo moves beyond his contemporaries to a highly personal statement without parallel in the art of the 16th century. The Sistine ceiling was recognized as a masterpiece in its own time. The artist was judged to be a superhuman being and earned the title “the divine Michelangelo.” Contemporaries spoke of the terribilità, or awesome power, of the frescoes and their creator. Michelangelo, Leonardo, and Raphael raised the artist and his art to a position of esteem perhaps never enjoyed (or deserved) either before or since. Certainly their soaring levels of achievement made it difficult for succeeding artists to follow in their footsteps and impossible to surpass them. Hence, the “anticlassic style,” as it has been called, emerged in their own lifetime—even in some of Raphael's late works—and provided one of the sources of Mannerism.

      By 1513, when Julius II died and Leo X was elected pope, the three great painters of the Florentine-Roman High Renaissance style became involved in projects that diverted them from the paths they had hitherto been following. Leonardo (Leonardo da Vinci) had been since 1506 at the French court in Milan, where he continued to refine his portrait of “Mona Lisa” and where he devoted a great deal of time to his treatises and his projects for the French king. Michelangelo returned to the sculpture of the tomb of Julius II and in 1516 began to work in Florence on a number of architectural and sculptural projects for its Medici rulers. Raphael became more and more involved with purely administrative duties as architect in charge of the new St. Peter's and as surveyor of antiquities. The great number of commissions he received led him more and more to rely on talented assistants, such as Giulio Romano, and on the workers in the shop for the actual execution of his later works. In the few works in which Raphael's hand clearly appears, he seems to be moving away from the “School of Athens” toward a new style that had not completely developed at the time of his death in his 37th year.

      Raphael's frescoes (1512–14) in the Stanza d'Elidoro (“Heliodorus Room,” the second of the rooms in Julius II's apartments) already reveal Mannerist (Mannerism) tensions in “The Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple” and an almost Baroque concern with light and shade in the “Liberation of St. Peter.” The succeeding rooms were decorated largely by assistants. It is only in such works as the “Triumph of Galatea” (1511; Villa Farnesina, Rome), the “Sistine Madonna” (1513?; Gallery of Old Masters, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Ger.), or Raphael's final unfinished work, the “Transfiguration” (1517; Vatican Museum), that he can be seen to move toward a nascent Mannerism and then away from it toward a more relaxed, more personal, and deeply moving reconsideration of High Renaissance ideals.

      When Michelangelo returned to painting in 1534, he had already had some experience of Mannerism in Florence. The past few years had not been entirely a matter of aesthetic enrichment, however, for they had witnessed the sack of Rome and the siege of Florence. Some of the horror of those events emerges in “The Last Judgment,” painted in fresco on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. Commissioned by Pope Clement VII, the work was executed during the pontificate of Paul III. Rather than a Christian saviour, the Christ in Judgment is a thundering god in the way the pagan supreme god of the Romans, Jupiter, was, more concerned with damning the human race than welcoming the blessed into heaven. The figures falling into hell and the torments of the damned attract the eye by their power and the emotions they reveal. It is as though a new Dante had been born to depict hell with a brush rather than a pen. Though the fresco met with strong but mixed reactions when it was unveiled in 1541, Pope Paul was pleased enough to commission two frescoes representing the “Conversion of St. Paul” and the “Crucifixion of St. Peter” for his own private chapel, the Pauline Chapel. Since this chapel has never been open to the general public and since Michelangelo had already moved into his highly personal late style, these frescoes had little impact on the painting of the time.

      The ideals of the High Renaissance as they appeared in the works of Leonardo, Raphael, and Michelangelo continued to develop independently in areas outside Rome and Florence. In Parma the painter Antonio Allegri, better known as Correggio, formed his art under the influence of Mantegna and Leonardo's Milanese followers. His “Rest on the Flight into Egypt” (Uffizi) and the “Madonna of the Bowl” (c. 1525; National Gallery, Parma) are clearly painted in the High Renaissance idiom. Yet Correggio is perhaps best known for his frescoes at Parma in the cathedral and in the church of San Giovanni Evangelista, which seem to prefigure the style of painting found in the Baroque, and for his late series of sensuous paintings on the loves of Jupiter, all executed between about 1530 and 1534, consisting of “Danae” (Borghese Gallery, Rome), “Leda” (Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin), and “Jupiter and Io” and “The Rape of Ganymede” (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna).

The High Renaissance in Venice
      In the late 15th century, painting in Venice traveled much the same paths toward the High Renaissance as in Florence, while still maintaining a purely Venetian flavour. Giovanni Bellini's (Bellini, Giovanni) Madonnas of 1505–10 (Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan; and the National Gallery, London) are stylistically similar to the Madonnas (Madonna) that Raphael was painting in Florence at about the same time. The San Zaccaria altarpiece (“Enthroned Madonna with Four Saints”) of 1505 carries the sacra conversazione fully into the High Renaissance. Inasmuch as Giovanni Bellini dominated Venetian painting, his style influenced the younger painters Giorgione and Titian, yet he was receptive enough to learn in turn from them and inventive enough to maintain his position of dominance.

 Giorgione, having learned from Bellini, went beyond his master to bring to Venetian painting a treatment of landscape that can only be compared to pastoral poetry. In his brief career (all his extant paintings date from the last five years of his life) this highly inventive young artist taught his contemporaries and successors how to exploit the medium of oil paint to create the illusion of textures, light, and air in their paintings. His earliest known painting, the “Madonna and Child with SS. Francis and Liberale” (c. 1504; Castelfranco cathedral, Italy), derives from the style of the mature work of Bellini. In only a few years Giorgione passed from this style of painting, through the turbulence of the dramatic landscape with storm clouds of “The Tempest” (c. 1505; Gallerie dell'Accademia di Venezia), to the dreamy landscape of the “Pastoral Concert” (c. 1510; Louvre). In the latter, Giorgione reveals the Venetians' love of textures, for he carefully renders almost palpable the appearance of flesh, fabric, wood, stone, and foliage. The soft, typically Venetian diffused light, together with the landscape, its hills stretching into the distance and all harsh or sharp contours removed (whether of landscape or figures), creates a gently pastoral mood. The use of landscape to create a mood and the use of figures in the landscape to reflect or intensify that mood is an innovation characteristic of Venetian painting of the 16th century and one of great importance to the development of Baroque art.

John R. Spencer Ed.
      Whatever the significance of the figures in Giorgione's painting “The Tempest,” it is certain that the picture soon came to be regarded merely as a landscape, and it is one of the first European paintings, certainly the first by a great artist, to make this sort of “background” material its subject matter. Landscape painting was to become a specialization of artists only toward the close of the 16th century, and even then chiefly in northern Europe.

Nicholas B. Penny
      The impact of Giorgione on Venetian art was immediate and direct. Bellini's last works, such as “The Feast of the Gods” (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.), owe much to Giorgione, but Giorgione's greatest impact was on Titian (Tiziano Vecelli). Although Titian was never a student of Giorgione, he worked with him on one project and finished a number of his paintings. The so-called “Sacred and Profane Love” of 1512–15 (Borghese Gallery, Rome) is, in a sense, Titian's trial piece in which he shows himself capable of rivaling and surpassing Giorgione in Giorgione's own terms. The influence of Giorgione is especially marked in the profane paintings just as the religious paintings are marked by the influence of Bellini, Titian's teacher and rival until his death, when Titian himself emerged as the leader of Venetian painting.

 Titian's great masterpiece, the “Assumption” (1516–18; Santa Maria dei Frari, Venice [see photograph—>]), established his reputation as Bellini's successor. In the painting he exhibits the Venetians' love of colour and texture, but he succeeds in achieving a balanced and moving composition that can only be compared to Raphael's “School of Athens” in its grandeur. The environment is both earth and heaven, yet it is created and defined by light and atmosphere in a typically Venetian way, rather than by architecture, as would have been more common in Florence. This painting, together with the “Sacred and Profane Love,” “Entombment” (Louvre), and the “Pesaro Madonna” (1519–26; Santa Maria dei Frari), typifies Titian's contribution to the High Renaissance.

      Upon the completion of the “Assumption” Titian undertook to execute a series of paintings on mythological themes for the court of Ferrara. “The Bacchanal” (1518–19; Prado, Madrid) was soon joined by the “Worship of Venus” (1518–19; Prado) and “Bacchus and Ariadne” (1520–23; National Gallery, London). In “The Bacchanal” Titian reveals his mastery in treating mythological subjects. The bacchants are disposed about the miraculous stream of wine that flows through an island, dancing, singing, and drinking. The movement of the figures, the juxtaposition of nude and clothed, of male and female, creates a revel in which even the landscape seems to participate—only a Venetian could have created such a pagan, earthy, and hedonistic glorification of life.

      On a trip to Rome in 1545 Titian succeeded in rivaling Raphael's “Portrait of Leo X with Cardinals Giulio de' Medici and Luigi de' Rossi” (Uffizi) and Michelangelo's “Leda and the Swan” (copy; National Gallery, London), while demonstrating that Venetian painting in its own unique way was the equal of the Florentine-Roman tradition. The portrait of “Pope Paul III and His Grandsons Ottavio and Cardinal Alessandro Farnese” (1546; Museo e Gallerie Nazionali di Capodimonte, Naples) is a free variation on Raphael's “Leo X,” but Titian altered the composition and introduced a narrative dimension more dramatic and compelling than that in any of his earlier portraits. The “Danae with Nursemaid” (1553–54; Prado), from the same period, poses the colourism and sensuousness of Venetian painting against the sculptural and restrained tradition of Michelangelo for succeeding centuries to judge.

      In his late works Titian carried the oil medium to new heights. He used loosely juxtaposed patches of colour, sometimes allowing the prepared canvas to show through. He applied paint freely and loosely with the brush and sometimes reworked it with his fingers. Although his paintings have a fresh quality that makes them appear to have been painted quickly in the heat of inspiration, it is known from his biographers and friends that each work had been carefully studied, criticized, and reworked before the artist was satisfied.

      Two works from this late period reveal the scope of Titian's genius. The “Martyrdom of St. Lawrence” (Church of the Jesuits, Venice) was begun about 1548 after his return from Rome and before a trip to Augsburg and the court of the Holy Roman emperor Charles V. Although Titian was nearly 60, he painted with all the enthusiasm of youth. There is a certain amount of Mannerist foreshortening and exaggeration, but Titian used these aspects of Mannerist vocabulary, together with the Venetians' skill in the use of light, to emphasize the dramatic and emotional content of the painting. Drama, light, and colour were used in the late “Rape of Europa” (c. 1559–62; Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston) in a way that prefigured the work of Rubens and the Baroque.

      Titian's genius, given full rein in his long and productive career, deeply influenced Venetian painting. The two most outstanding painters of the end of the 16th century, Veronese (Veronese, Paolo) and Tintoretto, each took a different aspect of Titian's style and developed it. Paolo Caliari, called Veronese (he was born in Verona), is best known for the rich colour and interweaving compositions he learned from Titian. His frescoes at the Villa Barbaro at Maser northwest of Venice are important for Venetian Mannerism and for landscape painting, but the richness of his palette is best seen in the mythologies, such as “Mars and Venus United by Love” (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), or the “Marriage of St. Catherine” (Gallerie dell'Accademia di Venezia). With Tintoretto he decorated the chambers of the Doges' Palace in Venice, partially supplanting the aging and busy Titian as official painter of the city; his “Apotheosis of Venice” (c. 1585) in the Sala del Maggior Consiglio in the Doges' Palace is a bold and successful use of dramatic foreshortening and rich colour to express the vigour and vibrancy of Venice. Splendid also are his extremely large paintings crowded with figures, such as the “Feast in the House of Levi” (1573; Gallerie dell'Accademia di Venezia).

  Jacopo Robusti, called Tintoretto, was most interested in Titian's use of dramatic light and heightened emotion. By 1548 he had established his reputation as a leading artist of the younger generation with his “San Marco Freeing the Slave” (Gallerie dell'Accademia di Venezia). He decorated several chambers of the Doges' Palace with a number of inventive mythological scenes. A great part of his career and energy was devoted to the decoration of the Great School of San Rocco, Venice (1564–c. 1588). Perhaps the crowning achievement of his career can be found in “The Last Supper” of 1594, painted for the church of San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice (see photograph—>). In this painting Tintoretto made use of all the rapidly receding diagonals and dramatic foreshortenings of the Mannerist vocabulary, but he brought to the painting the Venetians' love of light effects to define the forms and heighten the drama. The head of Christ is bathed in light that is repeated in the smoky lamps so that its true source cannot be known. Light is used, as in the work of Titian, to pick out certain forms, throw others into darkness, and create a sense of movement within the composition. The comparison of this painting with Leonardo's “Last Supper” (see photograph—>) of 100 years earlier reveals the differences between the High Renaissance and the late 16th century.

      With the death of Titian, Tintoretto, and Veronese, Venice became a school for 17th-century painters, where great works of the past were studied but few great works were produced until the 18th century. The influence of 16th-century Venetian painting on such diverse Baroque artists as Annibale Carracci, Peter Paul Rubens, and Nicolas Poussin was not negligible, but they came to Venice only to learn; they made their major contributions in other centres.

John R. Spencer Ed.

Italian Mannerism and Late Renaissance
The hallmarks of Mannerism
      The first reaction against Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael, and Andrea del Sarto occurred in Florence between 1515 and 1524, during which time the painters Giovanni Battista (called Rosso Fiorentino) and Jacopo Carrucci (Pontormo, Jacopo da) Pontormo decisively broke away from the harmony and naturalism of the High Renaissance style. Their movement, particularly what might be called their aesthetic anarchy, attracted the sympathetic attention of some 20th-century art historians, largely because of affinities such art historians saw between their work and modern trends, particularly Expressionism. After the lead given by the German art historian Max Dvořák in his book Über Greco und der Manierismus (1921), these 16th-century nonconformists came to be known as Mannerists. Recent historians have suggested, however, that the term Mannerism can more accurately be applied to a very different style initiated in Rome about 1520. Roman Mannerism, which subsequently spread throughout Europe, is characterized by a display of the artificiality of art, a thoroughly self-conscious cultivation of elegance and facility, and a sophisticated delight in the bizarre.

      The term Mannerism is ultimately derived from the Italian word maniera (literally “style”). It was in the 16th century that maniera was first consistently used in art criticism to indicate a definable quality—that of stylishness. Giorgio Vasari (Vasari, Giorgio), who is known chiefly for his biographies of artists (some of whom were his contemporaries) but who was also an architect and painter, indeed a Mannerist himself, attributed this absolute quality of stylishness to Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael, and, above all, to artists of his own day who had learned their styles from studying these great masters. Standing at the head of the enormous representational discoveries of the Renaissance and with an increased knowledge of antiquity, Vasari was convinced that his contemporaries were in a position to understand the secret of true artistic style. This was the maniera.

      Taking Vasari's quality of maniera as the key to Mannerism, it is possible to outline some of its hallmarks. In figure style, the standard of formal complexity had been set by Michelangelo and that of idealized beauty by Raphael. In the art of their followers, obsession with style in figure composition often outweighed the importance of the subject matter. The highest value was placed upon the apparently effortless solution of considerable artistic problems, such as the portrayal of the nude figure in complex poses. Specifically, the finished work was not supposed to betray signs of the labour that lay behind it.

      While depending heavily upon ancient Roman art for many of its decorative motifs and for many of its standards of design, Mannerist style commonly exploited a certain degree of license within the classical vocabulary—what Vasari and contemporary literary theorists called “a departure from the normal usage.”

      It was in the intellectualizing atmosphere of the Italian courts that Mannerism met with the greatest favour. There the conscious intricacies of Mannerist compositions and the eloquent quotations from antiquity were well appreciated; court literature of this period displayed many analogous features. Mannerism was first and foremost a connoisseur's art—certainly not one that appealed to a churchman. It is not surprising that the later Mannerist painters were censured by the church during the Counter-Reformation for painting altarpieces that were intended to demonstrate the virtuosity of their creators rather than illustrate a religious story. Even Michelangelo was attacked, one critic calling him “the inventor of obscenities, who cultivated art at the expense of devotion.”

      Factors such as these caused the style to fall into general disrepute, and, when in 1662 the French writer on architectural theory Fréart de Chambray coined the word Maniériste (translated six years later as “Mannerist” by the English diarist John Evelyn), he applied it in disparaging fashion to Vasari and his contemporaries, the practitioners of the maniera. If, therefore, Mannerism is identified with the maniera, it can be historically related to a particular 16th-century style; but if it is applied strictly to early Rosso and Pontormo, as it was by Dvořák, it has no firm grounding in the way people in the 16th century thought about painting.

Mannerist painters in Florence and Rome
      During the second decade of the 16th century, Andrea del Sarto had emerged as the foremost practitioner of High Renaissance naturalism in Florence. The subtle and ambiguous emotional tension present beneath the harmony of Andrea's forms and colours was greatly accentuated by one of his pupils, Jacopo da Pontormo. In Pontormo's Visdomini altarpiece (1518), the tension approaches the breaking point; the composition is vertical and lacking in a sense of space; and a host of similar but clashing centres of action create an impression of agitation. Pontormo persisted with this expressive style, becoming increasingly influenced by the angular forms of Albrecht Dürer's German engravings and by the more tortured aspects of Michelangelo's figure style. Vasari made it quite clear that Pontormo's development was in direct contradiction to the later ideals of Mannerism.

      The second of Andrea's important pupils, Rosso Fiorentino, began in a not dissimilar spirit of expressive rebellion. His highly unconventional “Madonna with SS. John the Baptist, Anthony Abbot, Jerome and Stephen” for Santa Maria Nuova (1518; Uffizi) displays an aesthetic anarchy bolder than anything by Pontormo, and by the 1520s he was creating works of savage emotionality (e.g., the Volterra “Deposition,” 1521). In 1523 Rosso journeyed to Rome. There he was overwhelmed by three experiences: Michelangelo's ceiling in the Sistine Chapel, the late style of Raphael, and the art of the newly arrived Parmigianino.

      Parmigianino brought with him from Parma three sample pictures to display his virtuosity to Roman patrons. His style, based originally upon that of Correggio, already possessed much of the attenuated elegance for which he became famous. In Rome Parmigianino was hailed as the new Raphael and specifically as a painter capable of reproducing the sophisticated grace of Raphael's late “St. Michael” (Louvre). Raphael had died in 1520, but his most authoritative late work in the Vatican stanze (papal apartments) was continued and developed by his foremost pupils, Giulio Romano (who left for Mantua in 1524) and Perino del Vaga. Their Roman styles rely upon a direct though refined use of the art of classical antiquity as a source of inspiration and upon an ingenious exploitation of different levels of pictorial reality within a single decorative scheme. The underlying artificiality of their manner was reinforced by the latent academicism of Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling nudes.

      Rosso's encounter with the latest painting Rome offered resulted in a radical realignment of his style. His “Dead Christ with Angels” (c. 1526; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston), a subject (Jesus Christ) that he would earlier have been inclined to treat with exceptional angularity of form, is executed with a new feeling for rarefied beauty. Emotion is now expressed less overtly, and his handling of paint is less aggressive. Rosso, Parmigianino, and Raphael's pupils undoubtedly influenced each other during the mid-1520s, but in 1527 Rome was sacked, and the artists of Pope Clement VII's court became scattered. Parmigianino fled to Bologna, returning after four years to his native Parma, where he continued to develop his personal form of mannered beauty (e.g., “Madonna of the Long Neck,” Uffizi). Perino found employment with the ruling family at Genoa, and Rosso visited a number of Italian cities before settling in France.

      The sophisticated Mannerism that evolved in Rome before 1527 became the chief formative influence upon the styles of a number of important younger artists. Vasari and Francesco Salviati (Salviati, Francesco) had passed their period of apprenticeship in Andrea del Sarto's Florence. They parted in 1527 but resumed their close acquaintance in Rome (1531), and it was the Roman style that influenced their subsequent development. Vasari, Salviati, and Jacopino del Conte, who worked with Salviati on the frescoes for San Giovanni Decollato, Rome, attempted to combine the formal and narrative artifice of the late Raphael decorations with the complex figure style of Michelangelo. The result in Vasari's case is undeniably eclectic, but Salviati created an individual maniera of enormous facility and inventiveness (e.g., “Peace,” Palazzo Vecchio, Florence). The Raphaelesque element in the Roman style was reinforced by Perino's return to Rome in about 1538.

      Salviati's career was unsettled—he worked in Florence, Rome, Venice, and France—but Vasari returned to Florence to the court of the Medici duke Cosimo I, who had replaced in 1537 the unpopular (and assassinated) Alessandro de' Medici. Cosimo and his Spanish wife, Eleonora de Toledo, whose formal Iberian tastes influenced the artistic life of the court, shrewdly embarked on an ambitious series of propagandistic projects to consolidate his political position. Vasari became the “stage manager” for much Medicean propaganda. His success as a painter and architect after 1555 was considerable, but his most important contribution to Mannerism was undoubtedly his advocacy of Mannerist ideals in his Lives, first published in 1550 and revised and extended in 1568. As Vasari realized, the most important painter in Cosimo's court was Il Bronzino (Bronzino, Il), a pupil of Pontormo.

      Bronzino had, from the first, reduced the emotional content that had been an important feature of Pontormo's style, and, during the 1530s in Florence, he began to establish a reputation as a court portrait painter. His mature portraits are elegant, perfectly finished, ingenious in detail, and aloofly formal, reflecting the Spanish etiquette of Cosimo's court. Bronzino was adopted as favourite artist by Eleonora, receiving the commission to decorate her small private chapel in the Palazzo Vecchio. The resulting frescoes are in no sense spiritually expressive, but they are brilliantly stylish, with references to antiquity, which displayed the erudition of both artist and sitter, and to Raphael and Michelangelo. Bronzino was later influenced by the teachings of the Counter-Reformation, adopting a more modest narrative style, but his underlying aesthetic art remained a sense of maniera.

      A number of later Mannerists responded similarly to the Counter-Reformation—Santi di Tito is particularly important in this respect—but it was only with Federico Barocci (Barocci, Federico) that the ideals of Mannerism were abandoned in favour of an all-pervasive piety in religious painting. Barocci's attractively fluent and softly coloured style, based largely upon Correggio, may be considered as an exceptional precursor of the Baroque style. Barocci abandoned his Roman Mannerism as early as 1575, but the majority of his contemporaries in Rome and Florence continued to develop the eclectic aspects of the original maniera. Daniele da Volterra and Pellegrino Tibaldi painted in an explicitly Michelangelesque manner, while Cavaliere d'Arpino (Giuseppe Cesari) and Federico Zuccari (Zuccaro, Federico), at the end of the century, investigated the complex intellectual conceits of the Raphael studio style. Zuccari—a painter, designer, and theorist—is the most representative figure of this late phase, and his travels (to Rome, Venice, Spain, England, France, and Antwerp) underline the internationalism of late Mannerist style.

      Outside Florence and Rome, many of the major Italian cities succumbed to the spreading influence of Mannerism after 1527. Siena, under the lead of Domenico Beccafumi, developed a bizarre form of emotional Mannerism, but only Venice maintained a steady, independent Mannerism. Venice was certainly receptive to Mannerist influence—as seen in the works of Titian after 1530, Tintoretto, and Veronese—but, with the exception of Andrea Meldolla (Schiavone), Venetian painting continued to be dominated by non-Mannerist ideas in colouring and expression. Vasari's disparaging remarks about Tintoretto's lack of good design show clearly that the differences between Romano-Florentine (Florence) and Venetian (Venice) painting remained fundamental.

      The early and High Renaissance style as developed in Italy did not immediately dominate all European painting. A few northern artists adopted Renaissance motifs but used them in a piecemeal manner without full comprehension of Italian compositional methods. After 1520, however, northern and Spanish artists came increasingly to understand and adopt Mannerist ideas, and highly individual schools of Mannerism began to appear in various centres outside Italy. Regional styles of considerable decorative flamboyance resulted from the fusion of the intricacies of the late Gothic style with the complexities of Mannerism.

Renaissance outside Italy
       Francis I, despite his military reverses in Italy, was enamoured of all things Italian. He commissioned the celebrated goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini to execute both tableware and sculpture and prevailed upon friendly rulers in Italy to send him works by Titian and Bronzino and casts of sculpture. He also imported Italian artists to design, build, and decorate his palaces, the Château de Madrid and Fontainebleau, both outside Paris. Rosso (Rosso Fiorentino) arrived in France in 1530, followed two years later by his fellow Italian, the Mannerist Francesco Primaticcio (Primaticcio, Francesco). In the gallery of Francis I at Fontainebleau, Rosso initiated a new and intricate decorative system in which stucco and painting form a richly luxuriant complex—the plastic realization of the late Raphaelesque decorative manner. Primaticcio, who had been trained by Giulio Romano at Mantua and influenced by Parmigianino, took over Rosso's leading position on the latter's death in 1540. His Ulysses Gallery at Fontainebleau continued and refined Rosso's elaborate system of painted narratives surrounded by convoluted strapwork, elegant figures, and swags in stucco. French artists at the court, such as the two Jean Cousins and Antoine Caron, quickly adopted aspects of Italian Mannerism to create a style of painting characterized as the school of Fontainebleau (Fontainebleau, school of). Less of a tendency to mimic the fashion was noticeable in Corneille de Lyon and Jean and François Clouet, whose portraits, while exhibiting some Mannerist qualities, recalled 15th-century court portraiture.

Martin J. Kemp Ed.

      During the first decade of the 16th century, Fernando Yáñez, who may have assisted Leonardo da Vinci on the “Battle of Anghiari” in 1505, executed works showing a good knowledge of Italian Renaissance developments. Further Italianate tendencies emerged strongly in the Valencian works of Juan de Macip and his son Juan de Juanes. Full-fledged Mannerism made its appearance in the Seville cathedral in the “Descent from the Cross” (1547) by Pedro Campaña (Pieter de Kempeneer (Kempeneer, Pieter de)), an artist from Brussels, and subsequently in the refined court portraiture of Anthonis Mor (Sir Anthony More) and Alonso Sánchez Coello, whose royal portraits possess an elegance reminiscent of Bronzino's Florentine style. Although Campaña's paintings are Mannerist in composition, they also foreshadow the expressiveness characteristic of Spanish style in the hands of Luis de Morales (Morales, Luis de) and El Greco (Greco, El).

      From 1546 until his death in 1586, Morales remained almost exclusively in the provincial isolation of Badajoz, developing a highly individual art of great spiritual intensity, radically separated from the Mannerist mainstream. El Greco, though born in Crete, was more fully conversant with Italian painting, having studied with Titian in Venice and later residing in Rome for two years. His Spanish paintings exploit the anatomical attenuations of Roman Mannerism, but the vividly emotional qualities of his colour and paint handling depend almost entirely upon Venetian precedents—Tintoretto and Jacopo Bassano in particular. Under the influence of Counter-Reformation mysticism in Toledo after 1575, he developed an increasingly personal and nonrealistic manner, indulging in space and supernatural light effects. The narrative fervour of his style stands in sharp contrast to the stylish formalism of international Mannerism.

 Albrecht Dürer (Dürer, Albrecht) was the first important German artist who displayed a profound understanding of Italian Renaissance art and theory. Trained in Nürnberg in the late Gothic tradition, he had ambitions even as a youth far beyond the narrow confines of his native city and the late medieval style. He traveled to Switzerland and the Rhine Valley and may have been in the Low Countries. Shortly after his marriage in 1494 he made a brief trip to Italy, where he studied the works of Mantegna and the Venetians. In 1505–07 he was again in Italy and was on intimate terms with Giovanni Bellini. Dürer was interested in what he felt to be the “secrets” of Italian art and in the new humanism carried north by such friends as the German humanist Willibald Pirkheimer. As a result, his paintings maintain the northerners' love of detail, rendered meticulously in oil, but he joined to it the Italian interest in broadly conceived compositions. In “The Paumgärtner Altarpiece” of 1502–04 (Alte Pinakothek, Munich), for example, the saints in the wings are depicted with the scrolls and a complexity of composition more reminiscent of a heraldic achievement, while the broad planes of the architecture and the large, simple figures of the adoration shown on the central panel suggest an Italianate conception. The “Four Apostles” (Alte Pinakothek; see photograph—>) of 1526 ultimately derives from the wings of Bellini's Frari altarpiece. Dürer's close association with the Venetian painter and admiration for his art can be seen in the broad simple folds of the drapery, the breadth of handling of the heads, and the quality of the light depicted.

      Although he executed a large number of important paintings, Dürer is perhaps best known for his woodcuts (woodcut) and engravings (engraving), by which he raised printmaking from a minor to a major art (see printmaking: History of printmaking: Printmaking in the 16th century: Germany (printmaking)). Dürer's prints, paintings, and writings had such a profound influence on 16th-century art in Germany that it is sometimes difficult to realize that he died in 1528.

      In the 16th century the Renaissance, as far as German painting was concerned, tended to follow the lines established by Dürer. Two artists of note do emerge, but their styles are so individual that they do not represent a national school.

      Lucas Cranach (Cranach, Lucas, the Elder) the Elder was deeply influenced by Dürer and the Danube school, an early 16th-century tradition of landscape painting that was in some ways a transition between the styles of Gothic and Renaissance painting. By 1505 he had moved to Wittenberg and become court painter to the electors of Saxony. There his style changed radically, epitomizing the dichotomy that existed in 16th-century northern European painting. He developed in Wittenberg the full-length portrait in which the sitter is rendered with consummate skill and fidelity. Cranach was a personal friend of Martin Luther and is probably best known for his portraits of the great reformer. At the same time, his “Reclining River Nymph at the Fountain” of 1518 (Museum of Fine Art, Leipzig) illustrates his knowledge of Giorgione and Venetian painting and points the way to the group of highly erotic female nudes of his later works.

 Hans Holbein (Holbein, Hans, the Younger) the Younger was trained by his father in Augsburg but took up residence in Basel, Switz., about 1515. He early developed a portrait style that was greatly sought after by the burghers of Basel. His portraits of Burgomaster Meyer and his wife (1516; Kunstmuseum-Öffentliche Kunstsammlung Basel) or of Bonifacius Amerbach (1519; Kunstmuseum-Öffentliche Kunstsammlung Basel) show his gift for characterization. In 1526 he made his first trip to London, where he painted “Sir Thomas More with His Household” (1527). In 1532 religious troubles in Basel were so intense that he accepted a position at the English court and left the city forever. He is perhaps best known for his portraits of Henry VIII, Henry's bride Anne of Cleves (1539; Louvre [see photograph—>]), and Christina of Denmark (1538; National Gallery, London), at one time considered by the King as a possible bride. “Jean de Dinteville and Georges de Selve” (“The Ambassadors,” 1533; National Gallery, London), which depicts two French ambassadors to the English court, is probably the greatest tour de force of his years in England. The two sitters are rendered faithfully in a well-defined room and are surrounded by the trappings of 16th-century humanism—e.g., books, globes, musical instruments. Holbein's portraits were all painted with a great understanding of the sitter and often have a note of Italian elegance. His surfaces tend to be tight and hard, yet there is a certain expansiveness created by the positioning within the frame. He established a portrait tradition in England and also contributed to the popularity of the miniature in that country.

      In the Low Countries there emerged early in the 16th century a group of painters misleadingly lumped together as the Antwerp Mannerists. Their exaggerated and fanciful compositions descend in great part from the decorative excesses of late Gothic art, generally with some Italianate details probably transmitted by architects' and goldsmiths' pattern books.

      The Flemish painter Jan Gossaert (Gossart, Jan), called Mabuse, visited Rome in 1508. At first he continued his ornate late Gothic style, but by 1514 he began to adopt the great innovations occurring in Italian painting. His mythological paintings, such as the “Neptune and Amphitrite” (Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin) of 1516, indicate that he was able to understand only the superficialities and not the motivation and terribilità of Michelangelo's nudes. Bernard van Orley (Orley, Bernard van) remained in Brussels and learned of Italy through Raphael's cartoons, which were sent to Brussels to be woven into tapestries. Before the end of the century, painters such as Jan van Scorel (Scorel, Jan van), Maerten van Heemskerck, and Sir Anthony More (a Utrecht-born portraitist knighted by Queen Mary I of England) were absorbing Italian influences. Van Scorel demonstrated a specifically Venetian influence, yet all three created an art that was distinctly their own. Joachim Patinir's (Patinir, Joachim) depiction of the world around him, particularly of landscape, parallels Italian developments in northern terms and greatly influenced Pieter Bruegel (Bruegel, Pieter, the Elder) the Elder.

      Pieter Bruegel the Elder visited Italy in 1551–53 but was more influenced by the Italian and particularly Alpine landscape than by Italian painting. His two-dimensional sources are to be found rather in the popular prints of the time, the landscapes of Patinir, and the fantasies of Bosch. He was also a great observer of peasant life. Bruegel spent his adult life in the company of learned humanists, yet he showed no real interest in classical mythological subjects or antiquity. His paintings illustrating Low Countries' proverbs, children's games, or “The Fight Between Carnival and Lent” (1559; Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna) reveal an interest in popular themes and common life rather than in the pedantic Romanizing compositions of some of his contemporaries. This choice of subject matter, latent from the early 15th century in the Low Countries, was given new dimensions by Bruegel. His series of depictions of the months is at once a revival of the labours of the months found in the portal sculptures of Gothic cathedrals and medieval books of hours and at the same time a new treatment of rural landscape and the peasants who work the land. His “Harvesters” (1565; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City) displays a remarkable sensitivity to colour and pattern. The intense golden yellow of the ripe wheat sets up a bold pattern across the lower half of the picture and contrasts with the cool greens and blues of the limitless plain stretching off into the distance. Some figures move across a lane cut through the wheat, while others cut into what seems a solid space. The sleeping peasants resting after their noon meal are disposed in patterns and poses that make one feel the heat and calm of the summer's day. This sympathetic view of peasant life, with its bold geometric patterns, runs throughout the series of the months and recurs in “The Wedding Dance” (1566; Detroit Institute of Arts) and “Peasant Dance” (see ) and “Peasant Wedding” (both in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna).

      Bruegel brought to an end the 16th century in the north and prepared the way for the Baroque. His sons and grandsons were important painters who helped to train some of the leading artists of the 17th century in the Low Countries. It was the elder Bruegel, however, who made landscape and peasant life an accepted subject for painting in the Renaissance.

John R. Spencer
      The Mannerist style was not comprehended as soon in the 16th century in the Low Countries as it had been in France or Spain. With the notable exception of Frans Floris, it was not until the generation of artists born during the middle years of the century that Mannerism was fully assimilated. This generation of Flemish and Dutch Mannerists was influenced chiefly by the Italian Mannerists of the second half of the century: Frederik Sustris studied with Vasari; Hendrik Goltzius was an associate of Taddeo Zuccari, Federico's older brother; Johann von Aachen remained in Rome between 1574 and 1588; and Bartholomaeus Spranger collaborated with Federico Zuccari. Haarlem and Amsterdam became the early centres for northern Mannerism. Spranger's style was diffused throughout Europe by the engravings of his colleague Goltzius. Finally, as a late flowering of international Mannerism, Carel van Mander (Mander, Carel van) founded a Vasarian academy in Haarlem, in 1604 publishing his biographies of Netherlandish artists in direct emulation of Vasari.

Martin J. Kemp Ed.

      By far the most ambitious patron of Mannerist art in Europe north of Italy was the Holy Roman emperor Rudolf II, who in the late 1570s established his court at Prague. Between the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th, Rudolf employed architects, sculptors, and painters to create impressive artistic works for his court, much as Cosimo de' Medici had done in Florence. Spranger's “Allegory of Rudolf II” indicates the quality of Rudolf's court art and its clear Mannerist (Mannerism) sympathies—sensually graceful figures clad in the dress of classical antiquity and a cultivated facility in composition and execution.

John R. Spencer Ed.

Baroque (Baroque period)
      Baroque is a term loosely applied to European art from the end of the 16th century to the early 18th century, with the latter part of this period falling under the alternative stylistic designation of Late Baroque. The painting of the Baroque period is so varied that no single set of stylistic criteria can be applied to it. This is partly because the painting of Roman Catholic countries such as Italy or Spain differed both in its intent and in its sources of patronage from that of Protestant countries such as Holland or Britain, and it is partly because currents of classicism and naturalism coexisted with and sometimes even predominated over what is more narrowly defined as the High Baroque style.

      The Baroque style in Italy and Spain had its origins in the last decades of the 16th century when the refined, courtly, and idiosyncratic style of Mannerist painting had ceased to be an effective means of artistic expression. Indeed, Mannerism's inadequacy as a vehicle for religious art was being increasingly felt in artistic circles as early as the middle of that century. To counter (Counter-Reformation) the inroads made by the Reformation, the Roman Catholic Church (Roman Catholicism) after the Council of Trent (Trent, Council of) (1545–63) adopted an overtly propagandistic stance in which painting and the other arts were intended to serve as a means of extending and stimulating the public's faith in the church and its doctrines. The church thus adopted a conscious artistic program, the products of which would make an overtly emotional and sensory appeal to the faithful. The Baroque style of painting that evolved from this program was paradoxically both sensuous and spiritual; while naturalistic treatment rendered the painted religious image more readily comprehensible to the average churchgoer, dramatic and illusory effects were used to stimulate piety and devotion. This appeal to the senses manifested itself in a style that above all emphasized movement and emotion. The stable, pyramidal compositions and the clear, well-defined pictorial space that were characteristic of Renaissance paintings gave way in the Baroque to complex compositions surging along diagonal lines. The Baroque vision of the world is basically dynamic and dramatic; throngs of figures possessing a superabundant vitality energize the painted scene by means of their expressive gestures and movements. These figures are depicted with the utmost vividness and richness through the use of rich colours, dramatic effects of light and shade, and lavish use of highlights. The ceilings of Baroque churches thus dissolved in painted scenes that presented convincing views of the saints and angels to the observer and directed him through his senses to heavenly concerns.


Early and High Baroque in Italy
      By the last decades of the 16th century the Mannerist style had ceased to be an effective means of expression. Indeed, in Florence a conscious reassessment of High Renaissance painting had taken place as early as mid-century. This tendency gathered momentum in the last decades of the century, particularly with the Bolognese painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousin Annibale. The Roman Catholic Church's reaction to the Reformation, known as the Counter-Reformation, reaffirmed the old medieval concept of art as the servant of the church, adding specific demands for simplicity, intelligibility, realism, and an emotional stimulus to piety. For the zealots of the Counter-Reformation, works of art had value only as propaganda material, the subject matter being all important; and in Rome there was as a result a sharp decline in artistic quality. Under austere Counter-Reformation popes such as Paul IV and Pius V (Pius V, Saint), most official patronage favoured the dry and prosaic; this late 16th-century style is best called Counter-Reformation Realist. A similar process took place in Florence, where a strong movement away from Mannerist conventions is seen in the paintings of Ludovico Cigoli, and in Milan, where the dominant artistic personalities were the painters Giovanni Crespi (known as Il Cerano) and Pier Francesco Mazzucchelli, known as Il Morazzone.

      In contrast, late 16th-century Venetian (Venice) painting was as little influenced by the Counter-Reformation as it had been by Mannerism; and the workshops of Tintoretto, Paolo Veronese, and Palma Giovane remained active until the plague of 1629–30.

 Michelangelo Merisi, better known by the name of his birthplace, Caravaggio, a small town near Milan, was active in Rome by about 1595. His earliest paintings are conspicuous for the almost enamel-like brilliance of the colours, the strong chiaroscuro called tenebrism, and the extraordinary virtuosity with which all the details are rendered. But this harsh realism was replaced by a much more powerful mature style in his paintings for San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, begun in 1597, and Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome, executed about 1601. His selection of plebeian models for the most important characters in his religious pictures caused great controversy, but the utter sincerity of the figures and the intensity of dramatic feeling are characteristic of the Baroque (see photograph—>). Although Caravaggio had no direct pupils, “Caravaggism” was the dominant new force in Rome during the first decade of the 17th century and subsequently had enormous influence outside Italy.

      Parallel with Caravaggio's was the activity of Annibale Carracci (Carracci, Annibale) in Rome. During Annibale's years in Bologna, his brother and cousin had joined with him in pioneering a synthesis of the traditionally opposed Renaissance concepts of disegno (“drawing”) and colore (“colour”). In 1595 Annibale took to Rome his mature style, in which the plasticity of the central Italian tradition is wedded to the Venetian colour tradition. The decoration of the vault of the gallery in the Palazzo Farnese, Rome (1597–1604), marks not only the high point in Annibale's career but also the beginning of the long series of Baroque ceiling decorations. The third important painter active in Rome during the first decade of the 17th century was the Low Countries' painter Peter Paul Rubens (Rubens, Peter Paul), who became court painter to the duke of Mantua in 1600. He came under the influence of Raphael and Titian, as well as that of Caravaggio, during a journey to Spain in 1603. The rich colours and strong dramatic chiaroscuro of his altarpieces for Santa Maria in Vallicella (New Church), Rome (1606–07), show how much he contributed to the evolution of Italian Baroque painting.

      Just as the first decade tended to be dominated by the “Caravaggist” painters, the second decade in Rome was the heyday of the Bolognese classicist painters headed by Guido Reni, Domenichino, and Francesco Albani, all of whom had been pupils of the Carracci. The crucial developments that brought the High Baroque into being took place in the third decade.

      The little church of Santa Bibiana in Rome harbours three of the key works that ushered in the High Baroque, all executed in 1624–26: Gian Lorenzo Bernini's (Bernini, Gian Lorenzo) facade and the marble figure of Santa Bibiana herself, over the altar, and Pietro da Cortona's (Pietro da Cortona) series of frescoes of Bibiana's life, painted on the side wall of the nave. The rich exuberance of the compositions is a prelude to the gigantic “Allegory of Divine Providence and Barberini Power,” which Pietro was to paint on the vault of the Great Hall of the Palazzo Barberini, Rome (1633–39). Pietro continued with this style of monumental painting for the remainder of his career, and it became the model for the international grand decorative style, which by the close of the 17th century was to be found in Madrid, Paris, Vienna, and even London.

      Despite the continued triumph of High Baroque illusionism and theatricality in the hands of Bernini and Pietro da Cortona from the 1630s, the forces of classicism (Classicism and Neoclassicism), now headed by the painter Andrea Sacchi (Sacchi, Andrea) and the Flemish-born sculptor François Duquesnoy, gained the upper hand in the 1640s after the death of Pope Urban VIII; and for the remainder of the century the Baroque-versus-classicism controversy raged in the Academy in Rome. Sacchi and the classicists, including the Frenchman Nicolas Poussin (Poussin, Nicolas), held that a scene must be depicted with a bare minimum of figures, each with its own clearly defined role, and compared the composition to that of a tragedy in literature. But Pietro and the Baroque camp held that the right parallel was the epic poem in which subsidiary episodes were added to give richness and variety to the whole, and hence the decorative richness and profusion of their great fresco cycles. The lyrical landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain are among the finest expressions of High Baroque classicism; and they exerted a continual influence throughout the 18th century, particularly in Britain. Even in Rome itself, however, a number of painters of importance succeeded in remaining more or less independent of the two main camps. Sassoferrato (1609–85), for example, painted in a deliberately archaizing manner, carefully reproducing Raphaelesque formulas. The cryptically romantic movement, centred on Pier Francesco Mola, Pietro Testa, and Salvator Rosa, was more important and, together with the landscapes of Gaspard Dughet, was to have considerable repercussions in the 18th century. Claude Lorrain also adopted an independent stand, despite the highly developed classicism of his poetic landscapes and seascapes, both of which, but especially the latter, featured much splendid architecture.

      The first two-thirds of the 17th century in Italy were dominated by the Roman Baroque, and few painters elsewhere provided serious competition. Reni (Reni, Guido), who returned to Bologna from Rome in 1614 and remained there until his death in 1642, remained the strongest artistic personality in that northern city but steadily abandoned the strong plasticity of the Carracci for a much looser style with a pale tonality. When Guercino (Guercino, Il), in turn, left Rome in 1623, he returned to his native Cento, just north of Bologna, and not until the death of Reni did he decide to settle in Bologna. Guercino's early, fiery style slowly gave way to a much more calm and classical outlook. Venetian painting took a new direction with the rich colours and free brushwork of Domenico Fetti (Fetti, Domenico), who had worked in Mantua before moving to Venice. In the hands of Johann Liss (or Jan Lys) the groundwork was laid for the flowering of the Venetian school of the 18th century. Venetian painting was also enriched by the pale colours and flickering brushwork of Francesco Maffei from Vicenza, whereas Bernardo Strozzi in 1630 carried to Venice the saturated colours and vigorous painterly qualities of the Genoese school. Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione (Castiglione, Giovanni Benedetto) also began his career in Genoa and, after a period in Rome, worked from 1648 as court painter in Mantua, where his brilliant free etchings and brush drawings anticipated the Rococo. Naples, under its Spanish viceroys, remained strongly influenced by the “Caravaggesque” tradition, particularly in its best-known painter, a Spaniard, José de Ribera (Ribera, José de), who settled there in 1616; the two most important native painters of the period, Massimo Stanzione and Bernardo Cavallino, both died in the disastrous plague of 1654.

      The most conspicuous aspect of the last phase of the High Baroque in Italy is provided by the series of great fresco (fresco painting) cycles, which were executed in Rome during the last decades of the 17th century. Pietro da Cortona's decoration of Santa Maria in Vallicella (1647–55) is the link with the earlier phase of the Baroque, and his decoration of the gallery of the Palazzo Pamphili in Rome (1651–54) points the way to the decorations of Giovanni Coli and Filippo Gherardi in the Palazzo Colonna (1675–78) and to those of the vault of the gallery of the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi in Florence by Luca Giordano (1682). Bernini's dynamic and theatrical schemes of decoration reached their climax in the nave vault of the Gesù, Rome, painted in 1674–79 by Giovanni Battista Gaulli (Baciccia (Baciccio)) under the direct tutelage of Bernini. The fresco bursts out of its frame and creates an overwhelming dramatic effect, with painted figures flooding over the gilt stucco architectural decoration of the ceiling into the space of the church. After this, the “Allegory of the Missionary Work of the Jesuits,” painted by Andrea Pozzo on the nave vault of San Ignazio, Rome (1691–94), seems almost an anticlimax, despite its gigantic size and hypertrophic illusionism. Concurrently, the Baroque-versus-classicism controversy took on a new lease on life, with Gaulli heading the Baroque party in opposition to Sacchi's pupil Carlo Maratta (Maratta, Carlo). By the last decades of the century the Baroque was triumphant, and Maratta's Baroque classicism appears almost to be a compromise between Pietro da Cortona and Sacchi. Maratta's style, however, was to provide one of the most important sources for the grand manner of the 18th century.

      The essential characteristics of Late Baroque painting can be identified first in the frescoes (1661) of Mattia Preti at the Palazzo Pamphili, Valmontone (southeast of Rome); but the transition between the High Baroque and the Late Baroque was a continuous process and occurred at different dates with different artists. At Valmontone the sense of dynamic structure characteristic of the High Baroque frescoes of Pietro da Cortona yields to a more decorative scheme in which the figures are scattered across the ceiling, giving the painting an overall unity without identifying any specific area as the focal point. Francesco Cozza used this scheme in the Pamphili Library, Rome (1667–73), but among the finest Late Baroque decorations of this type are ceilings painted in Genoa by Gregorio de' Ferrari and Domenico Piola, while Giordano took the style to Spain. The breakdown of any sense of direction in the composition is paralleled by a loosening in the design of individual figures; once again the unity is decorative rather than structural.

Late Baroque and Rococo
      Symptomatic of the changing status of the papacy during the 17th century was the fact that the Thirty Years' War was ended by the Peace of Westphalia (Westphalia, Peace of) in 1648 without papal representation in the negotiations. Concurrently, the influence of Spain also declined. The commencement of the personal rule of Louis XIV in 1661 marked the beginning of a new era in French political power and artistic influence, and the French Academy in Rome (founded 1666) rapidly became a major factor in the evolution of Roman art. Late Baroque classicism, as represented in Rome by Maratta, was slowly transformed into a sweet and elegant 18th-century style by his pupil Benedetto Luti, while Francesco Trevisani abandoned the dramatic lighting of his early paintings in favour of a glossy Rococo classicism. In the early 18th century, Neapolitan painting under Francesco Solimena developed from the brilliant synthesis of Pietro da Cortona's grand manner and Venetian colour that Giordano had evolved in the late 17th century. The impact, also, of Preti is revealed by his predilection for brownish shadows; but, compared to the pupils and followers of Maratta in Rome, Solimena's style has a greater strength and vitality despite the characteristic Late Baroque fragmentation of the composition. He himself supplied large paintings to patrons all over Europe, and his pupils occupied key positions in the mid-18th century. Francesco de Mura took the style to Turin, where he was court painter; Corrado Giaquinto, as court painter in Madrid, turned increasingly toward the Rococo, and Sebastiano Conca (Conca, Sebastiano) worked in Rome, falling increasingly victim to the academic classicism dominant there. Anton Domenico Gabbiani practiced a particularly frigid classicism in Florence, and it was mainly in Bologna and Venice that real attempts were made to break away from the confines of Late Baroque classicism.

      Giuseppe Maria Crespi (Crespi, Giuseppe Maria) (called Lo Spagnolo, “The Spaniard”) turned instead toward the early paintings of Guercino and evolved a deeply sincere style, remarkable for its immediacy and sensibility. In Bologna he had no real successors, but in Venice his work provided one of the bases for the brilliant flowering of Venetian painting in this period. While Giovanni Battista Piazzetta (Piazzetta, Giovanni Battista) looked toward Crespi for the basis of his expressive Tenebrist style, Sebastiano Ricci took his cue from Giordano. The brilliant lightness and vivacity of his frescoes in the Palazzo Marucelli-Fenzi, Florence, mark the beginning of a great tradition of Venetian decorative painting, a tradition that was to be carried all over Europe by Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini, Giambattista Pittoni, and, above all, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. The vast majority of the finest decorations (e.g., frescoes) carried out by the Venetian 18th-century painters were executed outside the Veneto (the region of which Venice is the principal city), but the opposite is true of the flourishing Venetian school of landscape, vedute (veduta) (“views”), and genre painters. Giovanni Antonio Canal, called Canaletto, developed the views of Venice painted by Luca Carlevaris into an industry almost entirely dependent upon foreign tourists; and his nephew Bernardo Bellotto spent most of his career painting views in central Europe. Francesco Guardi (Guardi, Francesco) avoided the cool precision of the vedute of Canaletto and Bellotto and instead evolved a much lighter and more lyrical Rococo style with a strong sense of the picturesque and, occasionally, the bizarre. In Rome a similar contrast existed between the brilliant, precise vedute of Giovanni Paolo Pannini and the strange, almost Romantic vedute in the form of etchings by Giovanni Battista Piranesi.

Spain and Portugal
      Two fundamental and ostensibly opposed streams permeate Spanish painting and separate it from that of the rest of Europe—ecstatic mysticism and sober rationalism. These qualities are essentially Gothic (Gothic art) in spirit, and the Iberian Peninsula is remarkable for the tenacity with which Gothic ideas were retained and for the relatively small influence of Renaissance humanist ideas. The early 17th-century still lifes of Sánchez Cotán (Sánchez Cotán, Juan), with their strong realism and harsh, mysterious lighting, illustrate these contrasts admirably, whereas Luis Tristán (Tristán, Luis) abandoned the Mannerist style of his master El Greco for a much more careful realism. Francisco Pacheco (Pacheco, Francisco), the teacher and father-in-law of Velázquez, was a more important writer than painter, and his writings laid down a theoretical basis for the Spanish approach to spirituality through naturalism. The early works of José de Ribera (Ribera, José de) show a synthesis of Spanish realism and ideas drawn from both Annibale Carracci and Caravaggio; the fierce darkness of these paintings formed the basis of the Tenebrist (tenebrism) style that dominated Neapolitan painting during the first half of the 17th century. Ribera himself, however, developed away from this style in his later paintings and moved toward a softer and more even handling of light. Francisco de Zurbarán (Zurbarán, Francisco de) was active mainly in Seville until his removal to Madrid in 1658, and unlike Ribera he painted throughout his life in the stark Spanish realist style. The massive solemnity of his figures and simple, clear-cut compositions are wholly in sympathy with the demands of the Counter-Reformation, and only in Madrid did he come under substantial Italian influence.

      Diego Velázquez (Velázquez, Diego) was almost the exact contemporary of Zurbarán, but, unlike Zurbarán, who spent almost all his life in the company of monks in the provinces, Velázquez' time from 1623 was spent in the Spanish court in Madrid. His early bodegones (scenes of daily life with strong elements of still life in the composition) were painted in Seville and belong to the Spanish realist tradition, but at court he saw the Titians collected by Philip II and also Rubens' paintings. After he visited Italy in 1629–31, there was greater freedom in the way he handled paint, more interest in colour, and increased depth to his analyses of character.

      The early works of the Seville painter Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban) again follow the Spanish realist tradition in their cool detachment, but in his late works his style softened and sweetened into a sentimentality that proved immensely popular. Alonso Cano (Cano, Alonso) formed his early painting style in Seville on the simple monumentality of Zurbarán, but after he moved to Madrid in 1638 his paintings took on a new elegance and gracefulness. (Cano was also active as a sculptor and architect in Granada [1652–57]). Antonio del Castillo and Juan de Valdés Leal (Valdés Leal, Juan de Nisa) were the most important painters active in Andalusia after Murillo, and the works of both reveal that liveliness of handling, with accents of strong local colour, which replaced the sober realism popular in the first half of the century.

       Portugal was ruled by Spain until 1640, when John IV was proclaimed king. But economic conditions hampered serious patronage of the arts until the reign of John V, when the most distinguished painter was Francisco Vieira de Matos. Unfortunately, the Lisbon earthquake of 1755 destroyed much of the best art collected in the Portuguese capital at that time.

      The year 1566 saw the Netherlands in open revolt against Philip II of Spain, and, inasmuch as this revolt had a Protestant as well as a nationalist aspect, a wave of iconoclasm swept across the area. By 1600 the area had become divided into the Spanish-dominated, Catholic, southern provinces—broadly modern Belgium—and the independent, predominantly Calvinist United Provinces of the north—broadly the modern Netherlands, or colloquially Holland; the boundary between the two remained fluid, however. In the southern provinces throughout the 16th to 18th centuries Brussels, headed by viceroys, remained the centre of court patronage, while Antwerp, with its great patrician families, was the commercial centre.

      Painting in the southern provinces before 1610 was intensely conservative; the Mannerist conventions were never accepted as fully as in the north. Instead, Italianate ideas were joined with the late Gothic tradition.

      Peter Paul Rubens (Rubens, Peter Paul) arrived back in Antwerp from Italy late in 1608. In the following year he was appointed court painter to the archduke Albert and the archduchess Isabella, with special permission to reside in Antwerp, to help repair damage caused by the iconoclasm of 1566. The necessary ingredients were present for a brilliant flowering of the Baroque art that Rubens had evolved in Italy, and his studio became an artistic centre not only for the Netherlands but for England, Spain, and central Europe as well. The monumentality of Rubens' forms, with their impulsive drawing, restless movement, and dramatic lighting, provided the touchstone for the High Baroque in the Catholic areas of northern Europe. By Rubens' death, Philip IV of Spain had acquired more than 130 paintings by him. A diplomatic visit to England (where he found so much favour with Charles I that the latter knighted him) in 1630 had resulted in the commission to decorate the ceiling of the Banqueting Hall in Whitehall, one of the most monumental commissions of Rubens' last period.

      Anthony Van Dyck (Van Dyck, Sir Anthony), a pupil and assistant of Rubens, was a much less forceful personality than his master; and this is reflected in the quieter, more introspective note characteristic of his paintings. His greater sympathy for the sitter made him the most successful portrait painter of his time. Between 1625/26 and 1632 he was active, mainly as a portrait painter, in the entourage of Rubens, but the last years of his life (1632–41) were spent in England as court painter to Charles I, from whom he, too, received a knighthood. The elegant, relaxed, aristocratic portrait style he introduced was outstandingly successful and rendered obsolete the stiff portraits of Daniel Mytens and the straightforward, unpretentious portraits of Cornelius Johnson (Johnson, Cornelius), two other painters of Low Countries origin active in England at this time. Van Dyck's death coincided with the outbreak of the Civil War in England; and the portraitists William Dobson (Dobson, William) and Robert Walker, in the troubled years 1641–60 the only painters of note active in England, reveal a considerable debt to him. Jacob Jordaens (Jordaens, Jacob) also worked as an assistant in Rubens' workshop in Antwerp and took it over after his death. His handling of the Rubensian idiom moved increasingly away from the control of Rubens himself toward a much more boisterous and vulgar style with an emphasis on large genre scenes populated with rough plebeian types.

      The remaining members of Rubens' studio, such as Cornelis de Vos and Caspar de Crayer, were much weaker artistic personalities, and one of the few painters of genius relatively independent of Rubens was Adriaen Brouwer (Brouwer, Adriaen), who painted in the tradition of Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Best known for his low-life pictures, Brouwer also painted very expressive landscapes; his work is characterized by the sensitive use of a heavily loaded brush. In comparison, David Teniers (Teniers, David, The Younger) the Younger was a minor master, and with him the influence of Dutch painting became increasingly strong. The impact of Rubens' landscape style is felt in the paintings of Jan Wildens and Lucas van Uden, while in contrast Jan Brueghel the Younger turned the making of copies and pastiches of his father's works into something approaching an industry. Still-life (still-life painting) and animal painting reached new heights in the works of Frans Snyders as a result of the influence of Rubens, and in a much quieter vein Snyders' pupil Jan Fyt continued the tradition, which was to last into the 18th century. Jan Davidsz de Heem (Heem, Jan Davidsz de) was also active in Holland, but he is important as one of the creators of the elaborate, fully developed Baroque still life, and as such he had a host of followers and imitators.

The United Provinces
      Dutch painting of the 17th century shares roots with that of the Spanish Netherlands. Holland (Netherlands, The), however, was independent, rapidly prospering, and almost entirely Protestant. In the last decades of the 16th century the great port of Haarlem was the most active artistic centre, and the remarkable flowering of Mannerist painting there, as exemplified by Cornelis van Haarlem and Hendrik Goltzius, is without a parallel south of the border. In the later pictures of Abraham Bloemaert, Mannerism gave way to the much more straightforward realist style characteristic of the earliest phase of Dutch 17th-century painting. The influence of the figure paintings of Adam Elsheimer (Elsheimer, Adam) on this generation of artists was considerable; his particularly Italianate style, with sharply delineated forms painted in rich, deep colours and with a pronounced element of fantasy, is reflected by the early paintings of Leonard Bramer and, even more importantly, Pieter Lastman, the master of Rembrandt. Elsheimer's poetic little landscapes were also extremely important for the group of Dutch artists active in Rome about 1620. This group was headed by Cornelis van Poelenburgh and Bartolomeus Breenbergh, and back home it provided an additional source of Italian influence. The most striking influence of Italy was provided, however, by the Dutch followers of Caravaggio, who had seized eagerly upon the harsh dramatic lighting and coarse plebeian types they had seen in his paintings during their stays in Italy and brought the style to the north to form the so-called Utrecht school. Gerrit van Honthorst (Honthorst, Gerrit van), Hendrik Terbrugghen, and Dirck van Baburen were leading champions of this style, but after 1628 Honthorst turned away in the direction of Van Dyck.

      Frans Hals (Hals, Frans) was born in Antwerp, but almost all of his life was spent in Haarlem, where he evolved his characteristic bravura style of portraiture. The stiff solemnity of earlier Dutch portraits gave way to the capture of fleeting changes of expression and superb textural effects, though Hals never succeeded in attaining the degree of psychological penetration characteristic of the portraits painted by Rembrandt.

      The early works of Rembrandt van Rijn, painted in Leiden (1625–31), show a progressive lessening of the influence of Lastman, and Rembrandt, together with his associate Jan Lievens, evolved an increasingly Baroque style, with strong contrasts of light and shade derived from the “Caravaggists.” After he moved to Amsterdam in 1631, these tendencies developed to an opulent and highly Baroque climax in the late 1630s. Following the death of his first wife, Saskia, in 1642, difficult times and the changing tastes of art collectors culminated in his bankruptcy in 1656. In his later works the dramatic Baroque panache gives way to a deep introspection and sympathy for his subjects, and his series of about 60 self-portraits reveals this process in intimate detail. Parallel to his development as a painter is that of his style as an etcher; Rembrandt is considered by many to be the greatest etcher of all time (see printmaking: Printmaking in the 17th century: European etching: The Netherlands (printmaking)). During the years of his financial success, Rembrandt had the largest and most successful painting and printmaking studio in Holland.

      The increasing use at this time of portable easel paintings as domestic ornaments, many of them made for sale by dealers rather than on commission by the consumer, is related to the extraordinary range of subjects in which Dutch painters specialized. Nevertheless, certain basic changes in style and taste occurred during the course of the 17th century, and, although many painters long persisted in outdated styles, the same fundamental changes can be traced in the various specialities. The earliest phase of simple realism held sway until the early 1620s; and the characteristic bright local colours, lack of spatial unity, sudden transition between different planes, and tendency toward high viewpoints are to be found in the genre paintings of Willem Buytewech, flower pieces of Jacob II de Gheyn and Roelant Savery, and marine paintings of Hendrick Cronelisz Vroom and Adam Willaerts. This gave way to a much more limited palette in the early 1620s when, by reducing the strength and range of the colours, an atmospheric unity was obtained. In landscapes and marine paintings the horizon tended to drop, and a continuous and coherent recession into depth was attained, particularly in the paintings of Esaias van de Velde, Jan van Goyen, Hercules Seghers, and Jan Porcellis. The same change is seen in still lifes by Pieter Claesz and Willem Claesz Heda, in which the colours are almost monochrome. Atmospheric unity having been mastered, the change to the heroic classical phase of the middle of the 17th century was gradual, but there was a tendency toward ever-increasingly dramatic Baroque contrasts, be they the leaden skies or great oaks of Jacob van Ruisdael, the vast panoramas of Philips de Koninck, the luminous pastures of Aelbert Cuyp, or the heavy gray seas of Simon de Vlieger. The monumentality of these scenes is paralleled by the rich splendour of the still lifes of Jan Davidsz de Heem, Abraham van Beyeren, and Willem Kalff and the classical calm and simplicity of the scenes by Johannes Vermeer and Pieter de Hooch painted in Delft. In the landscapes of Meindert Hobbema, Claes Berchem, and Adam Pijnacker the majesty of Jacob van Ruisdael's landscapes gives way to a much lighter, more picturesque style. Similarly, the vigorous social realism of Adriaen van Ostade yields to a much lighter and more frivolous treatment in the paintings of his younger brother Isack and Jan Steen and the elegant hunting scenes of Philips Wouwerman.

      With the French invasion of 1672 and the subsequent Dutch economic collapse, the demand for paintings dropped heavily, and in the last decades of the 17th century many Dutch painters either stopped painting or, like the van de Veldes Willem I and Willem II, left the country to work in England or Germany. Late 17th- and 18th-century taste tended toward the almost enamel-like brilliancy and intricate detail of the still lifes by Rachel Ruysch and Jan van Huysum; the same slightly dated flavour is characteristic of the marine paintings of Ludolf Backhuysen and of the hard figure subjects of Willem van Mieris and Adriaan van der Werff.

      French-speaking painters continued the Mannerist conventions even later than did those at Haarlem, and at Nancy (capital of the independent duchy of Lorraine before 1633 and again from 1697 to 1766) a group of artists around Jacques Bellange and Jacques Callot was responsible for the last great flowering of the Mannerist style in Europe. By comparison, painting in Paris during the first decades of the 17th century was relatively insignificant, with the exception of that of Claude Vignon, who exchanged his Mannerist training for a style based on Elsheimer and to a lesser extent Lastman, and who in the 1620s revealed a remarkable knowledge of the earliest paintings of Rembrandt. The return of Simon Vouet (Vouet, Simon) to Paris, however, marked the arrival of the Baroque in France. The earliest paintings from his stay in Rome are strikingly vigorous essays in the “Caravaggesque” style, but by 1620 he was painting in an eclectic, classicizing style based on the early Baroque painters active there, including Giovanni Lanfranco and Guido Reni. This style he brought back to France, enjoying until his death an immense success in Paris as a decorator and painter of large-scale altarpieces; even the return of Nicolas Poussin (Poussin, Nicolas) failed to shake his position. Poussin's activity in Paris is of relatively little importance compared with the remainder of his career in Rome, but the large number of works commissioned by French patrons then and subsequently was an important factor in the formation of the French predilection for classicism (Classicism and Neoclassicism).

      The influence of the highly Baroque paintings depicting the life of Marie de Médicis that Rubens had executed for the Luxembourg Palace in Paris was small. But Philippe de Campaigne evolved a grave and sober Baroque style that had its roots in the paintings of Rubens and Van Dyck rather than in Italy. Clear lighting and cool colours with an austere naturalism provided an alternative to the intellectual and archaeological classicism of Poussin. Georges de La Tour (La Tour, Georges de), a painter who had affinities with the Dutch “Caravaggists” of Utrecht, was active in Lorraine; but although he exploited the Caravaggist (Caravaggio) system of lighting, his figures became increasingly detached and simplified, leading to an uncomfortable hardness. The paintings of the Le Nain brothers—Antoine, Louis, and Mathieu—again look to Dutch painting for their inspiration. Eustache Le Sueur (Le Sueur, Eustache) began painting under the influence of Vouet, but after Poussin's brief return to Paris (1640–42) he turned to a much more rigorous classical style influenced by Raphael's tapestry designs, whereas Sébastien Bourdon was capable of painting in almost any current style on request.

      In the reorganization of the Academy of Painting and Sculpture in 1648, Charles Le Brun (Le Brun, Charles) was appointed director and given the position of virtual dictator of the arts in France. An imaginative painter and designer, Le Brun was also a brilliant organizer, and the creation of the Louis XIV style, as exemplified by the Palace of Versailles, was above all due to him. The particular Baroque style that emerged was based on the Roman High Baroque but was purged of all theatricality and illusionism and modified to conform to the classical canons of French taste; this compromise solution struck the keynote for the frescoes of Le Brun and Pierre Mignard. The more full-blooded Baroque style of Pierre Puget (Puget, Pierre) received little official recognition, and his attempts to obtain major commissions at Versailles were thwarted, probably because of his difficult nature. During the last decades of the century, the full Baroque style took on a new lease on life, and the decorative paintings of Charles de La Fosse and Antoine Coypel clearly reveal the influence of Rubens. Even more Baroque are formal portraits by Hyacinthe Rigaud and Nicolas de Largillière, in which the strong contrapposto (twisting of the figure so that one half is in opposition to the other), rich settings, and floating masses of drapery reflect the pomp and swagger of this era—which, significantly, came to be known as the Grande Époque.

      The great formal portraits of Largillière and Rigaud are entirely Baroque in their approach, but in the late informal portraits of these masters a new atmosphere prevails. This atmosphere goes by the name of Rococo (Rococo style). The turn of the century marks the victory of Rubens' influence over the severe classicism of Poussin. The evolution of the Rococo style of decoration has been traced from its emergence at the beginning of the 18th century, and it must be emphasized that the Rococo is fundamentally a decorative style. It made relatively little impact on religious painting in France, and painters such as Pierre Subleyras continued to work in a Baroque idiom until the arrival of Neoclassicism in the second half of the century. It took the genius of Antoine Watteau (Watteau, Antoine) to put together all the ideas current in Paris and to create the new style of painting. Rubens (in particular his oil sketches), the brush drawings and etchings of Castiglione, the naturalism of the Dutch painters, and the fantasy of the French artist Claude Gillot all provided important source material for early Rococo painting. The delicate sketchlike technique and elegant figures of Watteau's wistful fantasies, called fêtes galantes, provided the models for the paintings of Jean-Baptiste Pater and Nicolas Lancret, both of whom conveyed a delicately veiled eroticism. Eroticism was more explicit in the sensuous nudes, both mythological and pastoral, of François Boucher (Boucher, François). Another painter with whom amorous dalliance is a hallmark was Jean-Honoré Fragonard (Fragonard, Jean-Honoré), in whose soft landscapes flirtation and even seduction are conducted with gallantry. Such paintings formed an intimate part of the decoration of Rococo interiors, and more than any earlier secular paintings they were intended as a kind of two-dimensional furniture.

 The furniture role also applies to the paintings of dead game and live dogs by François Desportes and Jean-Baptiste Oudry. But in the still lifes and tranquil scenes of domestic life painted by Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin (Chardin, Jean-Baptiste-Siméon) there is a sobriety of colour and composition (although great richness in the handling), an often relatively homely subject matter, and a concern to order the mind rather than dazzle the eye (see photograph—>). Some of Chardin's subjects—the labours of the servant class, the care of children—were shared by Jean-Baptiste Greuze (Greuze, Jean-Baptiste), who was, however, more interested in narrative and sentiment. Unlike Dutch painters of lower-class life, Greuze endowed his peasants with the sensibility of their social superiors. The edifying moral sympathy he intended to inculcate was, however, often subverted by a sly erotic interest he could not resist giving expression to.

      Despite his great success, Greuze was judged to have failed in his attempt at painting heroic narrative from ancient history. But then it is true that the “higher” class of painting was generally less successfully practiced in France than were the “lower” genres in the 18th century. The mythologies and altarpieces of the Coypel family, Jean-François de Troy, or Jean-Marc Nattier may have been underestimated, but their names are not as familiar as those of still-life and genre painters such as Watteau or Chardin or even those of such accomplished painters of capricious ruin pieces or of landscapes and seascapes as Hubert Robert and Claude-Joseph Vernet.

      The middle decades of the 18th century saw more accomplished portrait painters flourishing in France than perhaps ever before in any country. Yet it is the informal, the convivial, and the intimate that are associated with the portraiture of Jacques-André-Joseph Aved, François-Hubert Drouais, Louis Tocqué, Louis-Michel Van Loo, or Étienne Aubry. The heroic was seldom attempted and never achieved.

The 17th century
      English painting during the 17th century had been dominated by a series of foreign-born practitioners, mostly portraitists (e.g., Rubens and Van Dyck), even before the Civil War. Sir Peter Lely (Lely, Sir Peter) and Sir Godfrey Kneller continued this trend after the Restoration. The vast majority of the painting executed by native artists remained thoroughly provincial. Lely began his activity in England during the Civil War, probably in 1641, but his portraits of the members of the court of Charles II set the pattern for English portraiture of the second half of the 17th century. British (United Kingdom) patrons in the 18th century sometimes collected paintings on religious or mythical themes by foreign artists, but at home they rarely commissioned anything other than portraits, landscapes, and marine paintings, although there was in the early 18th century a vogue for grand allegorical decorations in aristocratic houses. The Protestant church, however, did little to encourage painting. In fact, the preponderance of portraits is the most distinctive characteristic of old British collections. Gerard Soest, Jacob Huysmans, and Willem Wissing were also active in England as portrait painters close in style to Lely, whereas Jan Siberechts and Robert Streeter painted “portraits” of English country houses. The most distinguished painters to settle in England during this period were the van de Veldes, from whom the tradition of British marine painting descends, headed by Peter Monamy and Samuel Scott.

      The Glorious Revolution of 1688 was followed by a brief flowering of decorative painting under Sir James Thornhill (Thornhill, Sir James), which was the closest that Britain ever approached to the developed Baroque style of the Continent. This process was in part due to the influx, following the end of the War of the Spanish Succession, of Italian painters, including the Venetians Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini and Jacopo Amigoni, and French ones, such as Charles de La Fosse. The German-born Kneller (Kneller, Sir Godfrey, Baronet) succeeded Lely as court portrait painter, but, although his portraits often have a certain liveliness, his rather heavy use of studio assistants resulted in a tendency to monotony.

The 18th century
      Thornhill's son-in-law William Hogarth (Hogarth, William) was, despite his chauvinism and virulently anti-French sentiments, heavily influenced by the continental Rococo style. Early in his career he succeeded in breaking away from the straitjacket of portraiture, and his moralizing paintings are superb evocations of life in the England of George I and George II. His rich, creamy paint handling and brilliant characterization of textures have a freshness and vitality unequaled in the work of any of his contemporaries. He invented a new form of secular narrative painting that imparts a moral. These paintings were often tragicomedies, although dependent upon no texts, and Hogarth's series of such works were always intended to be engraved for a large public as well as seen in a private picture gallery (just as plays were intended to be performed as well as read).

      Despite Hogarth's considerable knowledge of and borrowings from continental old masters, he remained in the last analysis English through and through. This, however, was not the case with all the next generation of painters; and the Scottish-born Allan Ramsay (Ramsay, Allan) studied in Rome and Naples in 1736–38 before settling in London in 1739. Until the return of Joshua Reynolds (Reynolds, Sir Joshua) from Italy in 1752, Ramsay held undisputed sway as the most successful portrait painter in London; and to him must be given the credit for the initial marriage of the Italian “grand style” to English portraiture. Ramsay visited Italy again in 1755–57, and on his return his portraits took on a new delicacy and elegance and a silvery tonality. Reynolds possessed great ambitions and a more profound acquaintance with the old masters than any of his contemporaries. His colouring and handling can be compared with Rembrandt, Rubens, and Veronese, and his poses are indebted to the sculpture of antiquity and to Michelangelo. The Discourses that he delivered to the Royal Academy (Royal Academy of Arts) (founded in 1768 with Reynolds as its first president) are the most impressive statement in English of the central ideas of European art theory from the time of Leon Battista Alberti's treatise. Reynolds' own painting gained a genuine heroic power and elevated grace from his frustrated ambition to be a history painter, although for that very reason he occasionally tumbled into bathos.

      The third major British painter of the period to study in Italy was a Welshman, Richard Wilson (Wilson, Richard), who worked there from 1750 to about 1757 before settling in London. His landscape style was formed on Claude, Gaspard Dughet, and Cuyp; but the clear golden lighting of his Italian landscapes carries the conviction of an artist saturated with the Mediterranean tradition. A cooler clarity and classical simplicity pervade his northern landscapes; and, despite the uneven quality of his work, Wilson was the first British painter to lift the pure landscape above mere decorative painting and topography.

      Thomas Gainsborough (Gainsborough, Thomas) was in every way the antithesis to Reynolds. Trained entirely in England, he had no wish to visit Italy. Instead of the “grand style,” his tastes in portraiture lay in the delicate flickering brushwork and evanescent qualities of the Rococo. He preferred landscape painting to portraiture, and the strong Dutch influence in his earliest works later gave way to spontaneous landscapes composed from models.

      In the 1760s Francis Cotes was the most important fashionable London portrait painter after Reynolds and Gainsborough, a position succeeded to by George Romney (Romney, George), who, on returning to London from Italy in 1775, took over Cotes's studio. Romney's portraits deteriorated sadly in quality during the 1780s when the young Sir Thomas Lawrence began to make his mark.

      Throughout the 18th century, portraiture remained the most important genre of British painting, despite the efforts of Reynolds and Gainsborough in their “fancy pictures.” Even the taste for large-scale scenes illustrating Shakespeare and other themes—which were commissioned toward the end of the century from James Barry, James Northcote, and Edward Penny, among others—never spread far beyond a few patrons. Sporting and animal painting, however, took on an entirely new dimension in the work of George Stubbs. Joseph Wright (Wright, Joseph) of Derby was active outside London and, apart from his romantic portraits, is important for his series of paintings of scientific and industrial subjects with strong light effects. Johann Zoffany (Zoffany, John) was born in Germany but moved to Britain about 1761 and became a founder-member of the Royal Academy, specializing in elaborate group portraits and theatrical scenes.

      During the second half of the 18th century the evolution of British oil painting was to a great extent paralleled by the extraordinary flowering in watercolours (watercolour). The early topographical drawings of Paul Sandby gave way to the delicate linear drawings of Francis Towne, with their patches of colour resembling maps, and, at the close of the century, to the atmospheric unity of the landscapes of John Robert Cozens (England).

Colonial Americas

      Painting in the Dutch and English colonies of North America reflected generally the portrait styles of the mother countries, though with a note of provinciality. In the late 17th and early 18th centuries the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam (New York) had painters whose names today are forgotten. Their work lives on, however, and is signified by names such as the Master of the De Peyster Boy. Gustavus Hesselius, Swedish born, was painting in Maryland, and Jeremiah Theüs, a Swiss, was at work in South Carolina. Peter Pelham and John Smibert arrived from England and in the second quarter of the 18th century were painting portraits in Boston, Mass. These two self-taught itinerant artists were succeeded by John Wollaston and Joseph Blackburn. Robert Feke, a native American painter, realized his forms more solidly and with greater originality than his predecessors had. Another native American, John Singleton Copley (Copley, John Singleton), worked in Boston until 1774, when he went to live permanently in England, and was responsible for the finest painting produced in the American colonies. Benjamin West (West, Benjamin), another important native figure in the history of American painting, was born in Pennsylvania but settled in London in 1763, where he became the second president of the Royal Academy. Although domiciled in London, he helped to mold the styles of two generations of American painters.

      Baroque painting in Central and South America is basically an extension of that of Spain and Portugal, and even the best rarely rises to the general standard of the European schools. Important paintings and sculptures tended to be imported from Europe, and Zurbarán was particularly active in producing works for export, while local productions were more or less heavily influenced by the Indian traditions.

Central Europe
      In central Europe the Mannerist tradition remained dominant until the Thirty Years' War (1618–48), particularly in Bohemia and Bavaria, where Italian influence was perhaps strongest.

      The Rubensian Baroque became dominant after mid-century, and here the lead was taken by Silesia and Bohemia. Michael Willmann, originally from Königsberg (modern Kaliningrad) on the southeastern Baltic coast, developed a highly charged, emotional Baroque style, based on Rubens, at Lubiąż (modern Dorf Leubus, northwest of Wrocław) from 1661 to 1700 and at Prague after 1700. In Karel Škréta Šotnovoský, Bohemia possessed a painter of European stature; his sombre portraits and religious scenes are filled with a deeply serious mystical fervour. The frescoes (fresco painting) by Johann Michael Rottmayr in the castle of Vranov in Moravia (1695) and in Breslau (now Wrocław; 1704–06) constitute a prelude to the great development of Baroque painting in the Habsburg domains. There the vigorous and extremely colourful frescoes are closely integrated with the architecture. The vast majority of the best central European Baroque painting outside portraiture is monumental in scale, and the concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk (“total work of art”)—where painting, sculpture, and architecture are combined together into a single, unified, and harmonious ensemble—is of overwhelming importance.

      Painting in Austria flourished, and Franz Anton Maulbertsch is arguably the greatest painter of the 18th century in central Europe. The vast majority of his brilliant fresco cycles are located in relatively inaccessible areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and northern Hungary. But the mystical intensity of his religious scenes and the joyous abandon of his secular subjects form a triumphant closing chapter to 18th-century central European painting. Maulbertsch's last frescoes at Strahov, Prague (1794), reveal, nevertheless, the impact of the Neoclassicism that descended in the last decades on all Austrian painters, including Troger's pupil Martin Knoller. But Austrian monumental painting remained fully Baroque in the hands of Daniel Gran, Paul Troger, and Bartholomäus Altomonte; and it was not until the latter part of the century that the Rococo made its impact.

      During the first four decades of the 18th century, Bohemian Baroque painting developed almost independently of Vienna, where the Habsburg rulers of Bohemia had their capital. The impetuous work of Jan Petr Brandl and the powerful realism of the portraitist Jan Kupecký, who worked in Rome, Venice, Vienna, and Nürnberg, always remained Bohemian in spirit. The frescoes of Wenzel Lorenz Reiner, however, show more Italian influence. One of the few important Baroque frescoes of the second half of the century is that by Jan Lucaš Kracker in St. Nicholas, Malá Strana (“Lesser Quarter”), Prague. The influence of Bohemian Baroque painting is frequently underestimated. Apart from Vienna and the surrounding area, it was dominant in Silesia and strong later in the century in Franconia.

      After the death of Cosmas Damian Asam in 1739, Johann Baptist Zimmermann became the most important fresco painter in the Munich area; his lyrical handling of pale colours is typical of the Rococo period. Christian Wink continued to paint in the same style until the close of the century. In Georg Desmarées the court at Munich gained a painter in whose Rococo portraits there is more than a hint of decadence.

      The centre of south German painting had by the late 1730s shifted from Munich to Augsburg in Swabia, where Johann Georg Bermüller became the director of the Academy in 1730; but his frescoes, as well as those of Franz Joseph Spiegler and Gottfried Bernhard Goetz, are perhaps more representative of the Late Baroque than the Rococo. The frescoes of Matthäus Günther, who became director of the Augsburg Academy in 1762, show a steady evolution from his early Baroque compositions, through the much lighter asymmetrical Rococo compositions, to the strongly sculptural quality of his late works, which reveal the onset of Neoclassicism.

      In Franconia and the middle Rhineland the most important painters were Johann Zick and Carlo Carlone. Zick's frescoes at Würzburg (1749) had not been entirely successful, and in 1750 he was supplanted by Tiepolo; but at Bruchsal he produced one of the most brilliant series of Rococo frescoes in Germany (now destroyed). His son Januarius began painting in the Rococo style but under the influence of Anton Raphael Mengs (Mengs, Anton Raphael) produced some late frescoes that were strongly classical.

      The French tastes of Frederick I of Prussia at Berlin led him in 1710 to summon Antoine Pesne (Pesne, Antoine) to court, where Pesne continued for the remainder of his life to paint in an entirely French Rococo style. The homely intimacy of the paintings of Daniel Chodowiecki, however, have a sensitivity and refinement more comparable to Chardin's.

      Saxony under Augustus III produced few painters of real importance except Mengs, who rapidly turned from the Rococo to the Neoclassicism propounded by the influential art historian and classical archaeologist Johann Winckelmann.

      King Władysław IV Vasa (reigned 1632–48) assembled an important collection of Italian and Flemish Baroque paintings, but these promising developments were cut short by the destruction of the Swedish Wars in the middle of the 17th century. Under John III Sobieski (reigned 1674–96), a cultivated man, there was a considerable revival, and, although two of the painters active in Poland—Claude Callot and Michelangelo Palloni—were foreign-born and foreign-trained, native talent flowered with the work of Jerzy Eleuter Szymonowicz-Siemiginowski and Jan Tretko. In 1697 the crowns of Poland and Saxony were united under Augustus II, and he and his son Augustus III ruled over Poland until 1763. During this period, Polish painting formed part of the Saxon tradition, but during the reign of the last king of Poland, Stanisław II August Poniatowski (reigned 1764–95), Warsaw quickly became a centre of European importance. Although inclined to Neoclassicism in architecture, Stanisław's taste in painting was more conservative. Accordingly it is the late Rococo portraits of Marcello Bacciarelli that are particularly important. A nephew and pupil of Canaletto, Bernardo Bellotto (Bellotto, Bernardo), settled in Warsaw in 1767 and executed for Stanisław the great series of 26 views of the city that were intended to hang in the Royal Castle.

Peter Cannon-Brookes Ed.

      The Baroque in Russia was imported from western Europe and outside court circles made little impact. Indeed the traditional production of icons for the Orthodox church by artists of the Novgorod and Moscow schools continued throughout the Baroque period. Nevertheless the foundation of St. Petersburg (1703) by Peter I the Great marked the beginning of the substitution of Western influence for Byzantine, an important change. During Peter's reign foreign painters began to go to Russia in increasing numbers; conversely, groups of young Russians were sent to Italy, France, Holland, and England to study painting. Western influence determined the character of Russian painting for more than two centuries.

      The art of Peter's age shows almost no trace of Byzantine influence. Only in iconography did the old style persist for some time. Early in the 18th century, religious painting began to give way to secular painting, and the church prohibition of sculpture became ineffective. Dmitry Levitsky stands out as the only important Russian painter of the 18th century to work in the Western style.

      Further westernizing occurred under the empress Elizabeth (reigned 1741–62), who had French tastes. A great number of vast and luxurious Rococo-style palaces were built, and painting was primarily concerned with their interior decoration—ceilings and walls. The work was carried on chiefly by Italians and Frenchmen.

      In 1757 the Academy of Fine Arts was founded in St. Petersburg, and foreign artists—mostly French—were invited to direct the new school. These trained some remarkable native portraitists, such as Ivan Argunov, Anton Losenko, and Fyodor Rokotov. Their works reflected the ceremonial character of Elizabeth's tastes and showed little evidence of native Russian sensibility.

Arthur Voyce Ed.

      In the 17th century, Scandinavian painting derived from traditions of the Low Countries and northern Germany. The works of art carried off as loot from Prague by Swedish (Sweden) soldiers during the Thirty Years' War might conceivably have broadened the outlook of Swedes at home, but the best of them were taken to Rome by Queen Christina when she abdicated in 1654. A generation later, under the influence of the fashionable Venetian woman pastelist Rosalba Carriera, a school of Rococo portraitists flourished in Scandinavia. One such portraitist was Carl Gustav Pilo, who, though trained in Stockholm, executed many frankly Venetian portraits during his years as court painter in Copenhagen. Another was Lorentz Pasch the Younger, who trained under Pilo in Copenhagen, although he subsequently worked mainly in Sweden. Other painters of Swedish origin were Alexander Roslin, who worked throughout Europe, and Georg Desmarées, who settled in Bavaria. The Scandinavian Rococo has a distinctive flavour that is also detectable in the work of two important miniaturists of the period, Niclas Lafrensen and Cornelius Höyer. At the close of the century the paintings of Jens Juel in Denmark bridge the transition from Rococo (Rococo style) to Neoclassicism.

Neoclassical and Romantic

      Neoclassicism was a widespread and influential movement in painting and the other visual arts that began in the 1760s, reached its height in the 1780s and '90s, and lasted until the 1840s and '50s. In painting it generally took the form of an emphasis on austere linear design in the depiction of classical themes and subject matter, using archaeologically correct settings and costumes.

      Neoclassicism arose partly as a reaction against the sensuous and frivolously decorative Rococo style that had dominated European art from the 1720s on. But an even more profound stimulus was the new and more scientific interest in classical antiquity that arose in the 18th century. Neoclassicism was given great impetus by new archaeological (archaeology) discoveries, particularly the exploration and excavation of the buried Roman cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii (the excavations of which began in 1738 and 1748, respectively). And from the second decade of the 18th century on, a number of influential publications by Bernard de Montfaucon, Giovanni Battista Piranesi, the Comte de Caylus, and Robert Wood provided engraved views of Roman monuments and other antiquities and further quickened interest in the classical past. The new understanding distilled from these discoveries and publications in turn enabled European scholars for the first time to discern separate and distinct chronological periods in Greco-Roman art, and this new sense of a plurality of ancient styles replaced the older, unqualified veneration of Roman art and encouraged a dawning interest in purely Greek antiquities. The German scholar Johann Joachim Winckelmann's (Winckelmann, Johann) writings and sophisticated theorizings were especially influential in this regard. Winckelmann saw in Greek sculpture “a noble simplicity and quiet grandeur” and called for artists to imitate Greek art. He claimed that in doing so such artists would obtain idealized depictions of natural forms that had been stripped of all transitory and individualistic aspects, and their images would thus attain a universal and archetypal significance.

      Neoclassicism as manifested in painting was initially not stylistically distinct from the French Rococo and other styles that had preceded it. This was partly because, whereas it was possible for architecture and sculpture to be modeled on prototypes in these media that had actually survived from classical antiquity, those few classical paintings that had survived were minor or merely ornamental works—until, that is, the discoveries made at Herculaneum and Pompeii. The earliest Neoclassical painters were Joseph-Marie Vien, Anton Raphael Mengs (Mengs, Anton Raphael), Pompeo Batoni, Angelica Kauffmann, and Gavin Hamilton; these artists were active during the 1750s, '60s, and '70s. Each of these painters, though they may have used poses and figural arrangements from ancient sculptures and vase paintings, was strongly influenced by preceding stylistic trends. An important early Neoclassical work such as Mengs's “Parnassus” (1761; Villa Albani, Rome) owes much of its inspiration to 17th-century classicism and to Raphael for both the poses of its figures and its general composition. Many of the early paintings of the Neoclassical artist Benjamin West derive their compositions from works by Nicolas Poussin, and Kauffmann's (Kauffmann, Angelica) sentimental subjects dressed in antique garb are basically Rococo in their softened, decorative prettiness. Mengs's close association with Winckelmann led to his being influenced by the ideal beauty that the latter so ardently expounded, but the church and palace ceilings decorated by Mengs owe more to existing Italian Baroque traditions than to anything Greek or Roman.

  A more rigorously Neoclassical painting style arose in France in the 1780s under the leadership of Jacques-Louis David (David, Jacques-Louis). He and his contemporary Jean-François-Pierre Peyron were interested in narrative painting rather than the ideal grace that fascinated Mengs. Just before and during the French Revolution, these and other painters adopted stirring moral subject matter from Roman history and celebrated the values of simplicity, austerity, heroism, and stoic virtue that were traditionally associated with the Roman Republic, thus drawing parallels between that time and the contemporary struggle for liberty in France. David's history paintings of the “Oath of the Horatii” (1784; Louvre, Paris [see photograph—>]) and “Lictors Bringing to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons” (1789; Louvre) display a gravity and decorum deriving from classical tragedy, a certain rhetorical quality of gesture, and patterns of drapery influenced by ancient sculpture. To some extent these elements were anticipated by British and American artists such as Hamilton and West, but in David's works the dramatic confrontations of the figures are starker and in clearer profile on the same plane, the setting is more monumental, and the diagonal compositional movements, large groupings of figures, and turbulent draperies of the Baroque have been almost entirely repudiated (see photograph—>). This style was ruthlessly austere and uncompromising, and it is not surprising that it came to be associated with the French Revolution (in which David actively participated).

      Neoclassicism as generally manifested in European painting by the 1790s emphasized the qualities of outline and linear design over those of colour, atmosphere, and effects of light. Widely disseminated engravings of classical sculptures and Greek vase paintings helped determine this bias, which is clearly seen in the outline illustrations made by the British sculptor John Flaxman in the 1790s for editions of the works of Homer, Aeschylus, and Dante. These illustrations are notable for their drastic and powerful simplification of the human body, their denial of pictorial space, and their minimal stage setting. This austere linearity when depicting the human form was adopted by many other British figural artists, including the Swiss-born Henry Fuseli and William Blake, among others.

      Neoclassical painters attached great importance to depicting the costumes, settings, and details of their classical subject matter with as much historical accuracy as possible. This worked well enough when illustrating an incident found in the pages of Homer, but it raised the question of whether a modern hero or famous person should be portrayed in classical or contemporary dress. This issue was never satisfactorily resolved, except perhaps in David's brilliantly evocative portraits of sitters wearing the then-fashionable antique garb, as in his “Portrait of Madame Récamier” (1800; Louvre).

      Classical (classical literature) history and mythology provided a large part of the subject matter of Neoclassical works. The poetry of Homer, Virgil, and Ovid, the plays of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, and history recorded by Pliny, Plutarch, Tacitus, and Livy provided the bulk of classical sources, but the most important single source was Homer. To this general literary emphasis was added a growing interest in medieval sources, such as the pseudo-Celtic poetry of Ossian, as well as incidents from medieval history, the works of Dante, and an admiration for medieval art itself in the persons of Giotto, Fra Angelico, and others. Indeed, the Neoclassicists differed strikingly from their academic predecessors in their admiration of Gothic and Quattrocento art in general, and they contributed notably to the positive reevaluation of such art.

      Finally, it should be noted that Neoclassicism coexisted throughout much of its later development with the seemingly obverse and opposite tendency of Romanticism. But far from being distinct and separate, these two styles intermingled with each other in complex ways; many ostensibly Neoclassical paintings show Romantic tendencies, and vice versa. This contradictory situation is strikingly evident in the works of the last great Neoclassical painter, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (Ingres, J.-A.-D), who painted sensuous Romantic female nudes while also turning out precisely linear and rather lifeless historical paintings in the approved Neoclassical mode.

      Hamilton (Hamilton, Gavin)—Scottish painter, archaeologist, and dealer—spent most of his working life in Rome, and his paintings include two series of large and influential canvases of Homeric subjects. West and the Swiss-born Kauffmann were the most consistent exhibitors of history pieces in London during the 1760s. James Barry and Fuseli also were important. Blake, poet and painter, was a Neoclassicist to some extent.

      As well as being a painter, Vien was a friend of the archaeologist Caylus and a director of the French Academy in Rome. This generation also included Jean-Baptiste Greuze (Greuze, Jean-Baptiste), who painted a few classical history subjects as well as the scenes from contemporary life for which he is best known; Jean-Jacque Lagrenée the Elder, like Vien a director of the French Academy in Rome; and Nicolas-Guy Brenet.

 The outstanding and most influential of all French Neoclassicists and one of the major artists in Europe was Vien's pupil Jacques-Louis David (David, Jacques-Louis). David's early works are essentially Rococo, and his late works also revert to early 18th-century types; his fame as a Neoclassicist rests on paintings of the 1780s and '90s. After winning the Prix de Rome of the French Academy in 1774 (important in the history of French painting because it awarded a stay in Rome, where winners studied Italian paintings firsthand), he was in that city in 1775–81, returning there in 1784 to paint “Oath of the Horatii” (see photograph—>). David's contemporaries, or near-contemporaries, included Jean-Germain Drouais, whose history paintings almost equaled David's own in severity and intensity.

      The slightly younger generation of painters included Jean-Baptiste Regnault, Louis-Léopold Boilly, and Louis Gauffier. They were followed by a more important group that included Pierre-Paul Prud'hon (Prud'hon, Pierre-Paul). Prud'hon blended in his paintings a mild classicism and the lyrical mood and soft lights of Correggio; he was patronized by the empresses Josephine and Marie-Louise. Baron Pierre-Narcisse Guérin painted in a style close to the Neoclassicism of David, although he was not one of his pupils.

      Of David's pupils, three became well-known and one became very famous. Baron François-Pascal-Simon Gérard (Gérard, François, Baron) had a high reputation as a portraitist under both Napoleon and Louis XVIII. Antoine-Jean Gros (Gros, Antoine-Jean, Baron) executed many large Napoleonic canvases and after David's death was the leading Neoclassicist in France. Anne-Louis Girodet de Roucy (Girodet-Trioson, Anne-Louis), known as Girodet-Trioson, won a Prix de Rome but stopped painting after 1812 when he inherited a fortune and turned to writing. The famous pupil was Ingres, who was important as a Neoclassicist in his subject paintings but not in his portraits.

      Mengs (Mengs, Anton Raphael) was born in Aussig in Bohemia (modern Ústí nad Labem, Czech Republic) in 1728, the son of the court painter there. He was himself appointed Dresden court painter in 1745. In 1755 he met Winckelmann, and subsequently he became a prominent figure in Roman Neoclassical circles. Mengs is important both as a painter and as a theorist. Apart from him, Germany's and Austria's main contribution to Neoclassicism was theoretical, not practical, however. The early Neoclassicists included Cristoph Unterberger; Anton von Maron, who married Mengs's sister; and Friedrich Heinrich Füger. After Unterberger, the most interesting painter was Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein (Tischbein, Johann Heinrich Wilhelm), who executed both portraits and subject pieces. He was a director of the art academy in Naples and supervised the publication of engravings of the Greek vases in the collection of Sir William Hamilton, the British ambassador to Naples, who was a notable connoisseur.

      The German painter Asmus Jacob Carstens (Carstens, Asmus Jacob) worked in Berlin and was a professor at the Berlin Academy. Members of his artistic circle included the painters Karl Ludwig Fernow, Eberhard Wächter, Joseph Anton Koch (who was the most outstanding of this German group), and Gottlieb Schick.

      One of the earliest Neoclassicists and one of the foremost painters of his generation in Italy was Batoni (Batoni, Pompeo Girolamo). His style blends Rococo with Neoclassical elements, and his work includes classical subject pieces as well as portraits in contemporary dress, the sitter posing with antique statues and urns and sometimes amid ruins. The painter Domenico Corvi was influenced by both Batoni and Mengs and was important as the teacher of three of the leading Neoclassicists of the next generation: Giuseppe Cades, Gaspare Landi, and Vincenzo Camuccini. These artists worked mostly in Rome, the first two making reputations as portraitists, Landi especially being noted for good contemporary groups.

      Rome was indeed the city where the principal Italian painters of this period were most active. One such was Felice Giani, whose many decorations include Napoleonic palaces there and elsewhere in Italy (especially Faenza) and in France.

      Important painters outside Rome include Andrea Appiani the Elder in Milan, who became Napoleon's official painter and executed some of the best frescoes in northern Italy. He was also a fine portraitist. One of his pupils was Giuseppe Bossi. Another leading Lombard painter was Giovanni Battista dell'Era, whose encaustic paintings were bought by Catherine the Great and others. Other good examples of Neoclassical decorative schemes outside Rome are in Florence (Pitti Palace) by the Florentine Luigi Sabatelli and by Pietro Benvenuti, who was born at Arezzo, and in Venice (Palazzo Reale) by Giuseppe Borsato, who was born in that city and was both painter and architect. Another painter of the time, though only given to a mildly Neoclassical style, was Domenico Pellegrini, born near Bassano, who traveled widely. The principal Neoclassicists in the south were the Sicilians Giuseppe Velasco, who did important frescoes in palaces in Palermo, and Giuseppe Errante.

Other countries
      The main Danish (Denmark) painter who produced original Neoclassical works was Nicolai Abraham Abildgaard. Other Danish painters include Abildgaard's and David's pupil Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg. David was very influential in Brussels, where he retired late in life. The paintings of his Belgian pupil François-Joseph Navez, for example, are pure French Neoclassicism. The two main Neoclassical artists in The Netherlands were Humbert de Superville and Jan Willem Pieneman. The principal Neoclassicist in Spain was José de Madrazo y Agudo.

David Irwin Ed.

      Romanticism is a term loosely used to designate numerous and diverse changes in the arts during a period of more than 100 years (roughly, 1760–1870), changes that were in reaction against Neoclassicism (but not necessarily the classicism of Greece and Rome) or against what is variously called the Age of Reason, the Augustan Age, the Enlightenment, or 18th-century materialism. In the sense of a personal temperament Romanticism had always existed, but in the sense of an aesthetic period it signified works of art whose prime impulse and effect derived from individual (individualism) rather than collective reactions. Romanticism can generally be said to have emphasized the personal, the subjective, the irrational, the imaginative, the spontaneous, the emotional, and even the visionary and transcendental in works of art. The Romantic movement first developed in northern Europe with a rejection of technical standards based on the classical ideal that perfection should be attained in art.

      It was writers and poets who gave initial expression to Romantic ideas; painters, while subject to similar feelings, acquired fundamental inspiration from the literature of the period. There was an increasing awareness generally of the way the various arts interacted. The Frenchman Eugène Delacroix and the German Philipp Otto Runge explored the implications of musical analogies for painting, and everywhere writers, artists, and composers could be found in close association.

      Romantic critics agreed that experience of profound inner emotion was the mainspring of creation and appreciation of art. Received ideas, and especially aesthetic (aesthetics) values sanctioned by the authority of official institutions, were distrusted, and the individual was pitted against society. The artist asserted the right to evolve his own criteria of beauty and in so doing encouraged a new concept of artistic genius. The genius whom the Romantics celebrated was one who refused to conform, who remained defiantly independent of society, and whose chief virtues were novelty and sincerity. This sometimes led to bizarre and extravagant projects in which the intention to shock, excite, and involve struck a melodramatic, almost hysterical note that failed to convince by its very lack of restraint.

      As in the literature of the period, tragic themes predominated in Romantic painting, and interest turned sharply from classical history and mythology to medieval subjects, although an interest in the primitive was sometimes common to both. The fascination with the Middle Ages combined with strong nationalist tendencies, disposing artists to a concern with the history and folklore of their own countries. At the same time they often sought themes or styles that were distant in place as well as time. Accounts of foreign travel and the literary works of Dante, Shakespeare, Byron, Goethe, Sir Walter Scott, and the supposed Celtic bard Ossian greatly influenced painters. Study of medieval culture imbued some painters with a Christian ideal of simplicity and moral integrity.

      A salient feature of Romantic sensibility was awareness of the beauties of the natural world. Artists identified their personal feelings with nature's changing aspects. An almost reverential affection, animated by the belief that the divine mind was immanent in nature, engendered at times a Christian or theistic naturalism. The artist was seen as the interpreter of hidden mysteries, to which end imaginative insight must combine with absolute fidelity and sincerity. In Britain and Germany especially, the moral implications inherent in the appreciation of natural or artistic beauty tended to outweigh aesthetic considerations. Interest in transitory phenomena led painters to devote themselves to an accurate study of light and atmosphere and their effects on the landscape. Concern to preserve the spontaneity of the immediate impression brought about a revolution in painterly technique, with the rapid notation of the sketch carried into the final conception. Whether emphasizing expressive or purely visual considerations, the landscape paintings of the period display dazzling colour.

      Curiosity about the external world and a spirit of what might be called scientific inquiry led many painters to explore the minutiae of nature. Technological advance also excited artistic interest, though painting was affected less than architecture and the decorative arts; and the humanitarian sympathy and generosity so vital to the Romantic spirit gradually effected a reconciliation between art and life. The political and social upheavals of the 19th century involved many painters in revolutionary movements and stimulated a solicitude toward the helpless and downtrodden that found most passionate and powerful expression in the works executed during and immediately after the Revolutions of 1848.

      In the late 1760s and '70s a circle of British painters in Rome had already begun to find academic precepts inadequate. James Barry, the brothers John and Alexander Runciman, John Brown, George Romney, and the Swiss-born Henry Fuseli (Fuseli, Henry) favoured themes—whether literary, historical, or purely imaginary—determined by a taste for the pathetic, bizarre, and extravagantly heroic. Mutually influential and highly eclectic, they combined, especially in their drawings, the linear tensions of Italian Mannerism with bold contrasts of light and shade. Though never in Rome, John Hamilton Mortimer had much in common with this group, for all were participants in a move to found a national school of narrative painting. Fuseli's affiliations with the German Romantic Sturm und Drang writers predisposed him, like Flaxman (Flaxman, John), toward the “primitive” heroic stories of Homer and Dante. Flaxman himself, in the two-dimensional linear abstraction of his drawings, a two-dimensionality implying rejection of Renaissance perspective and seen for instance in the expressive purity of “Penelope's Dream” (1792–93), had important repercussions throughout Europe.

 William Blake (Blake, William) absorbed and outstripped the Fuseli circle, evolving new images for a unique private cosmology, rejecting oils in favour of tempera and watercolour, and depicting, as in “Pity” (1795; Tate Gallery, London [see photograph—>]), a shadowless world of soaring, supernatural beings. His passionate rejection of rationalism and materialism, his scorn for both Sir Joshua Reynolds and the Dutch Naturalists, stemmed from a conviction that “poetic genius” could alone perceive the infinite, so essential to the artist since “painting, as well as poetry and music, exists and exults in immortal thoughts.” The spiritual, symbolical expression of Blake's complex sympathies, his ability to recognize God in a single blade of grass, inspired Samuel Palmer (Palmer, Samuel), who, with his friend Edward Calvert, extracted from nature a visionary world of exquisite, though short-lived, intensity.

      Empiricism and acceptance of the irrational, however, were not mutually exclusive, and each profoundly affected attitudes toward nature. Susceptible to the ideas of Blake and other radical theorists and animated by a growing spirit of inquiry into natural phenomena, painters slowly abandoned the picturesque desire to compose and became willing to be moved, awestruck, and terrified by nature unadorned. Early artists of the sublime, such as Alexander Cozens or Francis Towne, worked largely in watercolours (watercolour) and solved the problem of scale by abstraction—use of broad areas of colour to suggest the vast scope of natural forces—an approach developed by Thomas Girtin and John Sell Cotman.

      By the early 19th century, the watercolourist John Varley was echoing current practice when he told his pupils John Linnell, William Mulready, and William Henry Hunt: “Go to nature for everything.” But already two outstanding British landscape painters, John Constable (Constable, John) and J.M.W. Turner (Turner, J.M.W.), were going still further. Both men, while admiring the classical landscapes of Claude Lorrain and Poussin, believed that personal feeling was the mainspring of artistic activity and felt an almost mystical sympathy for the natural world. They made atmosphere almost palpable and painted everything from clouds to lichens with astonishing technical diversity. Constable considered himself before all else a “natural” painter and sought, in his own words, to capture “light—dews—breezes—bloom—and freshness” with scientific precision and deepest affection. For Constable, light clarified and enlivened, and his nostalgia for the Suffolk countryside is personal and explicit. With Turner, light increasingly diffused the objects illuminated, and only a more literary expression satisfied his concept of the sublime, drawing him to mountain grandeur, raging seas, storms, and conflagrations. The technical innovations of these two men were better understood in France than in Britain; even John Ruskin's (Ruskin, John) passionate defense of Turner, with its emphasis on absolute fidelity to nature, helped deflect Turner's and Constable's successors onto a very different course.

      George Stubbs's (Stubbs, George) anatomical studies and accurate delineations of animals were echoed a generation later by Thomas Bewick's bird studies, themselves harbingers of the drawings of Edwin Landseer and Ruskin's closely observed renderings of naturalistic detail. Stubbs's empathy for the animal world reemerged in the work of James Ward, together with an exultation in the power of nature, shared by Philip James de Loutherbourg. Demand for information about distant places partially superseded the taste for picturesque European scenes, and following William Hodges, who accompanied Captain James Cook's second voyage (1772–75), such painters as Richard Parkes Bonington (Bonington, Richard Parkes), Samuel Prout, John Frederick Lewis, and Edward Lear traveled widely, recording scenes of historic or exotic interest.

      In portraiture an interest in extremes of mood found most eloquent expression in the work of Sir Thomas Lawrence (Lawrence, Sir Thomas), who combined in portraits such as those of Richard Payne Knight (1794; Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester) and Pope Pius VII (1819; Royal Collection, Windsor Castle) brilliant freedom of handling, at times approaching exhibitionism, with dramatic expression and setting, at times almost melodramatic.

      History painting, too, was transformed: Bonington's “Henri III and the English Ambassador” (1827–28; Wallace Collection, London), while testifying to a sustained delight in the medieval world, already betrays commensurate interest in period detail and the finer points of human insight. The authentic, domestic treatment of biblical themes at the hands of William Dyce and the Pre-Raphaelites (see below) contrasts sharply with the earlier apocalyptic fantasies of John Martin and Francis Danby. Inspired by David Wilkie's mellow, unassuming representation of country life subject matter, William Mulready (Mulready, William) turned to contemporary scenes of daily life, adopting the brilliant palette that distinguished British painting for the next half-century. The high Victorian Age saw much narrative painting, a genre that was practiced with accurate and sympathetic observation, from the panoramic activity of William Powell Frith's “Derby Day” (1858; Tate Gallery) to such intimate glimpses of reality as “The Travelling Companions” (1862; City Museum and Art Gallery, Birmingham), by Augustus Egg. Painting as a vehicle for social or moral comment was provided by Sir Luke Fildes and Frank Holl, in whose work a tendency to sentimentality is redeemed by a genuine regard for the sufferings of the poor. In the 1850s the Pre-Raphaelites (Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood) gave expression to the painting of contemporary life with such memorable images as “The Blind Girl” (1856; City Museum and Art Gallery, Birmingham), by John Everett Millais, or “The Stonebreaker” (1857–58; Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool), by John Brett.

      The Pre-Raphaelite movement, echoing that of the Nazarenes (a group of religiously minded painters who sought to revive medieval workshop practices; see below), reiterated many earlier Romantic ideals. Literary inspiration and a passion for the Middle Ages were tempered for the Pre-Raphaelites by a moral outlook that recoiled from sophistication and virtuosity and demanded rigorous studies from natural life. These painters handled literary, historical, biblical, and contemporary themes with the same sincerity and fidelity that yielded the sparkling precision of Pre-Raphaelite landscape. Their earnest pursuit of truth, whether in depicting painful social realities or concentrating on the foreground blades of grass in a landscape, entailed a denial of many orthodox artistic pleasures. Together with Ford Madox Brown, the Pre-Raphaelites sustained the devotion to colour and light in painting that underlies the finest endeavours of English Romanticism.

      In Germany also there was a reaction against classicism and the academies, and, as elsewhere, it involved all aspects of the arts. Again, as elsewhere, theory preceded practice: Herzensergiessungen eines kunstliebenden Klosterbruders (“Effusions of an Art-Loving Monk”), by Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder (Wackenroder, Wilhelm Heinrich), had an immediate and widespread influence upon its publication in 1797. Wackenroder advocated a Christian art closely related to the art of the early German masters and provided the artist with a new role as interpreter of divine inspiration through his own feelings.

      The painter Philipp Otto Runge had been reared on 17th-century German mysticism, and he proved susceptible to the ideas of writers such as Wackenroder when introduced to them in Dresden at the very end of the 18th century. In Dresden he formed a close association with the leading German landscape painter Caspar David Friedrich (Friedrich, Caspar David). Like Friedrich he was fascinated by the potential symbolic and allegorical power of landscape, which he used as a vehicle for religious expression. His vision of nature was pantheistic (as was Friedrich's), and in his portraits his aim was to capture the soul of the individual as part of the universal soul of nature. “The Artist's Parents and Children” (1806; Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg) reflects not only his constant search for truth but also his admiration for the early German masters, through whose work he was made aware of the expressive power of line and colour. His interest in the German past, including folklore and fairy tales, was reflected in a bizarre fairylike quality in much of his work (e.g., “Night,” 1803), and it was this quality that was taken up and popularized by his two most important followers, Moritz von Schwind (Schwind, Moritz von) and Adrian Ludwig Richter, in whose hand the intensity of the first generation declined into popular genre paintings (usually small pictures depicting everyday life, as opposed to some idealized existence) and the comfortable Romanticism of the Biedermeier period (1815–48).

      Friedrich was a deeply religious man whose vision demanded complete subjection to the spirit of God in nature; in suggesting through landscape the eternal presence of the Creator, he intended to induce in the beholder a state of religious awe. Among his pupils was Carl Gustav Carus, a physician, philosopher, and self-taught painter whose chief contribution was as a theorist; Neun Briefe über Landschaftsmalerei (1831; “Nine Letters on Landscape Painting”) elucidates and expands the ideas of Friedrich, adding Carus' own more-scientific approach to natural phenomena. Other important painters influenced by Friedrich were Ernst Ferdinand Oehme, a landscape painter, and Georg Friedrich Kersting, who captured in his stark interiors something of the master's atmosphere of silent worship. However, two other pupils of Friedrich subsequently abandoned tragic landscapes; one, the Norwegian Johan Christian Dahl, reverted to naturalism; the other, Karl Blechen, joined the Romantic realists.

      Whereas Runge, Friedrich, and their followers interpreted Wackenroder in a highly personal way, others were inspired to communal activity. A number of young painters in Vienna founded in 1809 a group they called the Guild of St. Luke (Nazarene). The founding members were Johann Friedrich Overbeck (Overbeck, Johann Friedrich) (their leader), Franz Pforr, Joseph Wintergerst, Joseph Sutter, and Georg Ludwig Vogel. In 1810 they moved to Rome, where they were soon joined by Peter von Cornelius (Cornelius, Peter von), Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Friedrich Olivier, the brothers Philipp and Johannes Veit, Wilhelm von Schadow, Johann Evangelist Scheffer von Leonhartshoff, and Josef von Führich. Their semimonastic existence occasioned the nickname Nazarenes.

      In general, their highest aspirations—toward monumental history painting—produced the least successful results, and they came closest to realizing their intentions on a small scale in highly finished watercolours and drawings, as in Overbeck's “The Raising of Jairus' Daughter” (1814). Only Joseph Anton Koch and Cornelius, who were both older and more experienced, achieved great vigour in their history paintings, combining medievalizing tendencies with the powerful classicism of Carstens (see above Neoclassicism: Germany and Austria), as seen in Cornelius' “The Recognition of Joseph by His Brethren” (1815–16; National Gallery, Berlin). Even Overbeck, an articulate leader and a lucid draftsman, could not escape, in his “Joseph Being Sold by His Brethren” (1816–17; National Gallery, Berlin), the self-conscious naïveté common to many of the Nazarenes. This naïveté is also noticeable in Pforr's “The Entry of the Emperor Rudolf of Habsburg into Basel in 1273” (c. 1809; Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt am Main) and Schnorr's “The Procession of the Three Magi” (1819; Museum of Fine Art, Leipzig). Alfred Rethel (Rethel, Alfred), a late arrival, however, manages to avoid such an effect in his haunting “King David with His Harp” (c. 1831; Museum of Art, Düsseldorf). Not long afterward there was a move toward the more dramatic, though no less nostalgic, approach of von Schadow and his pupil Karl Friedrich Lessing.

      Portraiture required less self-consciousness than history painting, and there are a number of highly sensitive portraits, mainly of their friends, by Overbeck, Schnorr, Scheffer von Leonardshoff, and Carl Philipp Fohr (“Portrait of Wilhelm von Schadow” [1818; Museum of the Palatinate, Heidelberg]). The Nazarenes' greatest contribution, however, was to landscape painting: inspired by the heroic landscapes of Koch (e.g., “Bernese Oberland” [1816; Gallery of Modern Paintings, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden]), by the German “primitives,” and by their own concept of truth to nature, they renounced the conventional Italianate solution and turned instead to the countryside around them and to memories of Germany and German painting. As the movement gathered momentum, the possibilities for development expanded, and the Nazarene landscape was valuable to later painters of the Biedermeier period and to painters of naturalistic landscape, Romantic realism, and secular historical subjects.

      The French Revolution greatly stimulated interest in the depiction of contemporary events, although richly documented and highly detailed paintings of topical patriotic events were being painted in London by West and John Singleton Copley even before the Revolution. Encouraged by David's example, however, painters in France sought to represent authentically the crucial moments of their own time. Napoleon I enthusiastically endorsed this awareness of modern heroism and demanded pictorial celebration of the glorious achievements of the empire. David recorded the ceremonies of the imperial court with scrupulous precision. Napoleon's potent hold on the artistic imagination is well illustrated by Gros's “Napoleon Visiting the Pesthouse at Jaffa” (1804; Louvre), where he is endowed with godlike authority and the humanitarian sensibility of the true Romantic hero. At the same time, other artists—such as Gérard, Girodet-Trioson, and Ingres—readily responded to the Emperor's admiration for the stories of Ossian. After the fall of Napoleon few were disposed to depict contemporary subjects. Théodore Géricault (Géricault, Théodore) was something of an exception, but he was separated from his immediate predecessors both by temperament and by the sincerity of his approach. Individual suffering rather than collective drama is vividly portrayed in “The Raft of the Medusa” (c. 1819; Louvre). This, Géricault's masterpiece, echoes in its strenuous forms the school of Caravaggio in the 17th century. His studies of the poor, aged, and insane are realistically observed and have a sympathetic intensity unmatched before the generation of Honoré Daumier and Gustave Courbet.

      The paintings of Delacroix (Delacroix, Eugène) frequently disrupted the salons of the 1820s and '30s with their tumultuous colour and emotive energy. To many young men after 1815, France appeared to settle into a bourgeois respectability that implicitly disparaged the exhilarating years of the republic and the empire. In consequence, the art of the period often seems melancholic and introverted, the discontent expressing itself in historical and exotic themes or in a passionate concern with the humble and rejected members of society. Delacroix has justly been acclaimed the leader of the Romantic school in France. His fertile imagination, embracing a novel range of literary and historical themes and fastening with a characteristic sense of the sadness of life on moments of death, defeat, and suffering, together with his prodigious technical resources exemplify Romanticism in its most obvious aspects. His vigorous handling of paint and expert use of colour values for both description and expression were important for the later development of French painting. “The Massacre at Chios” (1824; Louvre) transposes contemporary events into a realm of tragic fiction soon established unrestrainedly with such melodramatic works as “The Death of Sardanapalus” (1827; Louvre), a riot of brilliant colour and ebullient forms.

 Delacroix's Moroccan paintings released a flood of North African subjects, although, in the hands of lesser artists—such as Eugène Fromentin, Ary Scheffer, and Eugène Devéria—the treatment is less effective. Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps (Decamps, Alexandre), whose small canvases have a delicate, jewellike quality, provided the most refreshing variations on the theme. But Delacroix was not the first to handle Oriental subjects; Ingres (Ingres, J.-A.-D) had already done so with a reticence that belies the sensuous delight in “Valpinçon Bather” (1808; Louvre) and in “La Grande Odalisque” (1814; Louvre [see photograph—>]). Early in his career Ingres made notable contributions to the historical genre with episodes from medieval French history painted in a style of linear purity that parallels the methods of Flaxman and Blake in Britain and the Nazarenes in Germany. Under the spell of Raphael he returned to the academic fold, but his portraits always retained that trenchant simplicity and lucid insight that make him such a memorable exponent of lyric realism. The career of Ingres and in a converse sense that of Paul Delaroche (Delaroche, Paul) well illustrate the imprudence of too readily distinguishing between academic and Romantic artists. Delaroche, perhaps the most popular representative of the Romantic school, specialized in highly charged narratives with royal and child characters, of which “The Children of Edward” (c. 1830; Louvre) is a typical example, being executed with a flatness that lacks either linear or colouristic inspiration. In comparison, the work of Théodore Chassériau (Chassériau, Théodore) is animated by powerful emotional overtones reminiscent of Delacroix. “The Cossack Girl Finding the Body of Mazeppa” (1851; Museum of Fine Art, Strasbourg) shows a similarly expressive use of paint, together with poignant imagery, both characteristic of his regrettably slender oeuvre. At the end of the century, Gustave Moreau and Odilon Redon transformed these features, along with others in Louis Boulanger's work, into whimsical, haunting fantasies that delighted the Symbolist poets.

      In the 1830s and '40s it was Honoré Daumier (Daumier, Honoré), more than any other artist, who portrayed relatively lowly members of society, expressing in numerous drawings and paintings their patient resignation. In contrast, his truly excoriating depiction of the weaknesses and vices of the privileged classes, particularly officialdom, often displeased authority, which had long identified Romanticism with liberalism—and with good reason. A strain of poetic realism in the 1840s, essentially Romantic in approach, gathered sudden momentum with the Revolution and short-lived republic of 1848. Jean-François Millet (Millet, Jean-François) and Gustave Courbet (Courbet, Gustave) depicted peasant life, investing it with a certain timeless quality. Courbet's “Stone-Breakers” (1849; destroyed during World War II) and Millet's harrowing “Quarriers” (c. 1847; Toledo Museum of Art, Ohio) powerfully express their creators' concern for the poor. Courbet created a sombre monument to his own village in “Burial at Ornans” (1849; Louvre), and Millet succeeded in conferring an epic grandeur on scenes of rural life.

      A new approach to the familiar and unsophisticated occurs in the landscape painting of the 1830s and '40s; for, although French Romanticism produced no Turner, it did give rise to the Barbizon school, a group of naturalist painters who were particularly active in the forest of Fontainebleau. In this period the charm of the spontaneous sketch as opposed to the finished study was recognized: painters readily set up their easels in the open air and scrutinized the scene before them. A direct approach to nature and an interest in transitory moments, especially the changing effects of light, were features common to Romantic landscape painters throughout Europe and the United States. Paul Huet, a friend of Delacroix and Bonington and a painter closely associated with the Romantic school, represented dramatic, stormy scenes of solitude; yet, though scarcely a naturalist, he was deeply impressed by the works of Constable, several of which he copied and which inspired him to adopt a broken style of brushwork with dabs of bright pigment. The changed attitude to landscape is aptly expressed in the words of Théodore Rousseau (Rousseau, Théodore), the most controversial representative of the new school: “Our art can only attain pathos through sincerity.” Rousseau attempted to render nature as he found it, though his melancholic temperament is inevitably reflected in the desolate panoramas and gloomy sunsets in which he expressed an almost pantheistic feeling for the natural world. At the same time, his close attention to detail and painstaking accuracy in the delineation of plants and grasses betray the scientific concern shared by many Romantic artists. A similar penetration informed his studies of light, and both he and Charles-François Daubigny (Daubigny, Charles-François) repeated virtually the same subjects under different weather conditions in order to capture the ephemeral effects of light and atmosphere. The freedom and freshness of Constable's handling is echoed in Daubigny's flickering treatment of sunset and light over water. A particularly poetic insight into nature was that of Narcisse-Virgile Diaz de La Peña and Constant Troyon. The work of Camille Corot (Corot, Camille), despite the restrained classicism of his style, is similarly enlivened by an instinctive feeling for naturalistic landscape. For, while they laid the foundation for the painterly revolution of the Impressionists, the Barbizon painters always retained the generous appreciation of natural beauty and emotional involvement with their subject that everywhere distinguish the Romantic temperament.

      American Romantic painters were largely influenced by trends in late 18th-century Europe, especially Britain, but the absence of an indigenous artistic tradition permitted a much more intuitive development. At the same time, their work, like that of the early French Romantics, is closely associated with the new spirit fostered by a national revolution. The American Revolution, by reinforcing the democratic ideal, inspired a unique brand of Romantic realism that was a strong force in American painting from the late 18th century onward and that anticipated the emergence in Europe by a whole generation. Benjamin West (West, Benjamin), in addition to his contribution to Neoclassicism, developed a style of narrative painting with dramatic subjects taken from contemporary life; while he painted his most significant work in Britain, it was on American rather than English artists that it made the most impact. John Trumbull (Trumbull, John) undertook a series of 12 scenes from the American Revolution, in which careful studies of the principal participants were incorporated into colourful, baroque compositions. At their best, these works, for example “Sortie from Gibraltar” (1789; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston), carry great conviction, even if they tend to be somewhat theatrical. In 1784 one of the most candid portraitists of the period, Charles Willson Peale (Peale, Charles Willson), completed a similarly ambitious project in his paintings of the leading figures of the Revolution. A more limited enthusiasm for precise naturalistic study informs the work of Alexander Wilson (Wilson, Alexander), whose devoted love of birds emerges in the freshness and simplicity of the plates to his American Ornithology (9 volumes; 1808–14). His achievement has been overshadowed by his greater successor, John James Audubon (Audubon, John James), who combined scientific precision with a delight in his specimens that transforms his watercolour drawings of birds into works of rare and delicate beauty.

      At the beginning of the Romantic period, artists were still influenced by British painting, but this influence grew less and less perceptible as the 19th century progressed. For instance, the portrait of “Colonel Thomas Handasyd Perkins” (1831–32; Boston Athenaeum), by Thomas Sully (Sully, Thomas), the leading exponent of a new portraiture supposedly expressive of mood, has touches of Sir Thomas Lawrence in the delicately brushed surface, strong contrasts of light and dark, and exquisite elegance of pose. But, though Samuel F.B. Morse, Samuel Waldo, William Page, and others also practiced an emotive style, portraits of the 19th century increasingly tended to endorse the native tradition of solid characterization.

      The career of the landscape painter Washington Allston (Allston, Washington) reflects the development of American painting in his lifetime. Absorbed by German and English Romantic poetry, he began on a note of high drama, moving in cosmopolitan artistic circles in Rome and producing a number of early landscapes that seem to have played a part in winning the friendship of the English Romantic poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge. At this point, what was obviously an impetuous and brooding strain in Allston's temperament found expression by depicting nature in the darker, more destructive moods dear to Turner. “The Deluge” (1804; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City) is a typical macabre invention, with bodies in a raging tempest swept ashore to where wolves and serpents lurk. On his return to the United States, however, his work assumed a quieter, more pensive aspect. “The Flight of Florimell” (1819; Detroit Institute of Arts) illustrates this later style.

      An uncomplicated love for their own natural scenery emerges in the work of a succession of landscape painters who frequently strike a contemplative, lyrical note. Thomas Cole (Cole, Thomas) reverently recorded scenes in the valley of the Hudson River that echo the loneliness and mystery of the North American forests. With his generous humanitarian sympathies, Asher B. Durand (Durand, Asher B) gave a serene and artless account of nature. His feeling for space and finely diffused light renders “Kindred Spirits” (1849; New York Public Library) a touching tribute to the friendship of Cole with the American Romantic poet William Cullen Bryant. An interest in light and atmosphere was shared by George Loring Brown, FitzHugh Lane, Frederic Edwin Church, and George Harvey; all followed Durand and painted in the open. Simplicity and reticence distinguish the landscapes of Thomas Doughty, who concentrated on painting the Hudson River valley as he knew and loved it. The details of country life that fill the stories of Washington Irving are portrayed with affection by William Sidney Mount (Mount, William Sidney), who in “Eel Spearing at Setanket” (1845; New York State Historical Association, New York City) transcends the merely anecdotal. George Caleb Bingham (Bingham, George Caleb) approached the life of the frontier without the passionate concern that motivated many contemporary French artists. Solemn and severe in style and glowing with colour, his “Fur Traders Descending the Missouri” (c. 1845; Metropolitan Museum of Art) captures the silence and solitary grandeur of frontier life. The wildness of the frontier caught the imagination of many 19th-century artists: George Catlin, Seth Eastman, John M. Stanley, Alfred Jacob Miller, and Karl Bodmer all discovered a picturesque drama and excitement in Indian life. The Romantic period witnessed the emergence of a truly national school of painting in the United States, where events and scenery provided a constant source of stimulation for artists content to distill their own poetry from the world around them.

Susan Elizabeth Benenson Ed.

      Napoleon's invasion of Russia (1812) had far-reaching consequences. It marked the revival of national consciousness and the beginning of a widespread cult of Russian separateness from Europe, thus precipitating the long controversy between “Westerners” and “Slavophiles” that ran through so much of Russian 19th-century literature and thought. At the same time, Russia shared in the Romanticism—cultivated by France and Germany—that gripped Europe during the era of the Napoleonic Wars. This is reflected in the paintings of Orest Kiprensky and Vasily Tropinin. The most notable contribution to the Romantic spirit, however, was made by Karl Pavlovich Bryullov (Bryullov, Karl Pavlovich), with his monumental painting “The Last Days of Pompeii” (1830–33; State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg). A completely different trend appears in the work of Aleksandr Ivanov, the first Russian painter to express religious emotions in a western European manner. Other outstanding artists of that period were Aleksey Venetsianov and Pavel Fedotov, the forerunners of Realist painting in Russia.

      The second half of the 19th century saw the maturing of realism in Russia. A sympathetic attitude toward the hard life of the people is reflected in the works of most of the painters and sculptors of that time. The new trend in art had as its basis the populist revolutionary ferment prevalent toward the end of the 1850s and the beginning of the 1860s, much of it inspired by the writers Nikolay Dobrolyubov and Nikolay Chernyshevsky (Chernyshevsky, N.G.). Chernyshevsky's dissertation Esteticheskiye otnosheniya iskusstva k deystvitelnosti (1855; “The Aesthetic Relations of Art to Reality”), the main thesis of which was that art must not only reflect reality but also explain and judge it, provided a starting point for contemporary artists.

      From the last third of the 19th century onward, the history of Russian art is the history of a series of school struggles: the Slavophiles against the Westerners; the Academy against the Peredvizhniki (“Wanderers”); and later the joint effort of the last two against a new movement, born in the 1890s and directed by the art review Mir Iskusstva (“The World of Art”).

 The Peredvizhniki was a society formed in 1870 by a group of essentially Romantic artists who, however, regarded themselves as Realists. They seceded from the Academy in 1863 in protest against alien dogmatic formulas and the constricting programs of the Academy's annual competitions. Most prominent among the Peredvizhniki were Ivan Kramskoy, Ilya Repin, Vasily Ivanovich Surikov (see photograph—>), Vasily Perov, and Vasily Vereshchagin. The society attached far more importance to the moral and literary aspects of art than to aesthetics. Its artistic creed was realism, national feeling, and social consciousness. Art was to be placed at the service of humanitarian and social ideals; it was to be brought to the people. Accordingly the society organized mobile (peredvizheniye) exhibitions—hence the name. The influence of the Peredvizhniki spread throughout Russia and was dominant for nearly 30 years, but by the end of the century it had greatly declined.

Arthur Voyce Ed.

Modern (modern art)
      The term modern art has come to denote the innovating and even revolutionary developments in Western painting and the other visual arts since the second half of the 19th century. It embraces a wide variety of movements, styles, theories, and attitudes, the modernity of which resides in a common tendency to repudiate past conventions and precedents in subject matter, mode of depiction, and painting technique alike. Not all the painting of this period has made such a departure; representational work, for example, has continued to appear, particularly in connection with official exhibiting societies. Nevertheless, the idea that some current types of painting are more properly of their time than are others, and for that reason are more interesting or important, applies with particular force to the painting of the last 150 years.

      By the mid-19th century, painting was no longer basically in service to either the church or the court but rather was patronized by the upper and middle classes of an increasingly materialistic and secularized Western society. This society was undergoing rapid change because of the growth of science and technology, industrialization, urbanization, and the fundamental questioning of received religious dogmas. Painters were thus confronted with the need to reject traditional, historical, or academic forms and conventions in an effort to create an art that would better reflect the changed social, material, and intellectual conditions of emerging modern life. Another important, if indirect, stimulus to change was the development from the early 19th century on of photography and other photomechanical techniques, which freed (or deprived) painting and drawing of their hitherto cardinal roles as the only available means of accurately depicting the visual world. These manually executed arts were thus no longer obliged to serve as the means of recording and disseminating information as they once had been and were eventually freed to explore aesthetically the basic visual elements of line, colour, tone, and composition in a nonrepresentational context. Indeed, an important trend in modern painting has been that of abstraction (abstract art)—i.e., painting in which little or no attempt is made to accurately depict the appearance or form of objects in the realm of nature or the existing physical world. The door of the objective world was thus closed, but the inner world of the imagination offered seemingly infinite possibilities for exploration, as did the manipulation of pigments on a flat surface for their purely intrinsic visual or aesthetic appeal.

      The beginnings of modern painting cannot be clearly demarcated, but it is generally agreed that it started in mid-19th-century France. The paintings of Gustav Courbet, Edouard Manet, and the Impressionists represent a deepening rejection of the prevailing academic traditions of Neoclassicism and Romanticism and a quest for a more truthful naturalistic representation of the visual world. These painters' Postimpressionist successors—notably Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh, Edgar Degas, and Paul Gauguin—can be viewed as more clearly modern in their repudiation of traditional subject matter and techniques and in their assumption of a more subjective and personal vision. From about the 1890s a succession of varied styles and movements arose that are the core of modern painting and are also one of the high points of the history of the Western visual arts in general. These modern movements include Neo-Impressionism, Symbolism, the Nabis, Fauvism, Cubism, Expressionism, Futurism, the Ashcan School, Suprematism, Constructivism, Orphism, Metaphysical painting, de Stijl, Purism, Dada, Surrealism, Social Realism, Abstract Expressionism, Pop Art, Op Art, Minimalism, and Neo-Expressionism.

Francis William Wentworth-Sheilds Ed.

Origins in the 19th century
      As long ago as 1846 the qualities proper to a specifically modern art were discussed by the French writer Charles Baudelaire (Baudelaire, Charles) in an essay on the French Salon. He argued that colour would be foremost among these modern qualities (a prediction that subsequent events confirmed), but he still saw the new art in the context of the Romantic movement. Subsequent modernity came to be seen as necessitating not only a new style but also contemporary subject matter, and in 1863 Baudelaire praised the draftsman Constantin Guys as “le peintre de la vie moderne” (“the painter of modern life”). In 1862, with Baudelaire's support, the French painter Édouard Manet (Manet, Édouard) brought together a subject from contemporary social life and an unconventional style in “Concert in the Tuileries Gardens” (National Gallery, London). This painting, though rather isolated in his work of the time, was influential in establishing a new outlook. Another literary figure whose critical writings were influential was the French novelist Émile Zola (Zola, Émile), though Zola had limited sympathy for what he called the “new manner in painting” of Manet; nevertheless he contributed from 1866 onward to the emergence of the Impressionist group. The first appearance of the phrase “modern art” in the relatively permanent form of a book title was in 1883, when it was used by the French writer Joris-Karl Huysmans (Huysmans, Joris-Karl), a friend of Zola's, to describe the theme of various reviews of painters' work he had collected. Other books on the subject followed, such as the Anglo-Irish novelist George Moore's Modern Painting (1893). It was about this time that the term avant-garde was introduced by the critic Théodore Duret, who used it of certain young painters. From then on, modernity was to be a recurrent concern of artists and critics. Public acceptance of the new standpoint was slow, however. The first museums dedicated specifically to modern art grew out of the fervour of individual collectors—for example, the Folkwang Museum at Essen, Ger., and the Kröller-Müller State Museum at Otterlo, Neth., both largely consisting of collections built up before 1914. The Museum of Modern Art in New York City, the outstanding public collection in the field, was founded in 1929, and the Western capital that lacks a museum explicitly devoted to modern art is rare.

      The conflict between the new forces and the established academic tradition in France came into the open in 1863. The jury of the official Salon, which had long exercised great despotism in matters to do with painting, rejected more than 4,000 canvases—an unusually high figure. The resulting outcry prompted the emperor Napoleon III to order that the rejected works, if the painters agreed, be shown in a special exhibition known as the Salon des Refusés. The exhibition included works by Manet; Johan Barthold Jongkind, an older Dutch painter who was working in a tonal and summary style from nature; Camille Pissarro and Paul Cézanne, who had met two years before at the Académie Suisse; Armand Guillaumin; James McNeill Whistler; and others. One of the greatest scandals was caused by Manet's painting “The Luncheon on the Grass” (Louvre, Paris), which was considered an affront to decency as well as taste. The younger painters became aware of their common aims. Claude Monet (Monet, Claude), whose landscape style had been influenced from the outset by the atmospheric sketches of the Channel coast of Eugène Boudin, as well as by Jongkind (whom he described to Boudin as “quite mad”), had met Pierre-Auguste Renoir (Renoir, Pierre-Auguste), Alfred Sisley, and Jean-Frédéric Bazille studying in the studio of Charles Gleyre. Abandoning academic study, they worked together outdoors in the forest of Fontainebleau, where contacts with the Barbizon (Barbizon school) painters Narcisse-Virgile Diaz de La Peña and Charles-François Daubigny strengthened their direction.

      The implicit acceptance of the visual scene on which the new style was based owed something to the example of Courbet, who influenced Renoir in particular in the next few years. The plein air (plein-air painting) (“open-air”) paintings of the Barbizon painters also had an effect, but the suggestion of an art based on the notation of pure colour was suggested by several sources. The example of Eugène Delacroix (Delacroix, Eugène) had a deep significance for the 19th century in France, and the reliance on separate, undisguised touches of the brush in the form that became characteristic of Impressionism is perhaps first apparent in sketches of the sea at Dieppe painted by Delacroix in 1852. The economy of Manet's touch in the 1860s was affected by Spanish and Dutch examples as well as by Delacroix, but his seascapes and racecourse pictures of 1864 are also important. The full Impressionistic style did not develop until the end of the 1860s.

      Though the figurative aims of Impressionism can be regarded as the conclusion of 19th-century Realism, the method, which made no attempt to hide even the most basic means of preparing a finished painting, was an original one. Brushstrokes did not pretend to be anything but dashes of paint, thus conveying their coloured (colour) message without any disguise or effect at individual illusion. It was in this respect and in the all-embracing unity of colour and handling that resulted, rather than its realism, that Impressionism founded modern painting. Other developments in the 1860s had no immediate sequels in Impressionism. The presentation of some of Manet's figures, such as “The Fifer” (Louvre) of 1866, as vignettes or decorative designs shading into virtually blank backgrounds was a radical departure from the coherent pictorial construction of Western tradition since the Renaissance; it is the first sign of the form built outward from a central nucleus without reference to the classic frame that has appeared repeatedly in modern art. Honoré Daumier is supposed to have said that “The Fifer” reduced painting “to faces on playing cards,” and in 1865 Courbet compared Manet's “Olympia” (1863; Louvre) to “the Queen of Spades after a bath.” The possibility of making an image out of the bare, almost heraldic juxtaposition of flat colours was neglected while the complex notation of Impressionism held sway, but it came to be regarded with interest as Impressionism receded. Other unconventional principles of design—suggested equally by Japanese prints, such as those that Manet placed in the background of his portrait of Zola (Louvre) in 1868, and by the chance arrangements of photography—appeared in the work of Edgar Degas (Degas, Edgar), who sympathized with the aims of the new group, associating himself with them in seven of their eight exhibitions, which he largely helped to organize.

      Other qualities that Baudelaire in 1846 had specified as the qualities of modern art—spirituality and aspiration toward the infinite—evolved quite apart from Impressionism. The visionary implications of Romantic painting were explored by Gustave Moreau (Moreau, Gustave), whose elaborate biblical and mythological scenes, weighed down with sumptuous detail, gave colour an imaginative and symbolic richness. His example had a special value to the next generation. The imagination of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes (Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre) was of the opposite order, preserving the large-scale clarity of mural painting, a policy that made him appreciated when a reaction against Impressionism set in.

      Another possibility of Romanticism was pursued in isolation by the Marseille painter Adolphe Monticelli (Monticelli, Adolphe). The richness of his colour is thought to have contributed something crucial to Cézanne's development. The counterpart of Moreau in Britain (United Kingdom) was Sir Edward Burne-Jones (Burne-Jones, Sir Edward Coley, 1st Baronet). The intricate and perverse linear formulations that he developed from the Pre-Raphaelites greatly influenced the international Symbolist style of the last decades of the century.

      The influence of the trend in the direction of the modern in France, together with its controversial element, was introduced to Britain by Whistler (Whistler, James McNeill), whose concern was narrowly aesthetic rather than analytic. The harmonies he developed were close to being monochromatic; his use of Spanish and Japanese elements had little of the radical originality of Manet and Degas. His influence dominated and also limited the development of avant-garde painting in Britain for many years. John Singer Sargent (Sargent, John Singer), like Whistler an American who came to live in Britain, popularized a less-discriminating version of the Impressionistic style.

      In Germany a Romantic strain coexisted with a Realistic style that remained unaffected by the most advanced French painting. Anselm Feuerbach (Feuerbach, Anselm), one of the Romantics, was influenced by Delacroix. In 1855 he went to Italy where the effect of the 16th century came to predominate in his work. The landscapes of Hans von Marées (Marées, Hans von) were also essentially Romantic. He had visited France but spent most of his working life in Italy; the frescoes he executed in Naples echo Puvis de Chavannes in their style. Realism found exponents in Wilhelm Leibl and Hans Thoma. In Italy the reaction against the academies was centred in Florence, where a group known as the Macchiaioli (from macchia, “patch”) worked from 1855, producing landscapes, genre paintings, and Romantic costume pieces executed in the highly visible brushstrokes that gave the group its name.

      In the United States, Thomas Eakins (Eakins, Thomas) developed a broadly handled, powerful Realist style that became almost Expressionistic in his later years. He had visited Paris in 1866, and the influence of Manet can be detected in his paintings. His interest in anatomy and perspective gave him a role analogous to that of Degas. The early development of Winslow Homer, who was in France a year later, ran parallel to Monet's style in the 1860s. The work of Albert Pinkham Ryder (Ryder, Albert Pinkham) was, by contrast, introverted and visionary. He was among the artists who adapted the Romantic vocabulary to the symbolic purposes of modern art.

      In France in the mid-1860s Monet produced a series of large-scale open-air conversation pieces in which elements derived from Courbet and Manet were fused with a wholly original expression of dappled light in solid paint. The approach of Pissarro (Pissarro, Camille), who had arrived in Paris from the West Indies in 1855, was more delicate; influenced by Camille Corot as well as Courbet, he recorded pure landscape motives in a limited range of tones, though with a natural lyricism of feeling. The starting point of Cézanne (Cézanne, Paul) was, by contrast, vigorous to the point of violence. In 1866 he evolved a style in which paint was applied in thick dabs with a palette knife; this combined a handling (a technical term in painting meaning the individual's manipulation of materials in the execution of a work; it has been likened to a person's signature in handwriting) derived from Courbet with the gray tonality of Manet; its rough-hewn crudity has a consistency that was essentially new. His alternative style in the 1860s, with curling brushstrokes related to Daumier, is equally virile and was often applied to subjects of violent eroticism. The unbridled force of Cézanne's early work gave the first sign of qualities that were to become characteristic of modern painting. Though exceptional, it was not unique; in Italy during the 1860s the Russian painter of historical and scriptural themes, Nikolay Nikolayevich Ge, produced sketches with loose, expressive brushwork sometimes resembling Cézanne's.

      The first steps toward a systematic Impressionist style were taken in France in Monet's coast scenes from 1866 onward, notably the “Terrace” (1866; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), in which he chose a subject that allowed use of a full palette of primary colour. The decisive development took place in 1869, when Monet and Renoir (Renoir, Pierre-Auguste) painted together at the resort of La Grenouillère on the Seine River. The resulting pictures suggest that Monet contributed the pattern of separate brushstrokes, the light tonality, and the brilliance of colour; Renoir the overall iridescence, feathery lightness of touch, and delight in the recreation of ordinary people. Working at Louveciennes from 1869, Pissarro evolved the drier and more flexible handling of crumbly paint that was also to be a common feature of Impressionist painting.

      It was in the environs of Paris after the Franco-Prussian War that there developed the fully formed landscape style that remains the most popular achievement of modern painting. An exhibition held in the studio of the photographer Nadar (Gaspard-Félix Tournachon) in 1874 included Monet's picture “Impression: Sunrise” (Marmottan Museum, Paris), and it was this work that, by being disparaged as mere “impressionism,” gave a name to an entire movement. The exhibition itself revealed three main trends. The Parisian circle around Monet and Renoir had developed the evanescent and sketchlike style the furthest. The vision of those working near Pissarro in Pontoise and Auvers was in general more solid, being firmly rooted in country scenes. A relatively urbane, genrelike trend was detectable in Degas's picture of Paul Valpinçon and his family at the races called “Carriage at the Races” (1870–73; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) and Berthe Morisot's “The Cradle” (1873; Louvre [see ]). Manet himself was absent, hoping for academic success; his “Gare Saint-Lazare” (1873; National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.), influenced by the Impressionist palette, was accepted at the Salon. Modeling himself on Pissarro, Cézanne sublimated the turbulent emotions of his earlier work in pictures that were studied directly and closely from nature; he followed the method for the rest of his life.

  The experiment of an independent exhibition was repeated in 1876, though with fewer participants. Monet now began to make studies of the Gare Saint-Lazare. Renoir used effects of dappled light and shadow to explore genre subjects such as “Le Moulin de la galette” (1876; Louvre [see photograph—>]). In 1877 only 18 artists exhibited. The major painters began to go their separate ways, particularly as there were disputes about whether to continue with the independent exhibitions. Cézanne, who did not exhibit with the Impressionists again, was perhaps the first to realize that a critical stage had been reached. For the first time, a style had been based on the openly individual character of a technique rather than on the form of a particular subject or the way it was formulated. A style that admits to painting as being only a matter of paint raises in a peculiarly acute form the question of how far the qualities of art are intrinsic. Impressionism in the 1870s was inseparable from heightened visual experience of a sensuously satisfying world. But the blocklike shapes in Cézanne's pictures, such as the portrait of his patron Victor Chocquet (c. 1877; Columbus Museum of Art, Ohio), suggest that for him the relationship between the colour patches on his canvas was equally important. In the years that followed, he systematized his technique into patterns of parallel brushstrokes that gave a new significance to the pictorial surface (see photograph—>). An unassuming series of still lifes and self-portraits by Cézanne were painted in 1879–80, and these, when they became known, profoundly impressed the younger generation, who reckoned them to be as monumental as the great art of the past, yet in a subtly different way that was inherent in the actual manner of painting.

      The style of the 1870s was formless from a traditional standpoint, and at the beginning of the next decade Renoir decided that he had gone to the limit with Impressionism and “did not know either how to paint or draw.” Following a trip to Italy, he set about acquiring a wiry, linear style that was the direct opposite of his relaxed, freely brushed manner of earlier years.

      The appearance of a new generation posed a fresh challenge. Georges Seurat (Seurat, Georges) was moving away from the empirical standpoint of Impressionism toward a technique (Pointillism) and a form that were increasingly deliberately designed. Paul Gauguin (Gauguin, Paul), taking his starting point from Cézanne's style of about 1880, passed from a capricious personal type of Impressionism to a greater use of symbols. He exhibited with the Impressionists from 1880 onward, but it was soon evident that group shows could no longer accommodate the growing diversity. In 1884, after the Salon jury had been particularly harsh, the Société des Artistes Indépendants was formed. The last Impressionist group show was held in 1886. Only Monet and Armand Guillaumin (Guillaumin, Armand), to whose efforts the group owed much of its eventual recognition, were now in the strict sense Impressionists. Monet, who had exhibited only once since 1879, continued to build on the original foundation of the style, the rendering of visual impression through colour in paintings that studied a single motif in varying lights. For him the formlessness and the homogeneity of Impressionism were its ultimate virtues. In his last series of “Water Lilies,” painted between 1906 and 1926, the shimmering of light eventually lost its last descriptive content, and only the colour and curling movement of his brush carried a general all-pervading reference to the visual world. Renoir's later work was equally expansive; his sympathetic vision of humanity revealed its own inherent breadth and grandeur.

      Impressionism, in one aspect, continued the main direction of 19th-century painting, and after 1880 the movement was an international one, taking on independent national characteristics. Russia produced an exponent in Isaak Ilich Levitan, and Scotland one in William MacTaggart. In Italy Telemarco Signorini and in the United States such painters as Childe Hassam developed modified forms of the style. In France, and to some extent in Germany with Max Liebermann, Impressionism provided a basis for the styles that followed.

      During the decades before 1900, the Symbolists were the avant-garde, and one of quite a new kind, influencing not only the arts but also the thought and spirit of the epoch. Maurice Denis (Denis, Maurice), their theoretician, enunciated in 1890 the most famous of their artistic principles:

Remember that a picture—before being a war-horse, a nude or an anecdote of some sort—is essentially a flat surface covered with colours assembled in a certain order.

      Such ideas inspired a group of young painters, among whom was Denis himself, to call themselves Nabis (from the Hebrew word for “prophet”). They were in revolt against the faithfulness to nature of Impressionism; in addition, largely because they were in close touch with Symbolist writers, they regarded choice of subject as important. They included Paul Ranson, who gave the style a decorative and linear inflection; Pierre Bonnard; and Édouard Vuillard.

      Other than the Nabis, one of the chief Symbolists was Odilon Redon (Redon, Odilon), who moved from the same starting point as the Impressionists—the landscape style of the Barbizon school—but in precisely the opposite direction. Redon's visionary charcoal drawings (which he called his black pictures) led to successive series of lithographs that explored the evocative, irrational, and fantastic orders of creation that Impressionism excluded. Redon later wrote:

Nothing in art can be done by will alone. Everything is done by docile submission to the coming of the unconscious . . . for every act of creation, the unconscious sets us a different problem.

      Redon established one of the characteristic standpoints of modern art, and his influence on the younger Symbolists was profound. In 1888 Gauguin, already affected by a trip to Martinique, settled at Pont-Aven in Brittany. The influential style he developed there was based on the juxtaposition of flat areas of colours enclosed by black contours, the total effect suggesting cloisonné enamel (a technique in which metal strips differentiate the colour areas of the design, thereby creating an outline effect), hence the name Cloisonnisme (Synthetism) used to describe this style. The spirit in which Gauguin rendered Breton scenes was mystical. He wrote:

Do not copy nature too much. Art is an abstraction; derive this abstraction from nature while dreaming before it, but think more of creating than of the actual result.

      At Pont-Aven, Gauguin was joined by Émile Bernard and Louis Anquetin, who had lately begun to work in a similar way. Paul Sérusier (Sérusier, Paul) painted under Gauguin's direction a little sketch entitled “Bois d'amour” that appeared more independent of appearances and bolder in its synthesis of pattern than anything that had been seen before; it became known in Paris as “The Talisman.” The liberation of Synthetism, as the new style was called, indeed worked like a charm, and after the Café Volpini exhibition of 1889 it spread rapidly. The movement was linked with literature and, in particular, with drama; it inspired its own periodical, La Revue Blanche, and Le Théâtre de l'Oeuvre (Oeuvre, Théâtre de l') (both founded in Paris in 1891); there were exhibitions twice a year at a Paris gallery, Le Barc de Boutteville, from 1891 to 1897.

      The decorative style known as Art Nouveau, or Jugendstil, spread across Europe and the Americas in the 1890s. The pursuit of natural and organic sources for form still further alienated art from the descriptive purpose that had been the basis of figurative style, and an artistic movement without taint of historicism that molded the fine arts, architecture, and craftsmanship in a single, consistent taste recovered the creative unity that had been lost since the early 18th century. In The Netherlands (Netherlands, The) the fin de siècle (“end of the century”; specifically the end of the 19th century, and a phrase that has overtones of a rather precious sophistication and world-weariness) style and sense of purpose appeared in the paintings of Johan Thorn Prikker and Jan Toorop. The Viennese Gustav Klimt made bolder and more arbitrary use of pattern. In Russia the demonic genius of Mikhail Aleksandrovich Vrubel had points of contact with the Art Nouveau style. It even affected Seurat and his circle, who were known as the Neo-Impressionists (Neo-Impressionism); the popular imagery of Seurat's later works, such as “The Circus” (1890–91; Louvre), was expressed in sinuous rhythms not far from Art Nouveau, and the Belgian Henry van de Velde (Velde, Henry van de) passed from Neo-Impressionism by way of fin de siècle decorations that were near abstraction to a place among the founders of 20th-century architecture. A strange and beautiful blend of Symbolism with an alpine clarity of colour close to Neo-Impressionism appeared in compositions such as “The Unnatural Mothers” by the Italian Giovanni Segantini.

The end of the 19th-century tradition
 Until Seurat no painter had expressly founded a style on the intrinsic reactions of colour to colour and a codified vocabulary of expressive forms. The consistent granulation of colour in Seurat's work from 1885 onward was specific to the picture, not to the sensation or the subject. The coherent images of space and light that he made out of this granulation ended with him. Seurat's followers, grouped as Neo-Impressionists under the leadership of Paul Signac, developed his technique rather than his vision. Seurat's influence was nonetheless widespread and fertile; his system in itself supplied a clarity that painters needed. It was Neo-Impressionism that was in the ascendant when the Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh (Gogh, Vincent van) arrived in Paris in 1886. The emotional travail evident in van Gogh's early work was marvelously lightened in the new aesthetic climate. But in his hands the dashes of pure colour turned and twisted, trading invisible and unstable lines of force (see photograph—>). They were woven into rhythmical and convulsive patterns reflecting the mounting intensity of his own feelings. Such patterns converted the Neo-Impressionist style into something quite different—a forerunner of what was to be known as Expressionism. Other painters were less radical in their approach. Pissarro assimilated the Neo-Impressionist method to the vision of the older generation; Henri-Edmond Cross and Maximilien Luce gave it the characteristic economy of the age that followed. Henri Matisse (Matisse, Henri)'s repeated experiments with it, culminating in his contact with Signac and Cross in 1904, finally converted the pure colour of Impressionism to the special purposes of 20th-century art.

 In the meantime, the older Impressionists were producing the broadly conceived works that crowned their artistic achievement and formed, as it seems in retrospect, the great traditional masterpieces of modern art. Degas's (Degas, Edgar) lifelong absorption in the human body as a subject led him to produce a series of bathing scenes and drawings from the nude in which the form expanded to an amplitude that filled the picture. Fullness of form was an effect that Renoir also achieved. Cézanne (Cézanne, Paul) announced a determination “to do Poussin over again from nature” and was reckoned to have fulfilled that aim with his “Great Bathers” and the series of landscapes of Mont Sainte-Victoire (see photograph—>). In the pictures of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri de), the style and standpoint derived from Degas, but his graphic work reflected the aims of the Symbolist generation (see ). The most original contribution of Édouard Vuillard lay in the evocative patterning of the little pictures that he painted before 1900. The art of Pierre Bonnard (Bonnard, Pierre), on the other hand, developed throughout his life. His subjects and his method remained, on the surface, those of the Impressionist tradition, but they were re-created from memory and imagination; Bonnard's pictures have the quality of a cherished private order of experience.

      Developments outside France were not of comparable importance. In Britain (United Kingdom) in the 1880s, Philip Wilson Steer painted a small group of landscapes with figures that were among the earliest and loveliest examples of the fin de siècle style. The work of Walter Sickert (Sickert, Walter Richard) revolved around an idiosyncratic fascination with the actual touch of a brush on canvas. His affinities remained essentially with the tonal Impressionism of the earliest stages of the modern movement rather than with the art of colour that developed from it, though he eventually made the transition in old age. In Germany the artists of the Postimpressionist generation, such as Lovis Corinth and Max Slevogt, working with the peculiar recklessness that is endemic to German painting, laid the technical foundations of Expressionism. Ferdinand Hodler in Switzerland developed a painterly Symbolist style in the 1890s. The Belgian painter James Ensor (Ensor, James, Baron) abandoned Impressionism at the end of the 1880s for a bitter and fantastic style that was a pioneer example of extreme expressive alienation.

      The most remarkable painter of the fin de siècle outside France, however, was the Norwegian Edvard Munch (Munch, Edvard). “The Cry” (Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo), the famous picture in which the rhythms of Art Nouveau were given a hysterical expressive force with hardly a vestige of the Impressionist description of nature, was painted in 1893. For many years before a breakdown interrupted his development in 1907, he worked abroad. He was particularly influential in Germany.

      In the United States, Maurice Prendergast transformed Impressionism into pattern. In Russia the fin de siècle styles of Léon Bakst and the Mir Iskusstva (“World of Art”) group, as well as a vivid revival of folk decoration, flourished, later becoming known internationally through their connection with the Russian ballet.

The 20th century
      By 1903 the impetus of Symbolism was expended and a new and enigmatic mood was forming. The new attitude drew on a vein that was comic, poetic, and fantastic, exploring an irrational quality akin to humour inherent in the creative process itself, as well as on a reserve of ironic detachment. The new painters drew strength from unexpected sources. The work of Henri Rousseau (Rousseau, Henri), a former clerk in the Paris municipal customs service who was known as “Le Douanier” accordingly, and who had exhibited at the Indépendants since 1886, attracted attention. The apparent innocence of his pictures gave them a kind of imaginative grandeur that seemed beyond the reach of any art founded on sophistication.

      The art of supposedly primitive peoples had a special appeal in the early years of the 20th century. Gauguin, who had made direct contact with it in his last years, proved prophetic not only in the forms he adopted but in the spirit of his approach. Maurice de Vlaminck (Vlaminck, Maurice de) and André Derain (Derain, André), who met in 1900, evolved a style together based on crude statements of strong colours. Matisse had been moving more circumspectly in the same direction. The apparent ferocity of the works that the three exhibited in 1905 earned them the nickname of the Fauves (Fauvism) (“Wild Beasts”). It appears that Matisse was responsible for introducing Pablo Picasso (Picasso, Pablo) to African sculpture. Picasso had already shown signs of dissatisfaction with existing canons; his use of fin de siècle styles in his earliest works has a quality close to irony. Primitive art, both African and Iberian, provided him with an austerity and detachment that led after 1906 to a radical metamorphosis of the image and style hitherto habitual in European art. In 1904 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (Kirchner, Ernst Ludwig), at Dresden, discovered the art of the Pacific Islands as well as African art. His first reflection of the primitive spirit was parallel to that of the Fauves and may have depended on them, if only partially.

      The idea of art, first and last, as a matter of expression (in contrast to Impressionism) was common to Germany and France in the first decade of the 20th century; it appears in Matisse's Notes of a Painter, published in 1908. Matisse, in fact, hardly differentiated expression from decoration; his ideal of art as “something like a good armchair in which to rest” explicitly excluded the distortion and disquiet that earned the style of Kirchner and Die Brücke (Brücke, Die) (“The Bridge”) group, which was founded in 1905, the label of Expressionism. The worldly subjects of Kirchner represented only one aspect of the group; the earthy Primitivism of Emil Nolde (Nolde, Emil) and the emphatic pictorial rhetoric of Karl Schmidt-Rottluff are more typical. Both Nolde and Max Pechstein (another member of the group) traveled to the Pacific. The development of the Austrian Oskar Kokoschka (Kokoschka, Oskar), who was influenced by members of Die Brücke, spanned the first two-thirds of the 20th century; the tempestuous emotion of his finest pictures places them among the masterpieces of painting of the German-speaking world in his time.

      The transformation of painting after 1907 was particularly apparent in works executed in Germany. Wassily Kandinsky (Kandinsky, Wassily) had come to Munich from Moscow at the age of 30 in 1896. His earliest mature works were painted in a jewellike, fairy-tale Cloisonniste style. He later told how one evening in his studio he came upon “an indescribably beautiful picture, drenched with an inner glowing . . . of which I saw nothing but forms and colours . . .” (from R.L. Herbert [ed.], Modern Artists on Art, 1965). It was one of his own works, standing on its side, so that its content was incomprehensible. Kandinsky's first nonfigurative (abstract art) watercolour was painted in 1910, and in the same year he wrote much of Concerning the Spiritual in Art, which converted the aesthetic doctrines of Goethe to the purposes of the new art. The series of “Improvisations” that followed preserved reminiscences of figuration, made illegible by the looseness of the pictorial structure; their diffuse and amorphous consistency had little connection with the main objectives of painting at the time. In the first decade of the 20th century, the idea of painting implied by Postimpressionism (Post-Impressionism) and that of a reasoned structure analogous to the structure of nature, if not to appearances, were far from exhausted. The influence of Kandinsky's “Improvisations” from 1911 onward, though delayed, was nonetheless great and pointed in a direction that abstract painting was to take 40 years later.

      The Munich group Der Blaue Reiter (Blaue Reiter, Der) (“The Blue Rider”), named after one of Kandinsky's earlier pictures, was formed in 1911 to represent the new tendencies when Kandinsky and Franz Marc (Marc, Franz) withdrew from the heterogeneous Neue Künstlervereinigung (“New Artists' Association”). The group soon became, in its turn, a broadly based assembly of the international avant-garde artists of the day, although the stylizations of Marc himself now appear commonplace. Among the early members of the group, the Russian Alexey von Jawlensky (Jawlensky, Alexey von) evolved a structured form of Expressionism that culminated in the 1930s in a series of abstractions of a head, but the chief importance of the group was as a stage in the development of the Swiss painter Paul Klee.

Cubism and its consequences
      Picasso's Primitivism, joined to the influence of Cézanne's “Great Bathers,” culminated in 1907 in the enigmatic and famous picture “Les Demoiselles d'Avignon” (Museum of Modern Art, New York City). Those who saw it were astonished and perplexed, not only by the arbitrary disruption in the right-hand part of the picture of the continuity that had always united an image but also by the defiant unloveliness, which made it plain that the traditional beauties of art, the appeal of the subject, and the credibility of its imitation were now, at any rate to Picasso, finally irrelevant. “What a loss to French art!” a Russian collector said, and Picasso himself was not sure what to think of the picture; it was not reproduced for 15 years or publicly exhibited for 30. Nevertheless, the effect on his associates was profound. Matisse and Georges Braque (Braque, Georges), who, unlike Picasso, had been experimenting with Fauvism, immediately started painting female nudes of similar stridency. Subsequently, however, Matisse turned back toward relatively traditional forms and the flooding colour that chiefly concerned him. Braque, on the other hand, became more and more closely associated with Picasso, and Cubism, as the new style was labeled by one of Braque's hostile critics in the following year, was the result of their collaboration. In the first phase, lasting into 1909, the focus of their work was the accentuation and disruption of planes. In the next two years Braque went to paint at Cézanne's old sites, and the inspiration of Cézanne's style at this stage is indubitable. In the second phase, from 1910 to 1912, the irrelevance of the subject, in any integral form, became evident. It was no longer necessary to travel in search of a motif; any still life would do as well. The essence of the picture was in the treatment. If Analytical Cubism, as this phase is generally labeled, analyzed anything, it was the nature of the treatment. The great Cubist pictures were meditations on the intrinsic character of the detached Cézannesque facets and contours, out of which the almost-illegible images were built. Indeed, the objects were not so much depicted as denoted by linear signs, a spiral for the scrolled head of a violin or the trademark from a label for a bottle, which were superimposed on the shifting, half-contradictory flux of shapes. The element of paradox is essential; even when it approaches monumental grandeur, Cubism has a quality that eludes solemn exposition. Subtle and elegant geometric puns build up into massive demonstrations of pictorial structure, demonstrations that its complex parallels and conjunctions build nothing so firmly and so memorably as the picture itself. This proof that figurative art creates an independent reality is the central proposition of modern art, and it has had a profound effect not only on painting and sculpture, as well as on the arts of design that depend on them, but also on the intellectual climate of the age.

 The experimental investigation of what reality meant in artistic terms then took a daring turn that was unparalleled since pictorial illusion had been isolated five centuries earlier. The Cubists proceeded to embody real material from the actual world within the picture. They included first stenciled lettering, then pasted paper, and later solid objects; the reality of art as they saw it absorbed them all. This assemblage of material, called collage, led in 1912 to the third phase of the movement, Synthetic Cubism (see photograph—>), which continued until 1914. The textured and patterned planes were composed into forms more like pictorial objects in themselves than recognizable figurations. In the later work of Picasso and Braque, it is again possible to construe their pictorial code as referring plainly to the objective world—in the case of Braque, to still life chosen with an appreciation of household things and, with Picasso, to emotive yet enigmatic human subjects as well. The message of Cubism remained the same: meaning had been shown to reside in the structure of the style, the basic geometry implied in the Postimpressionist handling of life. The message spread rapidly.

      The first theoretical work on the movement, On Cubism, by the French painters Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger, was published in 1912. It was argued that geometric and mathematical principles of general validity could be deduced from the style. An exhibition in the same year represented all Cubism's adherents except the two creators. The exhibition was called the Section d'Or (“Golden Section”), after a mathematical division of a line into two sections with a certain proportion to each other. Among the exhibitors were the Spaniard Juan Gris and the Frenchman Fernand Léger, who in their subsequent work were both concerned with combining the basic scheme of Synthetic Cubism with the renewed sense of a coherent subject. Cubism stimulated parallel tendencies in The Netherlands (Netherlands, The), Italy, and Russia. In The Netherlands, Piet Mondrian (Mondrian, Piet), on the basis of Cézanne and the Dutch painters of the fin de siècle, had reached a very simple, symbolic style analogous to the Dutch landscape. He first saw Cubist paintings in 1910 and moved to Paris two years later. The subsequent resolution of his sense of natural conflict into increasingly bare rectangular designs balancing vertical against horizontal and white against areas of primary colour is one of the achievements of modern art. In 1917 the de Stijl (Stijl, De) movement formed in The Netherlands around him, with lasting consequences for the architecture, design, and typography of the century.

      In Italy in 1909 a program for all the arts was issued by the poet Filippo Marinetti (Marinetti, Filippo Tommaso), who called his exercise the Futurist manifesto. He rejected the art of the past and exalted energy, strength, movement, and the power of the modern machine. In painting, his ideas were taken up by Carlo Carrà. Umberto Boccioni (Boccioni, Umberto), the most talented of the group, pursued its ideas not only in painting but also in sculpture. The most memorable serial images of movement were those of Giacomo Balla (Balla, Giacomo); they reveal that, under its vivid fragmentation, the vision of Futurism was not far from the photographic. Its imperative mood and disruptive tactics nonetheless had their effect, finding an echo in Britain (United Kingdom) in the Vorticist circle around Wyndham Lewis (Lewis, Wyndham). Lewis' analytical intelligence and the toughness of his artistic temper marked equally his near-abstract early works and the incisive classical portraits he painted later. Among his early associates, David Bomberg developed from the Cubist idiom in 1912–13 images of a striking clarity and force; and William Roberts combined a Cubist formulation with social commentary analogous to that of the 18th-century painter William Hogarth.

      In Russia, where Western developments were well known, the avant-garde, with its own roots in primitive art, had already evolved a simplified Expressionistic style. Kazimir Malevich (Malevich, Kazimir) produced formalized images of peasants at work that anticipated the later style of Léger. The striplike and often abstract formulations of Mikhail Larionov and Natalya Gontcharova, to which they gave the name of Rayonism, date from 1911. In 1912 Malevich exhibited his first “Cubo-Futurist” works, in which the figures were reduced to dynamic coloured blocks, and in 1913 he followed these with a black square on a white background. This increasing tendency to abstraction reached its culmination in 1915 with the arrival of what he called Suprematism, in which simple geometric elements provided the whole dynamic force. The Russian movement, complicated by its own politics, was both accelerated and eventually broken by the Revolution (Russian Revolution of 1917), which gave it, for a time, a social function that the avant-garde has hardly achieved elsewhere. The Russian artists dispersed after 1922, however, and their legacy, the tradition of Constructivism, was transmitted to western Europe by El Lissitzky, Antoine Pevsner, and the latter's brother, Naum Gabo.

      Prismatic colour, the element in Cézanne that the Cubists had neglected in dismantling his style, was taken up by Robert Delaunay (Delaunay, Robert). Delaunay's variety of Cubism was named Orphism, after Orpheus, the poet and musician of ancient Greek myth. The essential discovery of Orphism was proclaimed as a realization that “colour is both form and subject.” After an exquisite series of “Windows,” Delaunay freed himself from representation and based his designs on the effects of simultaneous colour contrast. These dictated the concentric patterns of his “Discs” and “Cosmic Circular Forms,” which occupied him and his wife, Sonia, thenceforward. The Czech František Kupka (Kupka, František) painted his first totally abstract work at about the same time. Even the simplest of his subsequent works never quite lost the rhythms of the fin de siècle style. Delaunay realized that a new order of painting was beginning, but his immediate influence was strongest abroad. Two American followers, Stanton Macdonald-Wright and Morgan Russell, exhibited as “Synchromists (Synchromism)” in 1913. The Munich group Der Blaue Reiter was in touch with Delaunay, who exhibited with them, and the subsequent development of Klee was founded on his conversion to Delaunay's ideal of colour.

Fantasy and the irrational
      The identity of a work of art as a thing in itself, independent of representation, was on the way to general recognition when the outbreak of war in 1914 interrupted artistic life throughout most of Europe. The activities of a group of painters, writers, and musicians who sought refuge in Zürich reflected the disorientation and disillusion of the time. Dada, as the movement was called, owed much to the iconoclasm of the Cubists and to the polemical tactics of the Futurists. Nonetheless its attack on art was fundamentally artistic; one wing of the avant-garde has owed allegiance to the Dadaist tradition ever since. As well as the need continually to attack the limits of the fine arts, it was felt important to “épater [“shock”] les bourgeois.” The Dadaists enlarged the field open to artists in three ways. They questioned the idea that some subjects were simply not relevant to painting, a question that had been hovering over art for some time, by the simple expedient of arguing that anything and everything was fair game. The repetitive and amorphous trends of Impressionism had in fact already given grounds for such a supposition. The next step was to make a reluctant public accept that any object was a work of art if an artist chose to proclaim it one. In 1914 Marcel Duchamp (Duchamp, Marcel), the exhibitor of serial images of movement in the Section d'Or, produced a bottle rack bought in a Paris store. Better and more épatant still, he submitted a urinal to a New York exhibition under a pseudonym in 1917. Duchamp did not paint again, and this is perhaps the single Dadaist gesture that time has failed to reconcile with art. It was also the Dadaists who posed the question, if art (as Redon had realized) is not within the reach of will, how is it different from chance (probability and statistics)? Jean Arp (Arp, Jean) made collages and then reliefs from random shapes obtained “according to the laws of chance.” Of all modern artists, he examined most closely the side of art akin to humour. Similarly, the Dadaists explored such elements as incongruity and dissociation, a process that led the way to Surrealism. Finally and almost incidentally, they asked, if the presentation of movement is proper to art, why not movement itself? Viking Eggeling and Hans Richter, with animated drawings and film, made the first works in a kinetic tradition that even by the late 1980s showed no sign of abating.

      The painter who, more than any other, focused on incongruity—a feature that in painting involves the reinstatement of the subject, rather than its treatment, at the centre of art—was Giorgio De Chirico (de Chirico, Giorgio), an Italian born in Greece. De Chirico, rooted in the Mediterranean world, created from 1910 onward unforgettable images of its dereliction. In the immediate postwar years, he pioneered a style of emblematic, half-abstract still life called pittura metafisica (Metaphysical painting) (“metaphysical painting”), but by 1924, when the Surrealists began to work a similar vein of fantasy, De Chirico had changed; and in later life he disavowed his early achievement. Metaphysical painting had one unexpected sequel, the serene realism of Giorgio Morandi. Meanwhile, Kurt Schwitters in Germany developed the mediums of collage and assemblage in the new spirit. Francis Picabia (Picabia, Francis), who was associated with Duchamp in the United States during the war, joined forces with the Swiss Dadaists in 1918; his contribution was an epigrammatic elegance of style. The German Max Ernst was the most resourceful pictorial technician of the movement and a continually fertile inventor.

      It was in 1917 that the term Surrealism was coined, when the poet Guillaume Apollinaire described the style of the ballet Parade, for which Picasso had painted the sets, as:

a sort of sur-realism in which I see a point of departure for a series of manifestations of that New Spirit which . . . promises to transform arts and manners from top to bottom with universal joy.

      The manifesto of the Surrealist movement, which was composed by the poet André Breton, did not appear until 1924, however. Surrealism meant different things in different people's hands, but a common feature was absorption in the fantastic and irrational. The questions posed by Dada also preoccupied Surrealists, but for them the problem of the involuntary, fortuitous element in art, for example, was clearly open to psychological solution. The Surrealists demanded “pure psychic automatism”; (automatism) the automatic drawings that the French artist André Masson made from 1925 onward and, on a more mechanical level, the frottage (“rubbing”) devices of Ernst (Ernst, Max), which added to painting the evocative effect of fortuitously dappled textures, introduced an element that flourished even more fully 20 years later. Another discovery made in the wake of Dada was similarly delayed in its full impact: Parade had been the culmination of a series of musical compositions by Erik Satie that were based on ironic quotations of popular material. In the early 1920s the Americans Stuart Davis (Davis, Stuart) and Man Ray made paintings out of the designs on commercial packaging, foreshadowing the Pop Art of the 1950s.

      The greatest achievement of Surrealist painting, however, was the invention of a new genre: fantastic realism—the prosaic, indeed quasi-photographic, rendering of the forms of fantasy and dream. The invention was the work, after De Chirico, of the Frenchman Yves Tanguy (Tanguy, Yves) and the Spaniard Salvador Dalí (Dalí, Salvador). In the pictorial world of Dalí, everyday things undergo a transformation that can be almost disturbing; in that of Tanguy, forms are more suggestive than related to actual objects. A different aspect of this dream realism, one that is particularly disturbing, was shown by the Belgian René Magritte.

      In the years after 1918, a mood of classical consolidation affected some painters. In Germany a “New Objectivity” (Die Neue Sachlichkeit) was imposed on Expressionism; the eventual synthesis appeared in the brutal paintings of Max Beckmann (Beckmann, Max). In France the Italian-born Amedeo Modigliani (Modigliani, Amedeo), affected by the simplicity of the Romanian-born sculptor Constantin Brancusi, arrived at a delicate linear realism, the last of the great Postimpressionist styles.

      The Expressionist tradition was developed to an extreme of agonized distortion by Chaim Soutine. Another Russian-born member of the school of Paris, Marc Chagall (Chagall, Marc), who had been influenced both by Cubism and the Russian avant-garde, discovered in the 1920s an individual and inconsequent vein of pictorial fancy. The sombre and devotional art of the Frenchman Georges Rouault (Rouault, Georges) bore the marks of his training with Gustave Moreau and as a stained-glass maker. Its crude force had been developed in the context of Fauvism, but the vision was one of refined introspection. The vigour and freedom of Fauvism was developed in the opposite direction in the decorative, extrovert style of another French painter, Raoul Dufy (Dufy, Raoul). The classicizing trend of the 1920s had a remarkable sequel in the work of the mural painters of Mexico. One such, Diego Rivera, had learned the formal lessons of Cubism in Paris; José Clemente Orozco was more dependent on the folk art of his country. Their frescoes combined grandeur with a legibility and social awareness rare in modern art.

      The greatest imaginative achievements between World Wars I and II were, however, again those of Picasso. In the years immediately following World War I he had painted a series of solidly modeled yet oddly ironic figure pictures. Then his mood changed, and in 1925 “The Three Dancers” (Tate Gallery, London) reintroduced an anarchic and convulsive quality. The ambiguities and transformations of his art, both in painting and sculpture, have an emotional character that is entirely his own, but the enlargement of the artistic language greatly influenced others. The metamorphosis of natural shape into abstracted forms that nevertheless curve and bulge with their own life, a metamorphosis initiated by Picasso, became the international style of the early 1930s. The Spaniard Joan Miró gave it his own clarity and gaiety. Biomorphic abstraction, in essence the method of Tanguy, extended the resources of Surrealism, and the Chilean Roberto Matta Echaurren, who began painting in 1938, used it with dramatic effect. A poetic version of the style, rooted in an emotional response to landscape, was evolved in England by Graham Sutherland. In the later 1930s, with “Guernica” (1937; Prado, Madrid) and other pictures, Picasso (Picasso, Pablo) responded to specific events. Around 1940, two painters in the United States, Arshile Gorky and Willem de Kooning, gave the biomorphic style a new character: relaxed, diffuse, and clear.

      The development of abstract painting (abstract art) between the wars was comparatively slow. Klee (Klee, Paul) (in 1921) and Kandinsky (Kandinsky, Wassily) (in 1922) gravitated to the Bauhaus, the school in Germany whose work at Weimar and later at Dessau deeply influenced architecture and design as well as basic teaching. Oskar Schlemmer, whose simplified manner paralleled the Italian metaphysical painters, and Lyonel Feininger (Feininger, Lyonel), an American-born painter working in a style developed from Cubism, were already teaching there. Kandinsky was concerned with refining the geometric ingredient of his work. Klee developed the poetic and fantastic elements of his art with an inconsequent fertility. The systematic purity of the Bauhaus approach survived longest in the work of Josef Albers, who moved to the United States in 1933. In 1940 Mondrian (Mondrian, Piet) moved to New York City, and his last dynamic pictures reflect the new environment. Mondrian's work was appreciated by only a small circle, although a similar strength of purpose with a delicate responsiveness to a broader range of forms appeared in the work of the British painter Ben Nicholson. In the 1930s some paintings were executed by artists who formed themselves into groups, such as Abstraction-Création in Paris, Unit One in London, and the Association of American Abstract Artists in New York City. The work of these groups attained wider recognition only after World War II.

After 1945
      The postwar work of Braque (Braque, Georges) developed a few basic themes. The space and content of “The Studio” series of five paintings were formulated in vertical phases of varying sombreness; a mysterious bird that featured in this series was a symbol expressive of aspiration. Nicolas de Stael, a friend of Braque who was born in St. Petersburg, reached in 1950 a style in which lozenges of solid paint were built into structures of echo and correspondence. Colour in itself provided the substance, and de Stael's influence was considerable. The painterly and basically traditional vein of abstraction pursued in Paris by such painters as Alfred Manessier remained at root decorative. In Italy, traditional trends in sculpture are reflected in the brilliant accomplished modeling of Giacomo Manzù; Marino Marini (Marini, Marino), devoting himself almost entirely to the single theme of horse and rider, gave a bald realistic style an oddly apocalyptic force.

      The Expressionist tradition was revived in the new spirit by the “ COBRA” group of painters from Copenhagen, Brussels, and Amsterdam who came together in Paris in 1948. In the work of Asger Jorn and Karel Appel, the image springs as if by chance from the free extempore play of brushstrokes. Surrealism proved remarkably durable. Among its adherents, the American Joseph Cornell (Cornell, Joseph) had been evolving from the techniques of collage and assemblage a personal and evocative form of image; the Pole Hans Bellmer and the German Richard Lindner, working in Paris and New York, respectively, explored private and obsessive themes; they were recognized as among the most individual talents of their generation. In general, the most idiosyncratic and anarchic qualities of art were being developed as a new tradition, while geometric abstraction was seen to be the natural basis for the arts that are public and communal in purpose. Victor Pasmore in Britain, for instance, abandoned his earlier Postimpressionist standpoint to start afresh with constructional and graphic symbols deriving from Klee and Mondrian.

      The presence of a number of the pioneer Surrealists in the United States during World War II affected later developments there. Surrealism's element of psychic automatism, particularly the spontaneous calligraphy of Masson, was particularly influential. The possibilities had, in fact, been implicit in modern painting for at least two decades; in Paris in the 1920s Jean Fautrier was already basing pictures on spontaneous and informal gestures with paint. In the United States in the 1940s, however, fresh impetus came from the impulsive play of colour in the work of the influential teacher Hans Hofmann. The movement that became known as Abstract Expressionism represented a decisive departure from its European sources, not only because the homogeneous consistency of a painted surface in itself took on a new meaning in the expansive U.S. conditions but at least equally because of the exceptional personality of Jackson Pollock (Pollock, Jackson). The style Pollock adopted in 1947 reflected an original involvement in the act of painting that transcended deliberation or control. The influential critic Harold Rosenberg (Rosenberg, Harold) wrote in 1952:

At a certain moment the canvas began to appear to one American painter after another as an arena in which to act—rather than as a space in which to reproduce, redesign, analyze or “express” an object, actual or imagined. What was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an event.
(The Tradition of the New)

      In contrast to Pollock's work, that executed at the time by Willem de Kooning (de Kooning, Willem), though equally sweeping and ungovernable, showed a recurrent figurative reference; his series of alarming variations on the theme “Woman” began in 1950. Another Abstract Expressionist, Franz Kline (Kline, Franz), claimed, in executing his shapes like huge black and white ideograms, to be in some sense depicting figurative images. Rosenberg dubbed the group “action painters (Action painting).” In the course of the 1950s their influence was felt in almost every country. The climate of artistic opinion that spread outward from New York made possible flamboyant gesture paintings such as those of the French-born Georges Mathieu.

      The idea of painting as a homogeneous allover fabric led at the same time to other quite separate developments. Prompted by the primitive and psychotic imagery that he called l'art brut (art brut) (“raw art”), Jean Dubuffet (Dubuffet, Jean) embarked on an extraordinarily resourceful series of experiments in translating the raw material of the world into pictures. The energy that fills the works of the American painter Mark Tobey is by comparison gentle and lyrical and much influenced by East Asian art. Dubuffet's example inspired the abstract “matter” painting that developed in several countries around 1950. At its best, as in the work of the Catalan Antonio Tapies, this style conveys a strong sense of natural substance.

New forms
      In painting generally a new directness was strikingly combined with a new simplicity. Beginning at the age of 80, in the five years before his death in 1954, Henri Matisse (Matisse, Henri) made a series of large gouaches découpées in which the increasingly abstract images were created solely by the juxtaposition of sharply cut patches of brilliant colour. Their influence was widespread and by no means confined to painters, such as the American Ellsworth Kelly, who developed the vibrant interaction of hard-edge colour areas. Even from other starting points, painters were reaching similar conclusions. The very simple yet resonant colour combinations of the New York painter Mark Rothko or the grand severity of another American, Barnett Newman, furnish examples.

      Abstract painting was revealing far wider potentialities than had been apparent between World Wars I and II, but figurative styles showed a new freedom as well. The Swiss Alberto Giacometti (Giacometti, Alberto), who had worked as a Surrealist, evolved in both sculpture and painting his sensation of the visual impact of figures in space. Francis Bacon in Britain uncovered unexpected and startling connotations in the apparition of a human likeness on canvas.

      Painting in the 1960s not only sought originality; it took up a deliberately extreme position that may have seemed almost to pass the bounds of art. Paintings might be extremely large. Alternatively, they might be extreme in some other respect, such as the canvases of the Frenchman Yves Klein, which showed only a plain, arresting blue colour, or the black pictures of the American Ad Reinhardt, with variations so slight as to be hardly perceptible. The element of apparent chance in action painting explained the way the stains of colour in the work of the American painter Morris Louis appeared to flow and soak across the canvas as if of their own accord.

      The tradition of Dada and its skepticism regarding what had once been the received definition of art prompted continual experiment with the techniques of assemblage. Robert Rauschenberg (Rauschenberg, Robert) in the United States sought to place his subtly calculated “combine paintings” (collections of contrasting objects joined to make an ensemble) in the gap between reality and art, contrasting the significance of paint with the borrowed imagery and objects juxtaposed with it. Jasper Johns (Johns, Jasper), an associate of Rauschenburg's, worked with preexisting designs such as targets and the U.S. flag, giving them an ironic look when subjected to incorporation in his works. In the borrowed imagery and popular quotations, on which much painting was based in the years that followed, the irony was intensified to the point of ceasing to be irony at all. Roy Lichtenstein (Lichtenstein, Roy) took strip cartoons and other banal (even banally artistic) imagery as the motifs for pictures. Another American, Claes Oldenburg (Oldenburg, Claes), began by reconstructing common things out of the random pictorial substance of Abstract Expressionism; his later reconstructions of the rigid furniture of everyday life are tailored out of limp plastic sheeting.

      There is nothing random about the typical art of the 1960s. On the contrary, it was planned exactly and normally carried out by an efficient, almost mechanical-seeming system. Hard-edge painting developed into a wide range of planar styles having in common only their exploitation of optical reactions and the element of shock that is the visual concomitant of sharp contrast. The spread of this idiom was particularly influenced by the Hungarian-born Victor Vasarely, who worked in France; its most personal development was in the largely monochromatic work of Bridget Riley (Riley, Bridget) in Britain. Again, the initial tendency was to exclude such sensations from the aesthetic canon, but in the event a whole region of visual meaning, void for uncertainty since abstraction began, was reclaimed for painting. Optical art, or Op art, emphasizes movement, whether potential, actual, or relative, and such effects have been ingeniously investigated by the Groupe de Recherche d'Art Visuel (“Group for Visual Research”), founded in Paris (France) in 1960, and the Zero group in Düsseldorf, Ger. In the reliefs of the Venezuelan Jesús Raphael Soto, shifting vision is given a delicate order.

      Other developments have proved more fertile. In the hands of the American painters Kenneth Noland and Frank Stella, painting discovered new shapes, both within the rectangular canvas and beyond it. The new value given to the painted plane did not benefit painting only. The British painter Richard Smith deployed it in three dimensions in painted constructions that re-create impressions of commercial packaging in terms of the spatial imagination of the arts.

      The extreme in this reduction of means and sophistication of aesthetics was perhaps reached when a group of sculptors in the United States and England turned to investigate the possibilities of minimal (minimalism) and primary forms, normally the simplest geometric solids, alone or arranged in baldly repetitive series. Here, it is the spectator (as perhaps in a sense it always is) who brings the interpretation and supplies the art. The proposition had the apparent preposterousness expected of avant-garde art, yet it seemed likely, in its turn, to shed light on problems that are very much older. It is characteristic of sculpture and painting in the 20th century to deal more and more consciously and directly with the ultimate definition of art. The perennial compulsion to reverse previously accepted definitions has threatened ever more directly the recognizable identity of art. At the end of the 1960s the tendency to emphasize the systems and attitudes of art rather than its product led to a move in several countries to deny the validity of the art object. Instead artists prepared written specifications for ideal, imaginary art, the fulfillment of which was superfluous, or self-sufficient programs for performances paradoxically analogous to some aspect of the more familiar artistic acts. conceptual art has opened the way to activities notable in their defiance of conventional expectations. The designs of earth art or earthworks are fulfilled by moving large amounts of soil, preferably in inaccessible places, perhaps in token of the potency of traditional art to impose its shape on the world. Activities of this order may appear to belong as much to theory as to artistic creation itself; in the 1970s these distinctions, with other familiar cornerstones of artistic thought, were held to have lost their validity.

Sir Lawrence Gowing Ed.
      In the 1970s, critical and public interest centred on the reductive constructions of Minimalism and the nihilistic questioning of conceptual art. The late 1970s and early 1980s, however, witnessed a resurgence of excitement in painting and a return to figurative representation. A new movement called Neo-Expressionism arose in New York City and in the art capitals of western Europe, especially in West Germany, combining the heavy paint surfaces and dynamic brushstrokes of Abstract Expressionism with the emotional tone of early 20th-century German Expressionism. The new movement's subject matter ranged from basically literal, though self-consciously primitive, treatments of the human figure to a range of imaginary subjects indicative of modern urban life, particularly its glamour, alienation, and menace. A notable characteristic of Neo-Expressionism was the newly prominent role played in its commercial acceptance by gallery owners and art dealers who adroitly publicized the movement's artists. Indeed, Neo-Expressionism's sudden success was an indication of the growing commercialization of the avant-garde and its unhesitating acceptance by wealthy, influential collectors and progressive-minded museum curators. Some critics voiced doubts over what they saw as the reflexive pursuit of artistic novelty under the influence of commercial pressures, and some even asserted that critical and public acclaim had to some extent become divorced from the goals of finding and patronizing painters whose works had lasting artistic significance.


Additional Reading

Among the standard surveys of the history of Western art are Helen Gardner, Gardner's Art Through the Ages, 8th ed., edited by Horst de la Croix and Richard G. Tansey (1986); H.W. Janson, History of Art, 3rd ed., revised and expanded by Anthony F. Janson (1986); and David M. Robb and J.J. Garrison, Art in the Western World, 4th ed. (1963). Among the major standard reference works are the Encyclopedia of World Art, 16 vol. (1959–83); Ulrich Thieme and Felix Becker (eds.), Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart, 37 vol. (1907–50, reprinted 1970–71); McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Art, edited by Bernard S. Myers, 5 vol. (1969); Harold Osborne (ed.), The Oxford Companion to Art (1970, reprinted 1984); and the Praeger Encyclopedia of Art, 5 vol. (1971). See also Arnold Hauser, The Social History of Art, trans. from German, 4 vol. (1962); Elizabeth G. Holt (ed.), A Documentary History of Art, 3 vol. (1957–66, vol. 1 and 2 reprinted in 1982); Peter Murray and Linda Murray, A Dictionary of Art and Artists, 4th ed. (1976); and E.H. Gombrich, The Story of Art, 14th rev. ed. (1984). An extensive bibliography may be found in E. Louise Lucas, Art Books: A Basic Bibliography on the Fine Arts (1968). Later reference works include the Larousse Dictionary of Painters (1981; originally published in French, 1976); and David Piper (ed.), The Random House Library of Painting and Sculpture, 4 vol. (1981). F. David Martin, Sculpture and Enlivened Space: Aesthetics and History (1981), examines the comparative importance of painting and sculpture in Western art.

European Metal Age cultures
Stuart Piggott, Ancient Europe, from the Beginnings of Agriculture to Classical Antiquity (1965); and Walter Torbrugge, Prehistoric European Art (1968; originally published in German, 1968), provide general surveys. There is a vast literature on the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean, including Spyridon Marinatos, Crete and Mycenae (1960; originally published in Greek, 1959), photographs by Max Hirmer; Reynold Higgins, Minoan and Mycenaean Art, rev. ed. (1981); and Spyridon Marinatos, “Life and Art in Prehistoric Thera,” Proceedings of the British Academy, vol. 57 (1972). Sir Arthur Evans, The Palace of Minos: A Comparative Account of the Successive Stages of the Early Cretan Civilization as Illustrated by the Discoveries at Knossos, 4 vol. in 6 (1921–35, reissued 1964), is a classic work but is superseded in part by Richard W. Hutchinson, Prehistoric Crete (1962, reprinted 1968); Sinclair Hood, The Minoans: The Story of Bronze Age Crete (1971); and Keith Branigan, The Foundations of Palatial Crete (1970). For Helladic art, the best works are George E. Mylonas, Mycenae and the Mycenaean Age (1966); and Lord William Taylour, The Mycenaeans, rev. ed. (1983). For Cyprus, see Vassos Karageorghis, Cyprus (1969), with a useful bibliography. Among the numerous works on the western Mediterranean are the following: Antonio Arribas, The Iberians (1964); L. Bernabò Brea, Sicily Before the Greeks (rev. ed., 1966; originally published in Italian, 1966); David H. Trump, Central and Southern Italy Before Rome (1966); David Randall-MacIver, The Iron Age in Italy: A Study of Those Aspects of the Early Civilization Which Are neither Villanovan nor Etruscan (1927, reprinted 1974) and Villanovans and Early Etruscans: A Study of the Early Iron Age in Italy as It Is Seen near Bologna, in Etruria and in Latium (1924); Mario Moretti and Guglielmo Maetzke, The Art of the Etruscans (1970; originally published in Italian, 1969); P.J. Riis, An Introduction to Etruscan Art (1953; originally published in Danish, 1948); Raymond Bloch, The Etruscans (1958; originally published in French, 1958); Massimo Pallotino, Etruscan Painting, trans. from French (1952), and Art of the Etruscans, trans. from French (1955); Margaret Guido, Sardinia (1964); and John D. Evans, Malta (1959). For northern European art, see Paul Jacobsthal, Early Celtic Art, 2 vol. (1944, reprinted 1970). See also John E. Pfeiffer, The Creative Explosion: An Inquiry into the Origins of Art and Religion (1982); André Leroi-Gourhan, The Dawn of European Art: An Introduction to Palaeolithic Cave Painting (1982; originally published in Italian, 1981); and Pierre Amiet et al., Art in the Ancient World: A Handbook of Styles and Forms, trans. from French (1981).

Ancient Greek
Important general works include John D. Beazley and Bernard Ashmole, Greek Sculpture and Painting to the End of the Hellenistic Period (1932, reprinted 1966); John Boardman, Greek Art, new rev. ed. (1985); John Boardman et al., Greek Art and Architecture (1967; originally published in German, 1966), with photographs by Max Hirmer; Rhys Carpenter, The Esthetic Basis of Greek Art of the Fifth and Fourth Centuries B.C., rev. ed. (1959); Gisella Richter, A Handbook of Greek Art, 8th ed. (1983), and Archaic Greek Art Against Its Historical Background (1949); George Boas (ed.), The Greek Tradition (1939), a collection of essays published in connection with an exhibition and accompanied by its catalog, George Boas et al., The Greek Tradition in Painting and the Minor Arts (1939); Bernhard Schweitzer, Greek Geometric Art (1971; originally published in German, 1969); and Vincent J. Bruno, Form and Color in Greek Painting (1977). Among the standard studies on vase painting are Paolo E. Arias, A History of 1000 Years of Greek Vase Painting (1962; originally published in Italian, 1960), with photographs by Max Hirmer; John D. Beazley, The Development of Attic Black-Figure (1951, reprinted 1986), Potter and Painter in Ancient Athens (1944), Attic Black-Figure Vase-Painters (1956, reprinted 1978), and Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters, 2nd ed., 3 vol. (1963, reissued 1984); Ernst Buschor, Greek Vase Painting (1921, reprinted 1971; originally published in German, 1913); Joseph V. Noble, The Techniques of Painted Attic Pottery (1965); and Martin Robertson, Greek Painting (1959; reissued 1979). See also Manolis Andronikos, Vergina: The Royal Tombs and the Ancient City (1984; originally published in Greek, 1984). Martin Robertson, A Shorter History of Greek Art (1981), is an excellent condensed study of Greek art from the Geometric through the Hellenistic periods.

General surveys include George M.A. Hanfmann, Roman Art: A Modern Survey of the Art of Imperial Rome (1964, reissued 1975); Heinz Kähler, The Art of Rome and Her Empire (1963; originally published in German, 1962); German Hafner, Art of Rome, Etruria, and Magna Graecia, trans. from German (1969); G.A. Mansuelli, The Art of Etruria and Early Rome, trans. from Italian (1965); Jocelyn M.C. Toynbee, Art in Roman Britain (1962); and Sir Mortimer Wheeler, Roman Art and Architecture (1964, reissued 1985). More detailed information on painting may be found in Amedeo Maiuri, Roman Painting, trans. from French (1953); and Wladimiro Dorigo, Late Roman Painting (1971; originally published in Italian, 1966). Bernard Andreae, The Art of Rome (1978; originally published in German, 1973), is a comprehensive survey; and Otto J. Brendel, Prolegomena to the Study of Roman Art (1979), includes criticism of previous writings on the subject.

Early Christian, Byzantine, Armenian, Georgian, and Coptic
Viktor Lazarev, Storia della pittura bizantina (1967; originally published in Russian, 2 vol., 1947–48), is a well-annotated general survey, now seriously out of date but still useful. Good coverage is provided by a combination of two books: Beat Brenk (ed.), Spätantike und frühes Christentum (1977); and Wolfgang F. Volbach and Jacqueline Lafontaine-Dosogne, Byzanz und der christliche Osten (1968). See also Wolfgang F. Volbach, Early Christian Art, with photographs by Max Hirmer (1962; originally published in German, 1958); and D. Talbot Rice, Byzantine Art, rev. ed. (1968); Thomas F. Mathews, The Byzantine Churches of Istanbul: A Photographic Survey (1976); and Cyril Mango, The Art of the Byzantine Empire, 312–1453: Sources and Documents (1972, reprinted 1986).A number of books consider the art of the period as a whole and propose various ways of interpreting the material: André Grabar, Christian Iconography: A Study of Its Origins (1968, reprinted 1980; originally published in French, 1957; 2nd rev. French ed., 1984), The Beginnings of Christian Art, 200–395 (1967; originally published in French, 1966), Byzantium: From the Death of Theodosius to the Rise of Islam, trans. from French (1967), and Byzantine Painting: Historical and Critical Study, trans. from French (1953, reissued 1979); Ernst Kitzinger, Byzantine Art in the Making: Main Lines of Stylistic Development in Mediterranean Art, 3rd–7th Century (1977); Clive Foss and Paul Magdalino, Rome and Byzantium (1977); and Cyril Mango, Byzantium, the Empire of New Rome (1980). Henry Maguire, Art and Eloquence in Byzantium (1981), discusses art as influenced by sermons and other theological writings; alternatively, Robin Cormack, Writing in Gold: Byzantine Society and Its Icons (1985), interprets Byzantine art as a major element in the Byzantine outlook.A number of helpful publications cover some of the specialist areas: Klaus Wessel, Coptic Art (1965; originally published in German, 1963); Guiseppe Bovini, Ravenna: Its Mosaics and Monuments (1956, reissued 1970; originally published in Italian, 1956); Heinz Kähler, Hagia Sophia (1967; originally published in German, 1967); Anthony Bryer and Judith Herrin (eds.), Iconoclasm (1977); Kurt Weitzmann, The Icon: Holy Images—Sixth to Fourteenth Century (1978); and Kurt Weitzmann et al., The Icon (1982; originally published in Italian, 1981).

Early medieval and Romanesque
The most satisfactory survey of the whole period is provided in André Grabar and Carl Nordenfalk, Early Medieval Painting from the Fourth to the Eleventh Century, trans. from French and German (1957), and Romanesque Painting from the Eleventh to the Thirteenth Century, trans. from French and German (1958). The most exhaustive study on wall painting is still Edgar W. Anthony, Romanesque Frescoes (1951, reprinted 1971). For manuscript illumination, see Albert Boeckler, Abendländische Miniaturen bis zum Ausgang der romanischen Zeit (1930); a stimulating discussion by Otto Pächt, Book Illumination in the Middle Ages: An Introduction (1986; originally published in German, 1984); and a survey by Christopher De Hamel, A History of Illuminated Manuscripts (1986). An excellent short introduction to the subject is contained in Ernst Kitzinger, Early Medieval Art, with Illustrations from the British Museum and British Library Collections, rev. ed. (1983). The 9th through 12th centuries are covered in John Beckwith, Early Medieval Art: Carolingian, Ottonian, Romanesque, rev. ed. (1969, reprinted 1985); and C.R. Dodwell, Painting in Europe, 800 to 1200 (1971). The most comprehensive modern overview of Dark Age and early medieval painting is Carlo Bertelli, “Traccia allo studio delle fondazioni medievali dell'arte italiana,” in Storia dell'arte italiana, part 2, Dal medioevo al novecento, vol. 1, Dal medioevo al quattrocento, pp. 3–163 (1983). For Rome, see Richard Krautheimer, Rome, Profile of a City, 312–1308 (1980). The best survey of early Anglo-Saxon art is still T.D. Kendrick, Anglo-Saxon Art to A.D. 900 (1938, reprinted 1972). For book illumination in Britain and Ireland, see J.J.G. Alexander, Insular Manuscripts, 6th to the 9th Century (1978); Carl Nordenfalk, Celtic and Anglo-Saxon Painting: Book Illumination in the British Isles, 600–800 (1977); Françoise Henry, Irish Art in the Early Christian Period, to 800 A.D. (1965), Irish Art During the Viking Invasions, 800–1020 A.D. (1967), and Irish Art in the Romanesque Period, 1020–1170 A.D. (1970; originally published in French together in a set of 3 vol., 1963–64).Merovingian illumination is discussed in Jean Hubert, Jean Porcher, and Wolfgang F. Volbach, Europe in the Dark Ages (1969; U.S. title, Europe of the Invasions; originally published in French, 1967). There are several good surveys of Carolingian painting: Wolfgang Braunfels, Die Welt der Karolinger und ihre Kunst (1968); Jean Hubert, Jean Porcher, and Wolfgang F. Volbach, Carolingian Art (1970; U.S. title, The Carolingian Renaissance; originally published in French, 1968); and Florentine Mütherich and Joachim E. Gaehde, Carolingian Painting (1976). Excellent particular studies can be found in Wolfgang Braunfels and Hermann Schnitzler (eds.), Karolingische Kunst (1965). Late Anglo-Saxon art is considered in Elzbieta Temple, Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts, 900–1066 (1976); Janet Backhouse, D.H. Turner, and Leslie Webster (eds.), The Golden Age of Anglo-Saxon Art, 966-1066 (1984); and C.R. Dodwell, Anglo-Saxon Art: A New Perspective (1982). Hans Jantzen, Ottonische Kunst (1947, reissued 1963), is an excellent review of Ottonian art; and Adolph Goldschmidt, German Illumination, vol. 2, Ottonian Period (1929, reprinted as part of a 1-vol. edition, 1970; originally published in German, 1928), is still valuable. A brief survey is Louis Grodecki et al., Le Siècle de l'an mil (1973). C.R. Dodwell and D.H. Turner, Reichenau Reconsidered: A Re-assessment of the Place of Reichenau in Ottonian Art (1965), offers a stimulating but contested examination of late 10th-century Ottonian illumination. The Romanesque period is surveyed in François Avril, Xavier Barral I Altet, and Danielle Gaborit-Chopin, Le Temps des Croisades (1982), and Les Royaumes d'Occident (1983); Hanns Swarzenski, Monuments of Romanesque Art: The Art of Church Treasures in North-Western Europe, 2nd ed. (1967, reissued 1974); Otto Demus and Max Hirmer, Romanesque Mural Painting (1970; originally published in German, 1968); and Walter Cahn, Romanesque Bible Illumination (1982). The best study of French Romanesque illumination is Jean Porcher, Medieval French Miniatures (1960; U.K. title, French Miniatures from Illuminated Manuscripts; originally published in French, 1959). For England, there is an excellent survey of manuscripts: C.M. Kauffmann, Romanesque Manuscripts, 1066–1190 (1975); and a later discussion in the exhibition catalog, George Zarnecki, Janet Holt, and Tristram Holland (eds.), English Romanesque Art, 1066–1200 (1984). The standard work on early Spanish illumination, in English, is J. Domínguez Bordona, Spanish Illumination (1930, reissued 1969; originally published in Spanish, 1930); see also John Williams, Early Spanish Manuscript Illumination (1977). Illumination in northwest Germany is surveyed in two exhibition catalogs, Rhein und Maas, Kunst und Kultur, 800–1400, 2 vol. (1972–73); and Anton Legner (ed.), Ornamenta ecclesiae: Kunst und Künstler der Romanik, 3 vol. (1985). The Gospels of Henry the Lion are discussed in The Gospels of Henry the Lion, Count of Saxony, Duke of Bavaria (1983), an auction catalog of Sotheby Parke Bernet Inc.; and Horst Fuhrmann and Florentine Mütherich (eds.), Das Evangeliar Heinrichs des Löwen und das mittelalterliche Herrscherbild (1986).The standard work on Salzburg illumination is still the masterly Georg Swarzenski, Die Salzburger Malerei von den ersten Anfängen bis zur Blütezeit des romanischen Stils: Studien zur Geschichte der deutschen Malerei und Handschriftenkunde des Mittelalters, 2nd ed., 2 vol. (1969). The best survey of the art of the late 12th century is found in the three volumes of The Year 1200, a set published in conjunction with an exhibition: vol. 1, A Centennial Exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Catalog, edited by K. Hoffmann (1970); vol. 2, A Background Survey, edited by F. Deuchler (1970); and vol. 3, A Symposium, texts by François Avril et al. (1975). Otto Demus, Byzantine Art and the West (1970), discusses the influence of Byzantine art on western Europe throughout the Middle Ages.

General social and intellectual studies of Gothic art include Joan Evans (ed.), The Flowering of the Middle Ages, new ed. (1985); and Johan Huizinga, The Waning of the Middle Ages: A Study of the Forms of Life, Thought and Art in France and the Netherlands in the XIVth and XVth Centuries (1924, reprinted 1985; originally published in Dutch, 1919). See also Andrew Martindale, Gothic Art (1967, reprinted 1985); George Henderson, Early Medieval (1972), and Gothic (1967); Emile Male, Religious Art in France, the Thirteenth Century: A Study of Medieval Iconography and Its Sources (1984; originally published in French, 9th rev. ed., 1958), and Religious Art from the Twelfth to the Eighteenth Century (1949, reprinted 1970; originally published in French, 1945); Teresa G. Frisch, Gothic Art 1140–c. 1450 (1971); and Jacques Dupont and Cesare Gnudi, Gothic Painting (1954, reissued 1979; originally published in French, 1954).For a discussion of Italian Gothic painting, see Eve Borsook, The Mural Painters of Tuscany: From Cimabue to Andrea del Sarto, 2nd rev. ed. (1980); Millard Meiss, Painting in Florence and Siena After the Black Death (1951, reprinted 1978); John White, Art and Architecture in Italy, 1250–1400 (1966), and The Birth and Rebirth of Pictorial Space, 2nd ed. (1967); and Frederick Antal, Florentine Painting and Its Social Background: The Bourgeois Republic Before Cosimo de'Medici's Advent to Power, XIV and Early XV Centuries (1948, reprinted 1986). Charles D. Cuttler, Northern Painting from Pucelle to Bruegel: Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and Sixteenth Centuries (1968), is an introductory work. No adequate monograph on International Gothic art exists, but, for France, see Millard Meiss, French Painting in the Time of Jean de Berry: The Late Fourteenth Century and the Patronage of the Duke, 2 vol. (1967), French Painting in the Time of Jean de Berry: The Limbourgs and Their Contemporaries, 2 vol. (1974), and French Painting in the Time of Jean de Berry: The Boucicaut Master (1968). For late Gothic art, French painting is surveyed in Grete Ring, A Century of French Painting, 1400–1500 (1949, reprinted 1979). Netherlandish painting is dealt with in Max J. Friedländer, Early Netherlandish Painting, 14 vol. (1967–76; originally published in German, 1924–37); the best monograph on this early period is Erwin Panofsky, Early Netherlandish Painting, Its Origins and Character, 2 vol. (1953, reprinted 1971). Anne Shaver-Grandell, The Middle Ages (1982), is an introduction to medieval art intended for the general reader; Walter Oakeshott, The Two Winchester Bibles (1981), is a scholarly study of 12th-century painting; Richard I. Abrams and Warner A. Hutchinson, An Illustrated Life of Jesus (1982), includes an analysis of 94 paintings from the collection of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., with background notes on the artists; and Peter S. Beagle, The Garden of Earthly Delights: Illustrations Taken from the Paintings of Hieronymus Bosch (1982), is a creative and entertaining introduction to the artist's works.

(Italy): General works include Creighton Gilbert, History of Renaissance Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture Throughout Europe (1973); Michael Levey, Early Renaissance (1967, reprinted 1979), and High Renaissance (1975); and Robert Klein and Henri Zerner, Italian Art, 1500–1600: Sources and Documents (1966). A useful introduction to the theorists of the period is provided by Sir Anthony Blunt, Artistic Theory in Italy, 1450–1600 (1940, reprinted 1982). See also Sydney J. Freedberg, Painting of the High Renaissance in Rome and Florence, new rev. ed., 2 vol. (1985), and Painting in Italy, 1500 to 1600, 2nd ed. (1983), a fine survey of the often-complex movements in 16th-century Italian painting; James Beck, Italian Renaissance Painting (1981), a historical survey of works of individual masters; and Bruce Cole, The Renaissance Artist at Work: From Pisano to Titian (1983).(Northern Renaissance): Otto Benesch, Art of the Renaissance in Northern Europe: Its Relation to the Contemporary Spiritual and Intellectual Movements, rev. ed. (1965), and German Painting, from Dürer to Holbein, trans. from German (1966); Wolfgang Stechow, Northern Renaissance Art, 1400–1600: Sources and Documents (1966); and Albert Châtelet, Early Dutch Painting: Painting in the Northern Netherlands in the Fifteenth Century (1981; originally published in French, 1980). (France): Sir Anthony Blunt, Art and Architecture in France, 1500 to 1700, 4th ed. (1980), is an authoritative survey. (Spain and Portugal): George Kubler and Martin Soria, Art and Architecture in Spain and Portugal and Their American Dominions, 1500 to 1800 (1959), is the only scholarly study in English. (Central Europe and Russia): G.H. Hamilton, The Art and Architecture of Russia, 3rd ed. (1983), is a survey of all the arts of Russia.Many studies have been done since the 1960s dealing exclusively with Mannerism. The most coherent view as a whole is John Shearman, Mannerism (1967). See also Franzsepp Würtenberger, Mannerism: The European Style of the Sixteenth Century (1963; originally published in German, 1962); and Giuliano Briganti, Italian Mannerism (1962; originally published in Italian, 1961).

Baroque and Rococo
The classic study of Baroque art, Heinrich Wölfflin, Renaissance and Baroque (1964, reprinted 1984; originally published in German, 1888), remains an important basic study. Michael Kitson, The Age of Baroque (1966), provides an excellent modern summary. John Rupert Martin, Baroque (1977), is a fuller survey. Germain Bazin, Baroque and Rococo, trans. from French (1964, reprinted as Baroque and Rococo Art, 1974), covers the entire period in less detail, but it has in no way replaced the basic study by Fiske Kimball, The Creation of the Rococo (1943, reprinted as The Creation of the Rococo Decorative Style, 1980). Arno Schönberger and Halldor Soehner, The Age of Rococo (1960; U.S. title, The Rococo Age: Art and Civilization of the 18th Century; originally published in German, 1959), has excellent illustrations and detailed notes. Patronage during the period has been analyzed in depth by Francis Haskell, Patrons and Painters: A Study in the Relations Between Italian Art and Society in the Age of the Baroque, rev. ed. (1980). (Italy): Denis Mahon, Studies in Seicento Art and Theory (1947, reprinted 1971), is of fundamental importance for an understanding of Baroque art in Italy. Rudolf Wittkower, Art and Architecture in Italy, 1600 to 1750, 3rd rev. ed. (1973, reprinted with corrections 1980), surveys the 17th century with clarity and includes a massive bibliography. Ellis Waterhouse, Italian Baroque Painting, 2nd ed. (1969), provides an introduction to the principal painters and stylistic movements of the time; a similar role is performed by Michael Levey, Painting in Eighteenth-Century Venice, 2nd rev. ed. (1980). (Latin America): Pal Kelemen, Baroque and Rococo in Latin America, 2nd ed., 2 vol. (1967), is an introduction to the art of the 17th and 18th centuries, with an exhaustive bibliography. (Flanders): The only comprehensive introduction to this period available in English is provided by Horst Gerson and E.H. ter Kuile, Art and Architecture in Belgium, 1600 to 1800 (1960; originally published in German, 1942). (Holland): Jakob Rosenberg, Seymour Slive, and E.H. ter Kuile, Dutch Art and Architecture, 1600 to 1800, 3rd ed. (1977), provides an excellent survey of the period and a large bibliography; while Wolfgang Stechow, Dutch Landscape Painting of the Seventeenth Century, 2nd ed. (1968, reprinted 1981), is a particularly detailed and valuable study of this important facet of Dutch painting. Ingvar Bergström, Dutch Still-Life Painting in the Seventeenth Century (1956, reprinted 1983; originally published in Swedish, 1947), provides a survey of this group of paintings. (France): Important surveys are Wend Graf Kalnein and Michael Levey, Art and Architecture of the Eighteenth Century in France (1972); and Philip Conisbee, Painting in Eighteenth-Century France (1981). (England): Ellis Waterhouse, Painting in Britain, 1530 to 1790, 4th ed. (1978); and Margaret Whinney and Oliver Millar, English Art, 1625–1714 (1957), are both well-illustrated and include bibliographies. (Central Europe): The best introduction to Baroque art in central Europe, available in English, is undoubtedly Eberhard Hempel, Baroque Art and Architecture in Central Europe: Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, trans. from German (1965). (Scandinavia): Most of the information available on Scandinavian art of the 17th and 18th centuries is to be found in museum and exhibition catalogs devoted to wider subjects, but the monograph by Gunnar W. Lundberg, Roslin: Liv och verk, 3 vol. in 2 (1957), is available, together with the relevant sections in Torben Holck Colding, Aspects of Miniature Painting: Its Origins and Development (1953).

Neoclassicism, Romanticism, and Realism
Important works on the period in general are Walter Friedlaender, David to Delacroix, trans. from German (1952, reprinted 1980); and Fritz Novotny, Painting and Sculpture in Europe, 1780–1880, 2nd ed. (1971, reissued 1980). Among the many general studies of Neoclassical art are Hugh Honour, Neo-classicism (1968, reprinted 1977), a sound introduction; Robert Rosenblum, Transformations in Late Eighteenth Century Art (1967), one of the best studies of the period; and David Irwin, English Neoclassical Art: Studies in Inspiration and Taste (1966), a book dealing exclusively with Neoclassical painting and sculpture in Britain. Among the most important works covering Romanticism are Marcel Brion, Art of the Romantic Era: Romanticism, Classicism, Realism (1966; originally published in French, 1963); Werner Hofmann, The Earthly Paradise: Art in the Nineteenth Century (1961; originally published in German, 1960); Francis D. Klingender, Art and the Industrial Revolution, rev. ed., edited by Arthur Elton (1968); Edgar P. Richardson, The Way of Western Art, 1776–1914 (1939, reprinted 1969); Frederick Antal, Classicism and Romanticism, with Other Studies in Art History (1966); T.J. Clark, The Absolute Bourgeois: Artists and Politics in France, 1848–1851 (1973, reprinted 1982), and Image of the People: Gustave Courbet and the 1848 Revolution (1973, reprinted 1982); Albert Boime, The Academy and French Painting in the Nineteenth Century (1971); Hugh Honour, Romanticism (1979); and Michel Le Bris, Romantics and Romanticism, trans. from French (1981). Linda Nochlin, Realism and Tradition in Art, 1848–1900: Sources and Documents (1966), and Realism (1971), are provocative studies. See also Barbara Novak, American Painting of the Nineteenth Century: Realism, Idealism, and the American Experience, 2nd ed. (1979).

Among the numerous surveys of modern art are H.H. Arnason, History of Modern Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Photography, 3rd rev. ed., updated by Daniel Wheeler (1986); John Canaday, Mainstreams of Modern Art, 2nd ed. (1981); Jean Cassou, Emile Langui, and Nikolaus Pevsner, Gateway to the Twentieth Century: Art and Culture in a Changing World (1962); Sam Hunter, Modern American Painting and Sculpture (1959), Modern French Painting, 1855–1956 (1956), and American Art of the 20th Century: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture (1973); Sam Hunter and John Jacobus, Modern Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, 2nd ed. (1985); Marcel Brion et al., Art Since 1945 (1958); and Robert L. Herbert (ed.), Modern Artists on Art (1964). See also Beverly Whitney Kean, All the Empty Palaces: The Merchant Patrons of Modern Art in Pre-Revolutionary Russia (1983), an original study of important developments in the history of European art; and Siegfried Wichmann, Japonisme: The Japanese Influence on Western Art in the 19th and 20th Centuries (1981; originally published in German, 1980), a broad study including treatments of individual artists.Important works dealing with modern painting include: Werner Haftmann, Painting in the Twentieth Century, 2nd ed., 2 vol. (1965; originally published in German, 1965); Bernard S. Myers, Mexican Painting in Our Time (1956); Guido Ballo, Modern Italian Painting: From Futurism to the Present Day (1958; originally published in Italian, 1956); Alan Gowans, The Restless Art: A History of Painters and Painting, 1760–1960 (1966); and Herbert Read, A Concise History of Modern Painting, 3rd rev. ed. (1975). See also Paul Vogt, Expressionism: German Painting, 1905–1920 (1980; originally published in German), and Contemporary Painting (1981; trans. from German), a survey of international painting mostly of the 1950s and 1960s; George H. Roeder, Jr., Forum of Uncertainty: Confrontations with Modern Painting in Twentieth-Century American Thought (1980); John Russell, The Meanings of Modern Art, rev. ed. (1981); Frank H. Goodyear, Jr., Contemporary American Realism Since 1960 (1981); and Abraham A. Davidson, Early American Modernist Painting, 1910–1935 (1981).(Pre-Raphaelites): Christopher Wood, The Pre-Raphaelites (1981); and Pre-Raphaelites and Academics (1981), a catalog of the exhibition organized in celebration of the publication of Wood's work. (Impressionism and Postimpressionism): Linda Nochlin (ed.), Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, 1874–1904: Sources and Documents (1966); Horst Keller, Watercolors and Drawings of the French Impressionists and Their Parisian Contemporaries (1982; originally published in German, 1980); John Rewald, The History of Impressionism, 4th rev. ed. (1973, reprinted 1980), and Post-Impressionism, from van Gogh to Gauguin, 3rd rev. ed. (1978). (Fauvism): Georges Duthuit, The Fauvist Painters (1950; originally published in French, 1949). (German Expressionism): Peter Selz, German Expressionist Painting (1957, reprinted 1974). (Cubism): John Golding, Cubism: A History and an Analysis, 1907–1914, 2nd ed. (1968); Christopher Gray, Cubist Aesthetic Theories (1953); and Robert Rosenblum, Cubism and Twentieth-Century Art, rev. ed. (1966, reissued 1976). (Futurism): Marianne W. Martin, Futurist Art and Theory, 1909–1915 (1968, reprinted 1978). (Suprematism and Constructivism): Camilla Gray, The Russian Experiment in Art, 1863–1922, rev. ed., edited by Marian Burleigh-Motley (1986). (De Stijl and Neoplasticism): H.L.C. Jaffé, De Stijl, 1917–1931: The Dutch Contribution to Modern Art (1956, reprinted 1986); and Mildred Friedman (ed.), De Stijl: Visions of Utopia (1982), an exhibition catalog. (Dada and Surrealism): Robert Motherwell (ed.), The Dada Painters and Poets: An Anthology, 2nd ed. (1981); Hans Richter, Dada: Art and Anti-Art (1966, reprinted 1978; originally published in German, 1964); William S. Rubin, Dada, Surrealism, and Their Heritage (1968, reprinted 1982); Patrick Waldberg, Surrealism, trans. from French (1962, reissued 1978); and Herbert S. Gershman, The Surrealist Revolution in France (1969, reprinted 1974). (Abstract Expressionism): Barbara Rose, American Art Since 1900, rev. and expanded ed. (1975). (Pop Art and Op Art): Mario Amaya, Pop Art and After (1965, reprinted 1972; U.K. title, Pop as Art: A Survey of New Super Realism); Lucy R. Lippard, Pop Art (1966); and John Russell and Suzi Gablik (compilers), Pop Art Redefined (1969).Peter John Callaghan Robin Sinclair Cormack John Burnett Mitchell Nicholas B. Penny Ed.

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