also called  Lightning 
 fighter and fighter-bomber employed by the U.S. Army Air Force during World War II. A large and powerful aircraft, it served as a bomber escort, a tactical bomber, and a photo-reconnaissance platform.

      Of the three outstanding Army fighters of the war (the others being the P-47 Thunderbolt (P-47) and the P-51 Mustang (P-51)), the P-38 was the first to fly by almost two and a half years. Built by the Lockheed Aircraft Company (Lockheed Martin Corporation), it was designed to a 1937 specification calling for a high-altitude interceptor with heavy armament and a high rate of climb. No American engine then available produced sufficient power to satisfy the requirement, and designers Hall Hibbard and Kelly Johnson (Johnson, Kelly) designed the P-38 around a pair of liquid-cooled in-line Allison engines, turbo-supercharged for high-altitude performance. For the airframe they adopted a unique “twin-boom” configuration, in which pilot and armament were contained in a central pod and the engines were mounted in mid-wing nacelles extending back into tail booms that mounted twin rudders and were joined by a horizontal tail.

      The P-38 first flew in January of 1939 and proved to have exceptional performance, but at that time the Army's emphasis in fighter procurement was on the cheaper (and far less capable) P-39 and P-40. As a result, fewer than 100 P-38s were in service when America entered the war in December 1941. The first P-38 available in quantity, the F model, equipped with self-sealing fuel tanks and armour, entered service in November 1942. The P-38J, in service by the spring of 1944, had a top speed of 414 miles (666 km) per hour and a ceiling of 44,000 feet (13,400 metres); it was armed with a 0.8-inch (20-mm) automatic cannon and four 0.50-inch (12.7-mm) machine guns.

      The P-38 was one of the first aircraft to encounter buffeting caused by shock waves that formed in high-altitude dives when local airflow approached the speed of sound. It was first committed to combat in North Africa in tactical support of ground forces, where it was forced to fight at low altitudes and, out of its element, suffered at the hands of more-nimble German Me 109s (Bf 109) and Fw 190s (Fw 190). Partly in consequence and partly because many fighter pilots were intimidated by the Lightning's size and complexity, the Army Air Forces were ambivalent about the P-38 and failed to exploit aggressively its superior range and high-altitude performance when it was the only fighter in Europe capable of escorting bombers deep into Germany. Conversely, Air Force leaders in the Pacific theatre seized on the decisive altitude advantage over Japanese fighters that was gained by the Lightning's turbo-supercharged engines. A substantial proportion of P-38 production was committed to the Pacific, where its exceptional range was particularly valuable. Most of the top Army aces in the Pacific flew Lightnings.

      The Lightning's long range and high ceiling made it a natural for photo-reconnaissance, and cameras replaced guns in the F-5 version, which ranked second only to the British Mosquito as a workhorse of Allied photographic intelligence. A limited number of P-38s were fitted with a bombardier's position in the nose of the central pod; termed “droop-snoots,” these were used to lead formations of P-38s carrying two 2,000-pound (900-kg) bombs each, the entire formation dropping on the bombardier's command. A few droop-snoots were fitted with radar for bombing through clouds, and, in the final days of the war in the Pacific, a handful of Lightnings were fitted with air-intercept radar for use as night fighters.

      Manufactured only by Lockheed, the P-38 was built in significantly smaller numbers than the P-47 or P-51; just over 9,900 Lightnings of all models were produced. The P-38 was dropped from service after the war ended in 1945.

John F. Guilmartin, Jr.

Additional Reading
The history and use of the fighter are covered in Gene Gurney, Famous Aircraft: The P-38 Lightning (1969); Joe Christy and Jeffrey L. Ethell, P-38 Lightning at War (1978); and Jeffrey L. Ethell and Rikyu Watanabe, P-38 Lightning (1983), a well-illustrated study.

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Universalium. 2010.

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