- Orry, Jean
▪ French economistborn Sept. 4, 1652, Paris, Fr.died Sept. 29, 1719, ParisFrench economist whose broad financial and governmental reforms in early 18th-century Spain helped to further the implementation of centralized and uniform administration in that country.Louis XIV of France, whose grandson had just succeeded to the Spanish throne as Philip V (November 1700), sent Orry to Spain in 1701 to report on the finances of that kingdom. Orry drew up detailed memoranda advising not only the centralization of financial administration but also a thoroughgoing reform of the governmental system in which political power would be transferred from the royal councils, dominated by nobles with strong vested interests, to a number of ministers, similar to the French secretaries of state, who would be loyal to the crown.Orry was first put in charge of Spain's military finance. He reorganized and increased tax collection and devised various expedients to pay for troops and provisions for the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14). He also instituted proceedings to recover stolen or alienated royal property. Shortly after May 1705 a secretaryship of war and finance was created, an initial step in Orry's governmental reform program.Orry was recalled to France in the summer of 1706 and returned to Spain in April 1713. He and the royal favourite, Madame des Ursins, then became the real rulers of the country. Orry continued his efforts to bring financial administration under the control of the central government. He also packed the royal councils with new members whose votes would support his policies and created four new secretaries of state who reported to him. Meanwhile, local government was centralized by the division of Spain into 21 provinces, each governed by an intendant responsible to the veedor general, who was Orry. Before his reforms could be established, however, Orry was dismissed and ordered to leave Spain (Feb. 7, 1715).Though certain of Orry's reforms did not survive his departure, his financial reorganization, destruction of the power of the royal councils, and creation of secretaries of state and intendants had a significant impact on future Spanish governmental administration.
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