- Ogata Kōrin
▪ Japanese artistoriginal name Ogata Koretomi, also called Ogata Ichinojō, or Kōrinborn 1658, Kyōto, Japandied July 20, 1716, KyōtoJapanese artist of the Tokugawa period (1603–1868), regarded, along with Sōtatsu, as one of the masters of the Sōtatsu-Kōetsu school of decorative painting. He is particularly famous for his screen paintings, lacquerwork, and textile designs.Kōrin was descended from a samurai (warrior aristocrat) who had served under the Ashikaga rulers and was related to a famous calligrapher and swordsmith, Honami Kōetsu. Kōrin's grandfather and father owned Kariganeya, a prosperous store dealing in fabrics for kimonos that was patronized by some of the most powerful ladies of the capital. Members of his family were also keenly interested in the arts. Kōrin's grandfather, Sōhaku, spent the later years of his life in Takagamine, an art colony established at the outskirts of Kyōto by Kōetsu, and Kōrin's father, Sōken, was an accomplished calligrapher of the Kōetsu school, as well as a lover of Nō drama.Kōrin grew up in an environment of luxury and aesthetic refinement. Having received a considerable inheritance from his father, the artist spent his youth leading a carefree life filled with the pursuit of pleasure. He was not married until 1697, when he was almost 40. The extravagance of Kōrin's life-style is best illustrated by a story of a lavish picnic party that Kōrin and his friends gave at Arashiyama outside of Kyōto. As each of the participants showed off his splendid dishes, Kōrin provided the climax by producing his food wrapped in bamboo leaves decorated with gold. When the meal was over, the artist tossed the leaves into the river, an action for which he was banished for a time from Kyōto because it violated the law forbidding the use of gold and silver among the common people.Because of such extravagances, Kōrin lost the fortune he had inherited and had to turn to art for a living. Earlier in his life, he had studied painting for many years, at first probably under the tutelage of his father, who was an accomplished painter, and later under Yamamoto Sōken, a member of the officially recognized Kanō school. Sōken, who was skillful in both Chinese-style ink painting and the traditional Tosa school painting, which employed Japanese subject matter and a colourful decorative style, instructed his pupil in both these manners. Other influences on his early work were paintings of Kanō Yasunobu and especially the work of Sōtatsu, who were the two most outstanding decorative painters of the early 17th century. Few of Kōrin's early paintings have been identified, and those works that can be attributed to this phase of his career appear to have been painted in ink in the traditional Kanō style.Kōrin's artistic maturity began in 1697, when he established himself as a professional painter. In 1701, at the age of 43, he was given the rank of hokkyō, indicating that he was an accomplished artist; after that, virtually all his work bears the signature Hokkyō Kōrin. Because almost none of his paintings bears a date, it is difficult to determine the chronology of his artistic output, but it appears that all his important work was produced in the 20-year period after 1697. These years may be divided into three parts: the formative Kyōto period, from 1697 to 1703, when he gained recognition as an artist; the period from 1704 to 1710, when he lived in Edo (present-day Tokyo); and the years 1711 to 1716, when he reached his artistic climax.Kōrin's first masterpiece was a screen representing autumn grasses and flowers, which combined his two most outstanding characteristics: a fine sense of abstract decorative design and a close study of nature. The culmination of this phase was in a famous iris screen, a work that is believed to date from 1701. After moving to Edo in 1704, he enjoyed the patronage of wealthy merchants and some of the great lords of feudal Japan. Among the works attributed to this period are a hand scroll depicting the flowers of the four seasons that has been handed down in the Tsugaru family of Tokyo, a charming hanging scroll of red and white azaleas, and a twofold screen representing waves. After his return to Kyōto in 1711, the work of Sōtatsu became the overwhelming influence on his art. In fact, he based the compositions of two of his most famous screens on the painting of this master. These are the two sixfold screens depicting the waves at Matsushima and the twofold screen “God of Thunder and God of Wind.” The work that is usually regarded as the supreme achievement of this period is the screen “Red and White Plum Trees.” In this work, Kōrin's sense of flat, decorative design and his feeling for nature, combined with an emphasis on an abstract colour pattern, are seen at their very best. Although he died at the age of 59, he left many pupils and followers. The most outstanding of these was Sakai Hōitsu, who was active during the early years of the 19th century.In addition to the splendid, colourful screen paintings for which he is primarily famous, Kōrin was an expert lacquer artist whose work has had a tremendous influence on craftsmen working in this field. He is also famous for his textile designs and the pictorial decorations that he supplied for the ceramics of his brother, Ogata Kenzan, who is regarded by many critics as Japan's greatest potter.Hugo MunsterbergAdditional ReadingShiichi Tajima, Masterpieces Selected from the Kôrin School, 5 vol. (1903–06), is still the most complete study of Kōrin and his school, although outdated and not always reliable. Bernard Leach, Kenzan and His Tradition (1962); and Hiroshi Mizuo, Edo Painting (1972), consider the work of Kenzan, Kōetsu, Sōtatsu, and Kōrin.
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