- Nogaret, Guillaume de
▪ French ministerborn 1260/70, Saint-Félix-de-Caraman, Toulouse [now in France]died April 1313magistrate under King Philip IV the Fair of France, who became one of the most vigorous of the légistes, or expositors, of the royal power, especially in ecclesiastical affairs; in the conflict between Philip and Pope Boniface VIII, he played a direct role in carrying out the king's retribution against the pope.Nogaret, the son of a bourgeois, began his career as a teacher of jurisprudence in 1291, entered the royal service about 1294, and was soon a member of the king's council. In March 1303 Nogaret denounced Pope Boniface VIII as irregularly installed and as a heretic, a simonist, and a notorious sinner and demanded the summoning of a general council of the church to try him. Authorized by Philip IV to go to Italy, Nogaret contacted Italian factions hostile to Boniface and, with these, on Sept. 7, 1303, entered Anagni, where he seized the person of the pope (who had intended to publish a bull excommunicating Philip IV the next day). Faced by popular hostility, however, he abandoned Anagni two days later, leaving the pope behind.Nogaret had acted as a sincere Christian desirous of freeing the church from a pope whom he thought unworthy, but, unsurprisingly, he was excommunicated by Boniface's successor, Benedict XI, in 1304. Philip IV showed him increased favour, however, and, after Nogaret had greatly aided him in his measures against the Templars, managed to procure his minister's absolution. The proviso that he should journey to the Holy Land as a pilgrim had not been fulfilled at the time of his death two years later.
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