▪ ancient city, Turkmenistanalso called Parthaunisafirst capital of the Parthians (Parthia), located near modern Ashgabat in Turkmenistan. Nisa was traditionally founded by Arsaces I (reigned c. 250–c. 211 BC), and it was reputedly the royal necropolis of the Parthian kings. Excavations at Nisa have revealed substantial buildings, many inscribed documents, and a looted treasury. Also many Hellenistic art works have been uncovered, as well as a large number of ivory rhytons, the outer rims decorated with Iranian subjects or classical mythological scenes. In fact, almost all the art and architecture at Nisa exhibits a great intermingling of Western and Iranian styles. Nisa was later renamed Mithradatkirt by Mithradates I (reigned 171–138 BC). The Parthian Fortresses of Nisa, a site which consists of two tells with unexcavated Parthian remains, was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2007.
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