school of anthropology concerned with long-term culture change and with the similar patterns of development that may be seen in unrelated, widely separated cultures. It arose in the mid-20th century, and it addresses the relation between the long-term changes that are characteristic of human culture in general and the short-term, localized social and ecological adjustments that cause specific cultures to differ from one another as they adapt to their own unique environments. Further, neoevolutionists investigate the ways in which different cultures adapt to similar environments and examine the similarities and differences in the long-term historical trajectories of such groups. Because most neoevolutionists are interested in the environmental and technological adjustments of the groups they study, many are identified with the cultural ecological approach to ethnography, with the culture process approach to archaeology, and with the study of early and protohumans in biological anthropology.

      Neoevolutionary anthropological thought emerged in the 1940s, in the work of the American anthropologists Leslie A. White (White, Leslie A.) and Julian H. Steward (Steward, Julian) and others. White hypothesized that cultures became more advanced as they became more efficient at harnessing energy and that technology and social organization were both influential in instigating such efficiencies. Steward, inspired by classifying the native cultures of North and South America, focused on the parallel developments of unrelated groups in similar environments; he discussed evolutionary change in terms of what he called “levels of sociocultural integration” and “multilinear evolution,” terms he used to distinguish neoevolution from earlier, unilineal theories of cultural evolution.

      In the years since White's and Steward's seminal work, neoevolutionary approaches have been variously accepted, challenged, rejected, and revised, and they continue to generate a lively controversy among those interested in long-term cultural and social change.

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Universalium. 2010.

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