- Nations, League of
an organization for international cooperation established at the initiative of the victorious Allied Powers at the end of World War I.During the war influential groups in the United States and Britain had urged the creation of such a body, and U.S. President Woodrow Wilson (Wilson, Woodrow) strongly favoured the idea as a means of preventing another destructive world conflict. A league covenant, embodying the principles of collective security (joint action by League members against an aggressor), arbitration of international disputes, reduction of armaments, and open diplomacy, was formulated and subscribed to by the Allies at the Paris Peace Conference (1919). The Covenant established the League's directing organs: an assembly composed of representatives of all members; a council composed of permanent representatives of the leading Allied Powers (with additional rotating members); and a secretariat (executive), presided over by a secretary general. It also provided for a Permanent Court of International Justice and for a system whereby colonies in Asia and Africa would be distributed among the Allied Powers in the form of mandates.During the 1920s the League, with its headquarters at Geneva, assimilated new members (neutral and enemy nations had been initially excluded), helped settle minor international disputes, and experienced no serious challenges to its authority. It was seriously weakened, however, by the nonadherence of the United States; the U.S. Congress failed to ratify the Treaty of Versailles (containing the Covenant). One of the League's main purposes in preventing aggression was to preserve the status quo as established by the post-World War I peace treaties. In the 1930s, when dissatisfied nations (Japan, Italy, Germany) undertook to upset this arrangement and the other major powers declined to enforce it, the League, which had no power other than that of its member states, was unable to take action. Discredited by its failure to prevent Japanese expansion in Manchuria and China, Italy's conquest of Ethiopia, and Hitler's repudiation of the Versailles treaty, the League ceased its activities during World War II. In 1946 it was replaced by the United Nations, which inherited many of its purposes and methods and much of its structure.
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