McClintock, Sir Francis Leopold
- McClintock, Sir Francis Leopold
▪ Irish polar explorer
born July 8, 1819, Dundalk, County Louth, Ire.
died Nov. 17, 1907, London, Eng.
British naval officer and explorer who discovered the tragic fate of the British explorer Sir John Franklin (Franklin, Sir John
) and his 1845 expedition to the North American Arctic. Before his own successful search of 1857–59, McClintock took part in three earlier efforts to find Franklin. On the second and third of these (1850–51 and 1852–54), his improvements in the planning and execution of sledge journeys greatly advanced the possibilities of Arctic exploration.
The first information suggesting that Franklin's party had perished around King William Island, now in Canada's Northwest Territories, was obtained from Eskimo in 1854. When the British government refused to equip another search expedition, Franklin's widow equipped the Fox,
with McClintock in command. He found the graves of some of Franklin's crew as well as remains from Franklin's ships and some of his belongings. He also received an old Eskimo woman's account of how Franklin's starving men died in their tracks as they sought to journey southward on foot. The most important evidence that McClintock recovered was a written record of Franklin's expedition up to April 25, 1848. McClintock's account of his journey, The Voyage of the “Fox” in the Arctic Seas: A Narrative of the Fate of Sir John Franklin and His Companions,
was published in 1859, and he was knighted in 1860.
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