▪ plant order
  large order of flowering plants that includes 40 families, more than 700 genera, and almost 16,000 species. Many of the families are tropical and poorly known, but well-known members of the order include Salicaceae ( willow family), Violaceae (violet (Viola) family), Passifloraceae ( passion-flower family), Euphorbiaceae ( spurge or croton family), Rhizophoraceae ( mangrove family), and Erythroxylaceae ( coca family).

      It used to be said of the former order Violales (in the Cronquist botanical system), which is now part of Malpighiales, that hardly any list of characters defined it. The same is clearly true of this more broadly delimited order under the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II (APG II) botanical classification system (see angiosperm). However, some characters are quite common: the leaves of Malpighiales are often toothed and stipulate, and their basic floral construction is that common to basal eudicots—with sepals, petals, and often 10 stamens all free, a nectary, and superior ovaries with three to five fused carpels. In addition, the seeds have usually at most little endosperm, and the seed coat has a fibrous layer.

      Malpighiales is a member of the Rosids I group of the core eudicots, perhaps most closely related to Oxalidales. In the past the families of Malpighiales were placed in a variety of orders, and many other families now placed in other Rosid orders were once thought to be related to these families. Included here are Flacourtiaceae, although the family as such is no longer recognized. It has been broken up into several parts, with most of its genera reassigned to Salicaceae and Achariaceae. Malpighiales as a clade has quite strong molecular support and is morphologically fairly coherent, even if not very distinctive. The families are generally organized into nine main groups, with a large number of unassigned families, as listed here:
● Malpighiaceae and Elatinaceae
● Salicaceae, Violaceae, Passifloraceae, Achariaceae, Turneraceae, Malesherbiaceae, Lacistemataceae, and Goupiaceae
● Erythroxylaceae and Rhizophoraceae
● Clusiaceae, Bonnetiaceae, Podostemaceae, and Hypericaceae
● Ochnaceae, Medusagynaceae, and Quiinaceae
● Chrysobalanaceae, Dichapetalaceae, Trigoniaceae, Balanopaceae, and Euphroniaceae
● Putranjivaceae and Lophopyxidaceae
● Euphorbiaceae, Peraceae, and Rafflesiaceae
● Phyllanthaceae and Picrodendraceae
● Unassigned families: Caryocaraceae, Ctenolophonaceae, Humiriaceae, Linaceae, Peridiscaceae, Irvingiaceae, Pandaceae, Ixonanthaceae, and Centroplacaceae.

Malpighiaceae and Elatinaceae
 Malpighiaceae contains 68 genera and 1,250 species of lianas (liana) to trees, which are found throughout the tropics, although especially in the Neotropics, and into the subtropics. Byrsonima (150 species), Malpighia (130 species), Heteropterys (120 species), Stigmaphyllon (100 species), Banisteriopsis (90 species), Bunchosia (55 species), Mascagnia (50 species), and Malpighia (40 species) are all restricted to the New World. Acridocarpus (30 species), mostly from Africa, is the largest genus in the Old World. Members of Malpighiaceae usually have opposite leaves that lack teeth. The hairs are single-celled and T-shaped, and there are often conspicuous glands on the leaf or petiole. The characteristic flowers have four or five sepals, often with large paired glands on their backs; the petals are strongly narrowed and stalked at the base and are crumpled in bud; and there are three carpels, each with a single ovule. There is no nectary, and pollination is effected by bees, which remove waxes from the sepal glands. The pollinating bees are absent in the Old World, and members of Malpighiaceae there may lack sepal glands or may secrete nectar. The sepals and filaments often persist at the base of the fruit, which is typically dry and with a variable number of wings.

       Elatinaceae contains 2 genera and 35 species of herbs to subshrubs, which are native to moist or wet habitats worldwide, although most are tropical or subtropical. Bergia (25 species) and Elatine (10 species) are especially widespread genera. Members of Elatinaceae have opposite, more or less toothed leaves with small paired thin and brownish stipules. They have very small flowers. Elatinaceae species are often important economically as weeds in rice fields and irrigation ditches, where they also play an important ecological role in the prevention of soil erosion.

The Salicaceae group
      Salicaceae, Violaceae, Achariaceae, Malesherbiaceae, Turneraceae, Passifloraceae, and Lacistemataceae form a related group. Glands on the leaves are common; there are often three carpels; ovules are borne on the walls of the ovary; and the reserve endosperm in the seeds is persistent and oily.

 Salicaceae, or the willow family, contains 55 genera and more than 1,000 species of deciduous or evergreen shrubs and trees. The family is most common in the tropics and grows worldwide, except for New Zealand, and only a few species are found in Australia. Salix (willows; 450 species) is notorious for interspecific hybridization; with Populus (poplars (poplar); 35 species) it is the main temperate genus of the family. Casearia (180 species), Homalium (180 species), and Xylosma (85 species) are other large genera.

      Salicaceae used to include only Salix and Populus, although it was clear that these genera shared properties with other genera (particularly members of Flacourtiaceae), such as similar anatomy, production of phenolic-type compounds (e.g., salicin), and even in the fungi that grew on them. Molecular work, amply confirmed by the kinds of characters just mentioned, led to much of the old family Flacourtiaceae being included in a much-expanded Salicaceae. The expanded family also includes Scyphostegia, a genus whose placement previously was controversial; it has 8–13 carpels, numerous basal ovules, and sessile stigmas.

      Salicaceae often has two-ranked or spiral leaves with stipules and toothed margins. The flowers are rather small and the numbers of parts variable, but when petals are present they equal the sepals in number. The nectary disc is often well developed and borne outside the stamens. The fruit is variable, but the seeds often have fleshy arils.

      Most willows and many poplars (poplar) can reproduce by producing roots when robust stems are placed in wet ground. Following forest fires, roots of aspens (aspen) produce suckers (sprouts) around the parent stump; as a result, some aspen clones are thousands of years old. In addition to vegetative means of propagation, seeds are produced prodigiously; in the European aspen (P. tremula), for example, as many as 54 million seeds are produced each season on a single tree. Solitary bees arrive as the small flowers of willows emerge, and other insects also pollinate these plants. Some species of Populus are wind-pollinated. In Salix and Populus the minute seeds have tufts of hair that aid in their dispersal. Tropical members of the family have a variety of rather unspecialized pollinators because the nectar is often not well protected. Both Populus and Salix furnish a number of ornamentals. Twigs of Salix are much used in basketry, and the wood is used in making cricket bats. Populus is valuable in shelter belts, in coppicing, and as a source of wood for pulping and for matches.

      The seed oil of Casearia sylvestris, native to Central and South America, was used to treat leprosy and wounds. Chew sticks, twigs of Casearia and other genera, are widely sold in small bundles in West African markets and used instead of toothbrushes. Many of the species used help to prevent tooth decay. West Indian boxwood, C. praecox, native to Venezuela and the West Indies, is a firm, close-grained wood popular among woodworkers. It is often substituted for true boxwood, Buxus sempervirens, a member of the order Buxales, in the making of veneers, carvings, and keyboards. Ryania angustifolia, of the Neotropics, is noted for having an extremely toxic and violent gastric poison in all parts of the plant, a poison that is used to kill alligators (alligator). The poisonous agent, ryanodine, is also an effective insecticide.

 Violaceae, or the violet (Viola) family, contains 23 genera and 800 species of herbs to trees with a few vines. The family is largely tropical to warm temperate, although there are relatively few species in Malesia and Australia. Viola (400–600 species) is largely herbaceous and north temperate; Rinorea (160–270 species) is pantropical; and Hybanthus (90–150 species) is pantropical and warm temperate. Together they account for most of the family.

      The leaves of Violaceae species are stipulate and toothed. The flowers have only five stamens, and there is a distinctive nectary spur. Nectar is secreted usually by appendages of the filaments and collects in a spur formed by the lower petal. Many species have capsular fruits in which the seeds are explosively squeezed out as the wall dries. However, there are a variety of floral and fruit morphologies in the family.

      Twigs of Rinorea are used as chew sticks in West African markets. Viola is commonly grown as an ornamental (pansies (pansy), V. x wittrockiana, and other violets) in north temperate regions. Viola odorata has rhizomes (rhizome) and seeds that are poisonous and cause gastroenteritis, but it also has an essential oil much used in scents.

  Passifloraceae, or the passion-flower family, contains 16 genera and more than 700 species, which are widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics, especially the Neotropics and Africa. Passifloraceae are mostly woody or herbaceous climbers with unbranched tendrils that arise between the stipules. The flowers are often showy, with rings of filaments or membranes inside the petals, and the stamens and ovary are borne on an androgynophore or gynophore. The fruit is a berry, and each seed is surrounded by a fleshy covering or aril. Passion-flower leaves are a preferred food of the beautiful heliconiid butterflies, and there is a very close ecological relationship between the two.

 Passiflora (525 species, including the former genera Hollrungia and Tetrapathae) is found mostly in tropical and warm temperate regions of the Americas; a few species grow in Asia and Australia, and one species grows on Madagascar (there are none indigenous to Africa). Passiflora is esteemed by gardeners for its large beautiful and bizarre so-called passion flowers. This name comes from early Roman Catholic missionaries who traveled to South America from Spain. They saw in the flower the passion of Christ: the three stigmas represented the nails of the Crucifixion; the five anthers, the five wounds; the corona, the crown of thorns; and the five sepals and five petals together, the 10 apostles held by religious tradition to have been present at the Crucifixion. Various species of Passiflora from the Neotropics produce passion fruit, especially the banana passion fruit (P. mollissima). P. edulis, the purple granadilla, is probably the most important cultivated species of Passiflora grown in the subtropics. The long yellow fruit of P. quadrangularis is eaten as a vegetable when immature, although the mature fruit has been known to be poisonous. P. incarnata has an ingredient used in sedatives, and the flowers of P. x belotii are used to make scent. Adenia (about 100 species), which is native to tropical Africa and Asia, makes up most of the remaining species in the family. A. volkensii, of tropical Africa, is poisonous to humans, although other species of the genus are used medicinally. Distillations of the root of Paropsia (South Africa) and distillations of the twig bark of Smeathmannia (Liberia) are used to relieve toothaches.

      Achariaceae contains 30 genera and 145 species of shrubs to trees, or rarely climbing herbs, which are scattered throughout the tropics. The Indo-Malesian Hydnocarpus (40 species) is the largest genus in the family. Ryparosa (18 species) is Malesian, and Lindackeria (14 species) grows in the Americas and Africa. Most species of Achariaceae were previously included in Flacourtiaceae, while Achariaceae in the original sense was a small and little-known family of herbaceous or semishrubby plants from Africa.

      Florally, members of Achariaceae are distinctive in that the parts are spiral, not whorled, or if it is whorled, there are more petals than sepals, and the petals have a scale at the base on their inner surface. There are often numerous stamens. The seeds are distinctive because of the vascular bundles clearly visible on their surfaces. The seeds of Hydnocarpus are a source of chaulmoogra oil, at one time important in the treatment of leprosy. The presumed active agent in the oil, hydnocarpic acid, is believed to have antibiotic properties. The seeds of Caloncoba echinata, from west-central Africa, are the source of gorli oil, also used in the treatment of leprosy. (These old treatments for leprosy have been replaced by sulfone drugs and other modern antibiotics.) Achariaceae is chemically quite different from Salicaceae in that many members have cyanogenic compounds of a very distinctive type.

      Members of Turneraceae, a family of 10 genera and 205 species, are found in the tropical and subtropical parts of the Americas, Africa, Madagascar, and the Mascarene Islands. Turnera (122 species) and Piriqueta (44 species) are both found in the Neotropics and Africa. Members of the family often have hairy toothed leaves with strong secondary venation but they lack stipules. In the flowers, the calyx and corolla together form a tube, and the petals overlap regularly and soon become deliquescent after wilting—that is, instead of drying as they wilt, they become soggy. The stigmas are often bifid and fringed. The capsular fruits have arillate seeds with a minutely and often regularly reticulate testa.

Smaller families
      Malesherbiaceae contains only Malesherbia (24 species), a genus of herbs and shrubs from often dry regions of western subtropical South America. Members of Malesherbiaceae are fetid and often densely glandular hairy plants with distinctive flowers. The calyx and corolla tube is persistent in fruit. The stamens and ovary are borne on top of a short stalk or androgynophore.

      Lacistemataceae is a small family of 2 genera and 14 species native to the tropical and subtropical Americas and the West Indies. Lacistema includes 11 species. The flowers are very reduced and are sometimes borne in almost catkinlike inflorescences.

      Goupiaceae is a small family of evergreen trees with two species growing in northeastern South America. The leaves have parallel cross veins, and the inflorescences are umbellate. The petals are long, the apical part being inflexed. The fruit is a drupe.

Erythroxylaceae and Rhizophoraceae
      Erythroxylaceae and Rhizophoraceae are very close, having similar distinctive chemistry and cell microstructure.

 Erythroxylaceae, or the coca family, contains 4 genera and 240 species of smallish trees to shrubs, which are pantropical but mostly American. The family has entire, mostly alternate leaves without teeth and with stipules that in many species grow between the petiole and the stem. The rather small flowers are in groups in the leaf axils, and both sepals and filaments persist at the base of the fruit. Erythroxylum (230 species) is by far the largest genus in the family and has stamens that are usually joined at the base and of two different lengths. The fruits are fleshy drupes. The dried leaves of E. coca and E. novogranatense are still chewed by Amerindians in western South America, and both are a source of cocaine, which makes it a major (mostly illicit) crop in parts of Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia. A lowland variety of E. coca (ipadu) is cultivated in the Amazon basin of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil. One variety of coca is legally grown in northern Peru and is used as a flavouring for the soft drink Coca-Cola (a name that is derived from the plant). Aneulophus (2 African species, A. africana and A. africanus) is much more like Rhizophoraceae than other Erythroxylaceae.

 Rhizophoraceae, or the mangrove family, contains 16 genera and 149 species of trees that grow throughout the tropics. Three small genera, Rhizophora, Kandelia, and Bruguiera, are mangrove plants, and all grow in the Southeast Asia–Malesia area, but Rhizophora alone is pantropical. Cassipourea (62 species), native to Africa, the Americas, and Sri Lanka, Carallia (10 species), native from Madagascar to Australia, and other members of the family grow in tropical forests.

      Rhizophoraceae have opposite leaves and large stipules, and they often have aerial roots. The petals are often lobed and hairy or with very narrow appendages. The ovary is more or less inferior. Seeds of the mangrove-dwellers have little endosperm and are viviparous—that is, they germinate precociously while still on the mother plant. The long pointed seedling root dangling from the trees is very characteristic. However, less-specialized Rhizophoraceae have capsular fruits with arillate seeds.

      The main importance of the family is ecological, because mangroves form dense vegetation along the coast and in estuaries in the tropics that protects the land from erosion and the effects of tropical storms. The bark of mangrove is used in tanning, and the wood is used for pulp and in building.

The Clusiaceae group
       Clusiaceae, Bonnetiaceae, Podostemaceae, and Hypericaceae (Saint-John's-wort) have many anatomical features in common. Their inflorescence is cymose; their petals overlap each other regularly in bud; and their flowers lack a nectary. Their capsular fruit opens down the radii of the partitions, and their seeds and embryo are distinctive. Within this group, Clusiaceae, Bonnetiaceae, and Podostemaceae all share a rather unusual class of chemical called xanthones. Members of these families often have many stamens, which tend to be in bundles. Clusiaceae and Podostemaceae have canals, cavities, or individual cells with exudate, and their ovules have only a single layer of cells over the embryo sac.

      Clusiaceae and Bonnetiaceae have long been associated, even if Bonnetiaceae has in turn been linked to Theaceae (order Ericales), and they have many features in common with Elatinaceae. However, molecular data have shown a surprisingly close association of Clusiaceae and Bonnetiaceae with Podostemaceae. Indeed, Podostemaceae turns out to be particularly close to Hypericum and its immediate relatives, which has led to the latter's being reorganized into its own family, Hypericaceae. Podostemaceae species are so highly modified for life as aquatics that it was unclear as to what their relationships were before modern DNA analysis suggested a particular association with Clusiaceae.

  Clusiaceae, or the garcinia family, contains 27 genera and 1,050 species, distributed worldwide, which are mostly woody shrubs to trees, some epiphytic (epiphyte), a few lianas (liana), and a few herbs. Clusia (300–400 species) is restricted to the New World. Garcinia (240 species, including former genera such as Rheedia and Tripetalum) is especially common in the Old World. Calophyllum (about 190 species) is found mostly in the Old World. Mammea (about 75 species) is found throughout the tropics, with many species in Madagascar. Kayea (about 70 species) includes one species from Sri Lanka, with most of the rest from western Malesia. Kielmeyera (50 species) is native to South America, especially Brazil. Chrysochlamys (55 species, including former genera such as Tovomitopsis) grows throughout the Neotropics.

      Clusiaceae usually have opposite leaves that lack stipules; the margins of the blades lack teeth, and there are nearly always quite obvious glands or canals; there is often some exudate from the cut twig. The numerous stamens are quite often in bundles, and there are frequently various kinds of glands on the anthers. Plants with hermaphroditic flowers are common, but Clusia and Garcinia, in particular, have male and female flowers on different plants. Both fruits and seeds are highly variable. Seeds may be variously winged, have fleshy arils, or be borne in single-seeded berries or drupes. The seed may be made up almost entirely of massive cotyledons (cotyledon), or it may be equally massive but made up of the stem immediately below the cotyledons, which are reduced. Although little is known about pollinators, there is evidence that in South America, at least, bees visit the family for the oils and resins the flowers contain. Only in a very few genera, such as Symphonia, do birds and other visitors take nectar from the flowers. The exudate from some members of Clusiaceae is used medicinally. The principal edible fruits are mammee apples (M. americana) and mangosteens (the incomparable but rather slow-to-grow G. mangostana), although the fruits of other species of Garcinia also are edible. Calophyllum species yield useful timber; C. inophyllum and C. brasiliense are important in canoe manufacture.

      Bonnetiaceae contains 3 genera and 35 species of evergreen shrubs. Ploiarium (3 species) is native to Malesia; Archytaea (2 species) is native to South America; Bonnetia (30 species) is native to South America, with one species from Cuba. Some Bonnetia grow at high altitudes on the tepuis of South America. Their leaves may then be borne in rosettes, and their stems are stout. Bonnetiaceae have long-pointed buds, usually rather closely set, spiral and minutely toothed leaves, and large flowers with many stamens.

       Podostemaceae, or the riverweed family, contains about 48 genera and 270 species of annual and perennial herbs that grow in fast-flowing water. The family is largely tropical, especially in the Americas, but the number and limits of genera are unclear. The South American Apinagia has about 50 species. The plant body of Podostemaceae is so highly modified that ordinary botanical terms cannot be used to describe it, and they often look like small versions of marine algae such as kelp. There is no main root, and the plant body of many taxa is best described as like a thallus, although some species look like odd members of Apiaceae but with two-ranked leaves. The shoots arise from the roots, and the plant is attached to the substrate by a holdfast or haptera. The flowers or groups of flowers are produced above water when the river level drops in dry periods; they are often enveloped by a sheathing bractlike structure, and the small seeds are often mucilaginous.

 Hypericaceae consists of nine genera, of which Hypericum (about 370 species) is the most common genus in temperate areas and on tropical mountains. Other genera include Vismia (55 species), which is probably restricted to the Neotropics, and Harungana (50 species), native to Africa and Madagascar. Hypericum species are much used in herbal medicines but can be dangerous; H. perforatum is a serious weed in parts of North America, and it can photosensitize livestock that eat it. Several species of Hypericum are of horticultural value.

Ochnaceae, Medusagynaceae, and Quiinaceae
      Ochnaceae, Medusagynaceae, and Quiinaceae form a group that has leaves with prominent fine venation, petals that overlap in a regular fashion, and no nectary.

  Ochnaceae is a medium-size family of 27 genera and 495 species of tropical trees and shrubs, rarely herbs, that is especially diverse in Brazil. Ouratea (some 200 species, including Gomphia) is found throughout the tropics. Ochnaceae often have leathery leaves with rather sharply toothed margins, strong and often very handsome venation, stipules with strong parallel veins, and frequently fringed margins. The rather dry calyx is distinctive, and the anthers often open by holes. In Ochna the style is at the base of the ovary, and the fruit is a sort of berry or drupe. In other genera the style is at the top of the ovary, and the fruit is a capsule.

      Medusagynaceae includes only Medusagyne oppositifolia, a rare species growing in the Seychelles. It is an evergreen with distinctive fibrous bark like that of Juniperus. The leaves are opposite, toothed, and with strongly reticulate venation. The flowers have many stamens, and the styles are on the edges of the ovary, not central. The valves of the fruit pull away from a central column except at the top.

      Quiinaceae contains 4 genera and 55 species of evergreen trees or, less often, lianas, all from the Neotropics. The main genera are Quiina (about 25 species) and Lacunaria (12 species). The leaves are opposite, often compound, strongly stipulate, and with toothed margins. The pattern made by the finest veins is reminiscent of that made by brush strokes. There are well-developed mucilaginous canals. The fruit is usually a berry and is often longitudinally ridged when dry.

The Chrysobalanaceae group
      In Chrysobalanaceae, Balanopaceae, Trigoniaceae, Dichapetalaceae, and Euphroniaceae, each ovary chamber usually has only two ovules, and the seeds have at most slight endosperm. Within this group, Chrysobalanaceae, Trigoniaceae, Dichapetalaceae, and Euphroniaceae are especially close. All have leaf margins that lack teeth; there are often flat, rarely raised glands on the lower surface of the leaf or, rarely, on the flower stalk or leaf margin. The flowers are zygomorphic, but the plane of symmetry is not vertical. There is a single style, and the ovules are distinctive.

      Members of Chrysobalanaceae are woody evergreen plants, primarily of the Neotropics. Licania (about 170 species) is almost entirely restricted to the New World. Other large genera include Hirtella (105 species) from the Americas, East Africa, and Madagascar; Couepia (70 species) all from the Americas; and Parinari (45 species) from throughout the tropics. The leaves are in two ranks and either are dry blackish gray or have well-developed ladderlike fine veins. The flowers have a floral tube; there are often many stamens, and the ovary is borne on one side of the tube and has the style coming out more or less toward the base. The one-seeded fruit is usually relatively large, and the ovary is often lined with hairs.

      Members of Dichapetalaceae are trees or lianas and include 3 genera and about 160 species. Dichapetalum (130 species) is the largest genus in the family; many species contain fluoroacetic acid, which makes them highly poisonous. The family is pantropical, though in Malesia there are only a few species of Dichapetalulm. The inflorescences are distinctive in that they often arise from the leaf stalk rather than in the leaf axils and the small flowers have deeply two-lobed petals that dry black. The fruit is a flattened or lobed drupe with one seed per chamber.

      Trigoniaceae contains 5 genera and 28 species of evergreen trees and lianas (liana) with T-shaped hairs. The species are native to Central and South America, with Trigonia (24 species) the largest genus. Humbertiodendron (1 species) occurs on Madagascar, and Trigoniastrum (1 species) in western Malesia. The lower surface of the leaf blades is covered by dense whitish hairs. The flowers are rather pealike, and the fruit often opens internally and down the partitions.

       Balanopaceae is a small family of evergreen trees. There is 1 genus, Balanops (9 species), which grows in the southwestern Pacific, especially on New Caledonia. The plant looks rather like Myrica (sweet gale) but lacks the distinctive glandular hairs. The male flowers are in catkins, and the female flowers are single and surrounded by a cupule of spirally arranged bracts. Sepals and petals are basically absent. The fruit is a fleshy drupe with two to three stones.

      Euphroniaceae is a family of woody plants that have leaves in which the lower surfaces are covered with whitish indumentum. The flowers are rather pealike, but there are only three free petals; the fruit is a capsule that splits down the partitions and leaves a column in the middle. There is one genus, Euphronia, with two species that grow on the sandy substrates of the Guiana Highlands (Guinea Highlands) of South America.

Putranjivaceae and Lophopyxidaceae
      Putranjivaceae contains 3 genera and about 210 species of evergreen trees of the tropics, especially Africa to Malesia. Drypetes (about 200 species) is found throughout this area. Putranjivaceae have two-ranked, often rather leathery leaves that are asymmetrical at the base. They frequently taste peppery or like an inferior radish when fresh because of the distinctive sulfur-containing chemicals they contain (the same class of glucosinolates, or mustard oils, that are present in the mustard family, Brassicaceae). The flowers are rather small, are either male or female, and are borne in groups in the axils of the leaves. The fleshy fruit, a drupe, is often crowned by the two or three persistent flaplike stigmas.

      Lophopyxidaceae contains just one species, Lophopyxis maingayi, which is found from Malesia to the Solomon (Solomon Islands) and Caroline Islands. It is a tendrillate lianas, with small flowers, a five-winged fruit, and a single seed.

      In one of the more dramatic examples of how molecular evidence has shown novel relationships among plants, the traditional Euphorbiaceae has been split into five or six different families. Two of them, Putranjivaceae and Pandaceae, are actually quite distinct. Many of these families share explosively dehiscent fruit, with three chambers, seeds that are attached at the top inside angle of the chamber, and a persistent central column that remains after all other parts of the fruit have fallen off. Most members have rather small, unisexual flowers, although the two sexes are usually borne on the same plant.

      Recent intensive molecular studies have shown that the previously unplaced family Rafflesiaceae, which lacks chlorophyll and is parasitic on other flowering plant families, is closely related to the core Euphorbiaceae. This finding, in fact, prompted the separate recognition of the family Peraceae, because it is the sister group to Rafflesiaceae and Euphorbiaceae combined.

      Peraceae includes 5 genera and 135 species of pantropical shrubs and trees. The largest genus is Clutia (70 species), followed by Pera (40 species).

      Rafflesiaceae used to include a variety of parasitic genera, but some of these have since been shown to belong to completely different orders of plants. Just 3 genera (Rafflesia, Rhizanthes, and Sapria) and 20 species remain in the family. Rafflesia, with 16 species mostly in the Malesian region, includes R. arnoldii, the plant with the largest single flower. Rafflesiaceae apparently experienced a huge increase in the size of its flowers during its initial evolution, which stands in sharp contrast to the relatively small size of the flowers in Euphorbiaceae and Peraceae. All members of Rafflesiaceae are parasitic on the stems or roots of members of the grape family, Vitaceae.

  Euphorbiaceae, or the spurge family, contains 218 genera and about 5,700 species of herbs to trees, and sometimes lianas or vines, often with latex. It is pantropical but extends (mostly Euphorbia) into temperate regions. The flowers are small, either male or female; the perianth is usually inconspicuous; there are usually three chambers in the ovary; and the stigmas are quite prominent. The fruits have one seed per chamber, and the seeds often have a food body (caruncle) at the top.

      Euphorbia (more than 2,200 species, including the former genera Chamaesyce, Pedilanthus, and Poinsettia) is the largest genus in the family. The whole inflorescence is highly reduced (the male flower has a single stamen, and the female flower lacks any petals) and functions as if it were a single flower. The tropical and warm temperate Croton (1,300 species) has distinctive pollen and stellate or scalelike hairs. Acalypha (430 species) is pantropical. Macaranga (240 species) is native to the Paleotropics, and a number provide homes to ants, which in turn protect the plant. Jatropha (175 species) is pantropical. Mallotus (140 species) is mostly Indo-Malesian. Dalechampia (115 species) is mostly New World, some with stinging hairs. The inflorescence looks like a single flower with attractive leafy bracts surrounding it. Tragia (170 species) is tropical and warm temperate, some with stinging hairs. Sapium (100 species) and Sebastiana (100 species) are tropical and warm temperate. Cnidosculus (75 species) is New World with stinging hairs.

  Many Euphorbiaceae are very poisonous. Hippomane mancinella, the manchineel tree, has latex that can blind. The roots of Manihot esculenta yield an important food starch, variously known as manioc, cassava, or tapioca. Sapium ( tallow tree) yields a rubber and fat used in candles and soap and is also used as a decorative tree on city streets. Hura crepitans ( sandbox tree) has many carpels, unusual in the family; its almost ripe fruits were used in the past to hold sand to dry ink. Hevea brasiliensis, the rubber tree, yields a high-quality latex from incisions made on the stem that is made into natural rubber; although cultivated mostly in the Old World, the genus is native to the New World. Species of jatropha, Codiaeum (commonly called croton), and Acalypha ( copperleaf) are ornamentals. Species of Euphorbia in particular have many uses, although their sap is poisonous; there are many succulent species from Africa that are popular greenhouse plants—E. pulcherrima is the poinsettia, the bright red “petals” really being modified leafy bracts of the inflorescence. Croton tiglium produces croton oil, which is used as a strong purgative in the Old World. The sap of a group of South American species close to C. lechleri is called sangre de drago (“dragon's blood”); it is used for a variety of remedies such as wound healing and is marketed as an antidiarrheal for AIDS patients.

Phyllanthaceae and Picrodendraceae
      The Phyllanthaceae and Picrodendraceae families, which were formerly associated with Euphorbiaceae, share explosive capsules, with two ovules per chamber.

      Phyllanthaceae contains 59 genera and more than 1,700 species of herbs to trees that grow in tropical to warm temperate regions; the family is especially diverse in Malesia. Members of Phyllanthaceae have often finely cracking bark and two-ranked leaves that lack glands. The fruits have two seeds in each chamber. The pantropical Phyllanthus (about 1,300 species, including the former genera Glochidion, Breynia, and Sauropus) has simple leaves that often look as if they are leaflets of a compound leaf. Glochidion (about 300 species) is tropical, excluding mainland Africa, and species are particularly common in Indo-Malesia. Sauropus (70 species) grows from Indo-Malesia to Australia. Antidesma (100 species) is native to the Paleotropics and warm temperate regions. Cleistanthus (140 species) is native to the Paleotropics. Baccaurea (50 species) grows from Indo-Malesia to the western Pacific. Aporosa (90 species) is native to Indo-Malesia. Bridelia (50 species) grows throughout the Paleotropics. Uapaca (60 species) is found in Africa and Madagascar.

      Picrodendraceae includes 80 species in 24 genera. The family is tropical, with genera especially common in the region of New Guinea, Australia, and New Caledonia, and species can be found in the Americas, Africa, and Madagascar. The species in the family are rather undistinguished-looking plants, with small flowers that lack any distinction between sepals and petals and often opposite leaves that are toothed and pinnately veined, with stipules. Their seeds often have a little fleshy appendage at one end that is involved in dispersal.

Ungrouped families
      There are several unplaced families in Malpighiales. Members of Caryocaraceae are evergreen trees to shrubs whose leaves have three leaflets and basal stipules. The large flowers are borne in racemes at the ends of the branches and have many long, spreading stamens; the petals are relatively inconspicuous. The seedling root is spirally twisted. The family contains 2 genera, Anthodiscus (15 species) and Caryocar (6 species), which are found in the Neotropics, especially in Amazonia. Some fruits of Caryocar are used as fish poisons. In South America they are the source of edible souari nuts (souari nut), which are both collected in the wild (C. nuciferum) and cultivated (C. amygdaliferum).

      Ctenolophonaceae includes a single genus, Ctenolophon, with three species from West Africa and Malesia. They may be recognized by their opposite toothless leaves, and there are stipules between the petioles. The inflorescences are terminal, and the flower buds are rather elongated. The petals overlap regularly. The gray-drying and closely ribbed fruit is distinctive; the rounded sepals persist, even growing somewhat after flowering.

      Humiriaceae includes 8 genera and about 50 species of evergreen trees. Most, including Vantanea (16 species), Humiriastrum (12 species), and Humiria (4 species), grow in the Neotropics, but Saccoglottis (8 species) also grows in West Africa. The flowers are rather small but distinctive. The stamens are more or less fused in a tube and have prolongations at their apices. The fruit is a one- or two-seeded drupe with a ridged stone. The wood of Humiria, in particular, can become beautifully scented after it is attacked by fungi, and then it can be used as incense. The fruit is sometimes edible.

  Linaceae, or the flax family, contains 10 to 12 genera and about 300 species of herbs to trees or lianas with curved grapnels and fruits with only a few seeds. The family is found worldwide but especially in north temperate and subtropical regions. Linum (180 species) is a temperate to subtropical genus. Linum usitatissimum ( flax) yields fibres and linseed oil, a drying oil. Although Linum is a familiar plant, the relationships of the family, and indeed its basic morphology, are not well understood.

      Peridiscaceae consists of three small genera of the tropics: Peridiscus is found in Amazonian Brazil and Venezuela; Whittonia is restricted to Guyana in northeastern South America; and Soyauxia is native to West Africa.

      Irvingiaceae contains 3 genera and 10 species of tropical trees found in Africa and from Southeast Asia to western Malesia. The leaves are rather distinctive with their longitudinal markings, large deciduous stipules that enclose the prominent pointed terminal bud, and closely parallel secondary venation. The thin sepals persist in fruit and are conspicuously reflexed, and the nectary disc is very obvious. The species in the family used to be included in the tree of heaven family, Simaroubaceae.

      Pandaceae contains 3 genera and 15 species of trees to shrubs, growing from Africa to New Guinea. Microdesmis (10 species) grows almost throughout the range of the family. The branches often look like compound leaves, and the male and female flowers are small and borne on separate plants. The fruit is a drupe.

      Ixonanthaceae contains 4 or 5 genera and 21 species of trees scattered throughout the tropics.

      Centroplacaceae contains just one genus with one species, Centroplacus glaucinus, from West Africa.

Paul E. Berry

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Universalium. 2010.

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