also spelled  Maidanek , also called  Lublin-Majdanek 

      Nazi (Nazi Party) German concentration (concentration camp) and extermination camp on the southeastern outskirts of the city of Lublin, Poland. In October 1941 it received its first prisoners, mainly Soviet prisoners of war, virtually all of whom died of hunger and exposure. Within a year, however, it was converted into a death camp for Jews, transported first from Bohemia and Moravia (now in the Czech Republic) and then from Poland, The Netherlands, and Greece.

      Like Auschwitz, Majdanek was not a death camp alone but also a prison camp and a work camp. With seven gas chambers, two wooden gallows, and some 227 structures in all, it was among the largest camps. In September 1943 the Nazis added a large crematorium containing five ovens.

      In the first months of killing, Nazi firing squads executed prisoners in a nearby forest, but afterward victims were herded into the gas chambers for mass executions. The bodies were cremated. In time, the Nazis added nearby branch camps, such as Travniki.

      During its almost four years of existence, some 500,000 persons from 28 countries and of 54 nationalities passed through Majdanek. According to the most reliable estimates, about 360,000 died there. Of these, some 60 percent died of starvation, torture, or disease, and some 40 percent were murdered by firing squad or in the gas chambers. Like those employed at Belzec, Majdanek's first gas chambers used carbon monoxide; later, on the Auschwitz model, the Nazis installed gas chambers using Zyklon-B, which produced quick-killing hydrogen cyanide fumes.

      The Soviet Red Army entered Majdanek in late July 1944, a full 6 months before the liberation of Auschwitz and 10 months before American and British troops entered concentration camps in Germany and Austria. Only a few hundred prisoners remained alive. In the days before the Soviets arrived, the Germans had hastily evacuated Majdanek and burned documents, several buildings, and the large crematoria. The gas chambers and many of the prisoner barracks remained intact. After visting the Soviet-occupied camp in August 1944, W.H. Lawrence, a reporter for The New York Times, opened his article on Majdanek with the words, “I have just seen the most terrible place on the face of the earth,” and proceeded to describe the death camp's operation. Because they came as the result of a Soviet liberation and there was no film documentation, these revelations were discounted. Only 10 months later, when photojournalists entered the concentration camps with Western troops, did the liberation of the camps receive worldwide attention.

Michael Berenbaum

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

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