▪ king of Ghazna
in full  Yamin Al-daula Abuʾl-qasim Maḥmūd Ibn Sebüktigin  
born 971
died April 30?, 1030, Ghazna

      sultan of the kingdom of Ghazna (Ghaznī) (998–1030), originally comprising modern Afghanistan and northeastern modern Iran but, through his conquests, eventually including northwestern India and most of Iran. He transformed his capital, Ghazna, into a cultural centre rivalling Baghdad.

      Maḥmūd was the son of Sebüktigin, a Turkish slave, who in 977 became ruler of Ghazna. When Maḥmūd ascended the throne in 998 at the age of 27, he already showed remarkable administrative ability and statesmanship. At the time of his accession, Ghazna was a small kingdom. The young and ambitious Maḥmūd aspired to be a great monarch, and in more than 20 successful expeditions he amassed the wealth with which to lay the foundation of a vast empire that eventually included Kashmir, the Punjab, and a great part of Iran.

      During the first two years of his reign Maḥmūd consolidated his position in Ghazna. Though an independent ruler, for political reasons he gave nominal allegiance to the ʿAbbāsid caliph in Baghdad, and the caliph, in return, recognized him as the legitimate ruler of the lands he occupied and encouraged him in his conquests.

      Maḥmūd is said to have vowed to invade India once a year and, in fact, led about 17 such expeditions. The first large-scale campaign began in 1001 and the last ended in 1026. The first expeditions were aimed against the Punjab and northeastern India, while in his last campaign Maḥmūd reached Somnāth on the southern coast of Gujarāt.

      His chief antagonist in northern India was Jaipāl, the ruler of the Punjab. When, in 1001, Maḥmūd marched on India at the head of 15,000 horse troops, Jaipāl met him with 12,000 horse troops, 30,000 foot soldiers, and 300 elephants. In a battle near Peshāwar the Indians, though superior in numbers and equipment, fell back under the onslaught of the Muslim horse, leaving behind 15,000 dead. After falling into the hands of the victors, Jaipāl, with 15 of his relatives and officers, was finally released. But the Raja could not bear his defeat, and after abdicating in favour of his son, Ānandpāl, he mounted his own funeral pyre and perished in the flames.

      Ānandpāl appealed to the other Indian rajas for help. Some replied in person, others sent armies. The Indian women sold their jewels to finance a huge army. When, at last, in 1008, Maḥmūd met the formidable force thus raised, the two armies lay facing each other between Und and Peshāwar for 40 days. The Sultan finally succeeded in enticing the Indians to attack him. A force of 30,000 Khokars, a fierce, primitive tribe, charged both flanks of the Sultan's army with such ferocity that Maḥmūd was about to call a retreat. But at this critical moment Ānandpāl's elephant, panic-stricken, took flight. The Indians, believing that their leader was turning tail, fled from the battlefield strewn with their dead and dying. This momentous victory facilitated Maḥmūd's advance into the heart of India.

      After annexing the Punjab, and returning with immense booty, the Sultan set about to transform Ghazna into a great centre of art and culture. He patronized scholars, established colleges, laid out gardens, and built mosques, palaces, and caravansaries. Maḥmūd's example was followed by his nobles and courtiers, and Ghazna soon was transformed into the most brilliant cultural centre in Central Asia.

      In 1024 the Sultan set out on his last famous expedition to the southern coast of Kāthiāwār along the Arabian Sea, where he sacked the city of Somnāth (Somnath) and its renowned Hindu temple. Maḥmūd returned home in 1026. The last years of his life he spent in fighting the Central Asian tribes threatening his empire.

      Maḥmūd was the first to carry the banner of Islām into the heart of India. To some Muslim writers he was a great champion of his faith, an inspired leader endowed with supernatural powers. Most Indian historians, on the other hand, emphasize his military exploits and depict him as “an insatiable invader and an intrepid marauder.” Neither view is correct. In his Indian expeditions he kept his sights set mainly on the fabulous wealth of India stored in its temples. Though a zealous champion of Islām, he never treated his Indian subjects harshly nor did he ever impose the Islāmic religion on them. He maintained a large contingent of Hindu troops, commanded by their own countrymen, whom he employed with great success against his religionists in Central Asia. Conversion to Islām was never a condition of service in the Sultan's army.

      Great as a warrior, the Sultan was no less eminent as a patron of art and literature. Attracted by his munificence and encouragement, many outstanding scholars settled in Ghazna, among them al-Bīrūnī, the mathematician, philosopher, astronomer, and Sanskrit scholar, and Ferdowsī, the Persian author of the great epic poem Shāh-nāmeh. Maḥmūd's conquest of northern India furthered the exchange of trade and ideas between the Indian subcontinent and the Muslim world. It helped to disseminate Indian culture in foreign lands. Similarly, Muslim culture, which by now had assimilated and developed the cultures of such ancient peoples as the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans, and the Syrians, found its way into India, and many Muslim scholars, writers, historians, and poets began to settle there.

Mohammad Ali

Additional Reading
Wolseley Haig in The Cambridge History of India, vol. 3 (1965), provides a reliable account of the Ghaznavid period. Ramesh Majumdar et al., An Advanced History of India, 3rd ed. (1967), includes a short sketch of this period. See also the relevant chapters in A Cultural History of Afghanistan by Mohammed Ali (1964); and S.M. Ikram and Percival Spear, The Cultural Heritage of Pakistan (1955).

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Universalium. 2010.

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