- Macke, August
▪ French artistborn January 3, 1887, Meschede, Germanydied September 26, 1914, Perthes-les-Hurlus, FranceGerman painter who was a leader of Der Blaue Reiter (Blaue Reiter, Der) (“The Blue Rider”), an influential group of Expressionist (Expressionism) artists.Macke studied at the Düsseldorf Academy from 1904 to 1906. During his first trip to Paris in 1907 he was profoundly influenced by the work of the Impressionist (Impressionism) painters, and he began to emulate their style, painting portraits in subtly dappled colours. Later that year, he studied in Berlin with the German painter Lovis Corinth (Corinth, Lovis), who was a leading proponent of Impressionist painting in Germany. Macke made frequent trips to Paris between 1907 and 1912, absorbing various artistic influences which he ultimately combined into a very personal style.Macke discovered the work of Henri Matisse and the other Fauve (Fauvism) artists while visiting Paris in 1909; this convinced Macke to use brighter, less-naturalistic colours, applied in broad brushstrokes. The same year, he met the young Expressionist painter Franz Marc (Marc, Franz) in Munich, Germany, and the two began to work closely, developing a more abstract and colourful style. In 1911 Macke joined Der Blaue Reiter, which had been founded by Marc and Wassily Kandinsky (Kandinsky, Wassily). Macke avoided the often violent style of his fellow Expressionists, and he preferred human subjects to the animals that Marc and Kandinsky portrayed. In Three Girls in a Barque (1911), Macke combined the many styles he had recently discovered: the figures are rendered in flat colours and graceful lines reminiscent of Matisse, while the background is sweeping and abstract, with bright patches of colour that are distinctly in the manner of Kandinsky. In this and other paintings, Macke attempted to combine the tradition of contemporary French painting—its attention to colour and form—with the strong sentiment of German art.In 1912 Macke met the French painter Robert Delaunay (Delaunay, Robert), who worked in a colourful Cubist-influenced style called Orphism. Subsequently, Macke introduced a Cubist (Cubism) analysis of form into his own paintings. Throughout the evolution of his style, Macke generally remained faithful to Impressionist subject matter, portraying contemporary scenes of urban leisure.In 1914 Macke traveled with the Swiss painter Paul Klee (Klee, Paul) to Tunis, Tunisia, where Macke painted a series of works that place the subject upon a grid of various pure colours. The emphasis on colour in these paintings, which are some of his most widely admired works, demonstrate the effect that Delaunay's Orphic Cubism had upon him. Macke was killed in action in World War I.
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