Low Countries, history of

Low Countries, history of


      history of the Low Countries from prehistoric times to 1579.

      For historical purposes, the name Low Countries is generally understood to include the territory of what is today The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg, as well as parts of northern France. However, Belgium, although it was not constituted as an independent kingdom until 1831, became a distinct entity after 1585, when the southern provinces were definitively reconquered by Spain and separated from the northern sector. For a brief period, from 1814 to 1830, an attempt was made to unite the Low Countries into one kingdom again, but both regions by this time had developed cultures too different to form a single entity under a central government. Here, therefore, the history of the Low Countries will be surveyed as a whole to the late 16th century. The later individual histories of The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg are treated in the separate articles on those countries.

      In most stages of the prehistory of the Low Countries the regions north of the lower courses of the Rhine and Meuse (Mass) rivers were part of a North European culture area, while those to the south had close relations to central and western Europe.

Lower and Middle Paleolithic (250,000–35,000 BP)
      The earliest well-dated remains of human habitation in the region are flint objects that reflect the Levalloisian stone-flaking technique. Found in the loess-covered Belvedere quarry near Maastricht on the Netherlands-Belgium border, these objects have been dated to about 250,000 years BP, correlating with an early interstadial period during the Saale Glacial Stage. The remains of human industry discovered in river deposits near Mons, Belg., may even be slightly older than the findings at the quarry. Hand axes from the late Saalian stage and other artefacts derived from ice-borne deposits have been recovered in the central and northern Netherlands and are characterized as late Acheulian (Acheulean industry).

      The Mousterian (Mousterian industry) culture (c. 80,000–35,000 BP) has been documented in the Ardennes caves in southern Belgium and in open excavation sites in The Netherlands' North Brabant (Noord-Brabant) and Belgian Limburg. Mousterian tool culture is associated with Neanderthal man, and the skeletal remains of that form have been found in several Belgian caves (at Spy near Namur and at Engis near Liège) in the 19th century.

Upper Paleolithic (35,000–10,000 BP)
      Aurignacian (Aurignacian culture), Gravettien (upper Perigordian), and Magdalenian (Magdalenian culture) assemblages found in the Ardennes caves represent the northernmost fringes of the inhabited zone of Europe until about 13,000 BP. The open site of Maisières Canal in Hainaut province, Belg., is exceptional for its preservation of glacial fauna (from about 28,000 BP) in later river deposits. Several late Magdalenian sites (hunting stands) were discovered in southern (Belgian and Dutch) Limburg. A wide uninhabited area separated the Magdalenian sites from sites of the Hamburgian tradition (emanating from western Germany) in the northern Netherlands. The latter included reindeer-hunting peoples who were the first colonists of the North European Plain at the end of the last (Weichsel) ice age. Later cultural traditions (including the Federmesser, Creswellian, and Ahrensburgian) formed the basis for the cultures of the succeeding Mesolithic period.

Mesolithic (10,000 BP–4000 BC)
      (BC dates in this section are all based on radiocarbon measurements calibrated to real centuries before Christ). The distribution of hundreds of flint scatters often characterized by microliths (tiny blade tools) distinguish southern and northern cultural spheres, separated by the main rivers. Bone implements from the period have been dredged or fished up from locales in the North Sea and Rotterdam harbour. Outstanding among the relics of the period is a dugout pine canoe found at Pesse in Drenthe province; dating to 8500 BP, it is the oldest vessel known. Among the culture groups of the period were the Maglemesians (Maglemosian industry) of the northern cultural sphere. Their implements are often decorated with designs. Another culture group of the period, the Tardenoisian, occupied sandy regions and plateaus; their remains included arrowheads and other objects incorporating microliths.

Neolithic (4000–2900 BC)
      Farmers of the Linear Pottery culture, settling on the loess of Dutch Limburg and Belgium around 6500 BP, were among the first to bring Neolithic lifeways to the region. Large-scale excavations in Sittard, Geleen, Elsloo, and Stein in The Netherlands and at sites including Rosmeer and Darion in Belgium have rendered considerable remains from this early Neolithic group. This northwesternmost branch of the culture met with other communities that left, by contrast, few relics and are identified only by minimal scatters of their characteristic pottery, called Hoguette and Limburg. These early communities had widespread internal contacts, documented by remains that include adzes made of exotic stone, and external contacts with late Mesolithic communities to the north, especially along the Meuse River.

      Other cultures briefly rose up (Blicquy in Belgium and Rössen in Germany) and in their turn were succeeded about 4100 BC by the northwesternmost branch of the Michelsberg culture in Belgium and, somewhat later, the Funnel-neck Beaker culture in The Netherlands. The evolution of these groups represents principally a transformation in the style of material culture of native communities. Among the most significant Michelsberg remains are the extensive fields of deep flint mines at Spiennes in Hainaut and Rijckholt in Dutch Limburg. Contacts by the Michelsberg with late Mesolithic hunter-gatherers north of the loess zone gave rise to semiagricultural communities, as evidenced by relics from about 4000 BC found in the Netherlands delta at Swifterbant in Flevoland and Hazendonkborn and Bergschenhoekborn in Zuid-Holland.

      The late Neolithic (3300–2900 BC) is characterized in the eastern Netherlands, especially in Drenthe, by the Funnel-neck Beaker culture, which is particularly distinguished by megalithic burial monuments (the so-called hunebedden), the precise origins of which are still unknown. Composed of large stone blocks left behind by receding glaciers, these monuments mark collective tombs and may extend for up to 160 feet (about 50 metres) in length. In addition to the beakers for which the culture is named, the remains include collared flasks, buckets, and bowls—often decorated with horizontal and vertical grooves—and polished stone and flint tools. Southern Belgium was reached in this period by the northern fringes of the French Seine-Oise-Marne culture. A third cultural entity has been identified in the Netherlands delta as the Vlaardingen group; it comprises fully agrarian as well as semiagrarian settlements.

      Transitional between the Neolithic and Bronze ages is the beaker (Beaker folk) phase (2900–2000 BC). A distinguishing characteristic of the culture is its change to exclusively individual burial, in which specific grave goods (battle-axes, daggers, beakers) were included; the body, arranged in a flexed posture, was placed in an east-west orientation. This custom is assumed to indirectly reflect essential changes in society, possibly brought about by technological innovations, such as the plow, the wheel, and the cart, which might have caused a restructuring of the agrarian system.

The Bronze Age (2000–700 BC)
      The early Bronze Age in the region was characterized by a continuation of the beaker tradition, the beginnings of bronze imports (from central and northern Europe and the British Isles), and a modest local bronze industry. The origin of cremation and the burial of ashes in urns in the southern Netherlands and Belgium (Hilversum culture) can be related to close contacts with Wessex, in Britain.

      Finds from the middle Bronze Age (1500–1100 BC) reflect the establishment of an essentially more advanced agricultural system: remains of some 80- to 130-foot-long farmhouses, including stable sections, provide evidence of true mixed farming, including manuring, care for winter fodder, and, presumably, the use of straw in stables. Cattle were by far the dominant livestock. This contrasts sharply with the Neolithic cultures, in which agricultural activities are presumed to have been less interrelated. Burial during the period was under barrows, now surrounded by post circles, with human remains either extended in coffins (common to the northern Netherlands) or cremated in urns (as in the south).

      While settlement tradition continued, changes in burial custom took place around 1100 BC, with urn burial now taking place in small, individual barrows surrounded by ditches of various types. A northern sphere connected with Westphalia, a central sphere in Noord-Brabant/Limburg connected with the Rhineland, and a southern Flemish group are distinct examples of this type of burial. Modest native bronze industries have been identified in the north (Hunze-Eems industry) as well as along the Meuse in Limburg, while bronze weapons and implements were imported from Great Britain and various other sources.

The Iron Age (c. 700 BC to Roman times)
      The Iron Age in the Low Countries is characterized by Celtic and Germanic influences. In the south, Hallstatt (Celtic) and La Tène traditions can be traced through prestigious warrior chieftain graves at such sites as Court Saint Etienne (Hainaut, Belg.), Eigenbilzen (Belg.), and Oss (Neth.), which were stocked with chariots and harnesses, bronze weapons, implements, and even wine services. These traditions are also reflected in fortified hilltop settlements, in pottery styles, and in ornaments and other artifacts. On the sands to the north people had to cope with a deteriorating environment, especially impoverishment of the soils, podzolization, and wind erosion. They responded to these conditions with a more diversified agriculture and the more protective system of Celtic fields (small plots with low earthen banks formed around them). Other illustrations of renewed adaptability were demonstrated by the colonization of newly formed salt marshes and the building of artificial dwelling mounds called terpen in the north, the new settlement of creek and peat landscapes of the western river estuaries, salt production along the coast, and the breeding of horses elsewhere.

Leendert P. Louwe Kooijmans

Ancient and early medieval times

The Roman period
      At the time of the Roman (ancient Rome) conquest (1st century BC), the Low Countries were inhabited by a number of Celtic (Celt) tribes to the south and west of the Rhine and by a number of Germanic (Germanic peoples) tribes to the north. Cultural and ethnic influences in both directions, however, make it difficult to draw the line between Celtic and Germanic peoples. On the coast of northern France and in Flanders lived the Morini; (Morini) to the north of them, between the Schelde River and the sea, the Menapii; in Artois, the Nervii; between the Schelde and the Rhine, the Eburones and the Aduatuci; and, in what is now Luxembourg, the Treveri. North of the Rhine, the Frisii (Frisians) were the principal inhabitants, although the arrival of the Romans brought about a number of movements: the Batavi came to the area of the lower reaches of the Rhine, the Canninefates to the western coastal area of the mouth of the Rhine, the Marsaci to the islands of Zeeland, the Toxandri to the Campine (Kempenland), the Cugerni to the Xanten district, and the Tungri to part of the area originally inhabited by the Eburones.

      The Roman conquest of Gaul, which was completed by Caesar in 59–52 BC, stopped short at the Rhine. The emperor Augustus' attempt to extend Roman military power over the Elbe failed, and the area occupied by the Frisians, north of the Rhine, was therefore never under Roman rule. In the Rhine delta and to the south and west of the Rhine, the Romans set up the same administrative organizations as those found in other parts of Gaul. The Low Countries formed part of the provinces of Belgica and Germania Inferior (later Belgica Secunda and Germania Secunda), which themselves were subdivided into civitates (civitas): in Belgica, those of the Morini, Menapii, Treveri, Tungri, and possibly the Toxandri; in Germania Inferior, those of the Batavi, Canninefates, and Cugerni. Because of the later adoption by the church of the division into civitates, a number of centres of the civitates have become the seats of bishoprics; among these are Thérouanne, Tournai, Tongeren (Tongres), and Trier (Trèves).

      From the mid-1st to the mid-3rd century AD, the Gallo-Roman culture penetrated the northern provinces of the empire. The famous road network was constructed, and important garrisons were concentrated along the Rhine and also on the Waal at present-day Nijmegen. This affected a whole region: a more inland city such as Tongres became an important market for grain to be brought to Cologne. Along the great Cologne-Tongres-Bavai-Boulogne axis, relatively rich villae were located at regular distances. One of these, the city of Maastricht, profited from the river trade on the Meuse and had baths as early as the 1st century, while graves in the vicinity contained sarcophagi with bas-relief ornamentation, as well as splendid glass and sculptures of Mediterranean origin. The Gallo-Roman elite were concentrated along the main roads and especially on the richest lime soils. Some large industrial settlements producing iron works and clay tiles were located near the Schelde close to crossings of secondary roads to the north.

      In the mid-3rd century Roman power in the Low Countries began to weaken, and the forts were abandoned. This was the result not only of a resurgence of the Germanic tribes but also probably of the encroachment of the sea, which in all likelihood brought about a drastic change in the area's economy. A temporary recovery began at the end of the 3rd century. In particular, Julian, Caesar of Gaul, waged several wars in the Low Countries between 355 and 360 and was able to put new strength, for a time, into the Rhine border. A great invasion by Germanic tribes in 406–407, however, ended the Roman occupation of the Low Countries. The Romans had already tolerated the Germanic penetration of their territory and had given some tribes the task of protecting the borders of the empire. The Franks (Frank), who had settled in Toxandria, in Brabant, were given the job of defending the border areas, which they did until the mid-5th century.

Frankish rule
      The Franks were probably influenced considerably by Roman culture, becoming familiar with the Roman world and way of life, although the expansion of their own race and their growing self-confidence were barriers to complete Romanization. About 450 they moved southward, founding a new Frankish kingdom in a region that was centred on the road from Tongres to Boulogne. The Gallo-Roman population had left the less-populated sandy areas in the north and withdrawn south of that road. The first king of the Merovingian (Merovingian dynasty) Franks, Childeric I (d. 481/482), ruled the region around Tournai, while his son Clovis I (ruled 481/482–511) extended the kingdom, eliminating other Frankish leaders and becoming ruler of much of Gaul. During the 6th century, Salian Franks had settled in the region between the Loire River in present-day France and the Coal Forest in the south of present-day Belgium. From the late 6th century, Ripuarian Franks pushed from the Rhineland westward to the Schelde. Their immigration strengthened the Germanic faction in that region, which had been almost completely evacuated by the Gallo-Romans. The Salian Franks, on the other hand, had penetrated a more densely Latinized area where they came under the strong influence of the dominant Roman culture.

      The area occupied by the Frisians in the north was completely outside the Frankish sphere of influence, but the Rhine delta and even what is now Noord-Brabant also appear to have retained the virtually independent status they had possessed during the Roman era.

      The Frisians were part of a North Sea culture that formed a distinct foil to Frankish power. The Frisians played an important role in trade, which sought routes along the Rhine and the Meuse and across the North Sea. Industrial products were imported from northern France, the Meuse plain, and the Rhineland, where Merovingian power was more firmly established and where centres of commerce (e.g., Dinant, Namur, Huy, and Liège) developed. The more or less independent area on the North Sea coast, however, found itself threatened during the 7th century by the rise of the Frankish nobles. In particular, the family of the Pippins, who came from the centre of Austrasia (the Ardennes and upper Meuse), was able to secure land in Limburg. Moreover, encouraged by the Frankish king Dagobert (Dagobert I) (ruled 623–639), the Frankish church began an offensive that led to the foundation of the bishopric of Thérouanne (the civitas of the Morini).

      This collaboration between church and nobles prepared the way for an expansion of political power to the north, which was carried out under the leadership of the Pippins, who as majordomos (“mayors of the palace”) in Austrasia had virtually taken over power from the weakened Merovingian kings. Charles Martel, a bastard son of Pippin II, who managed after several years' fighting (714–719) to grasp supreme power over the whole Frankish empire, succeeded in 734 in forcing his way through to the northern centres of the Frisians and gaining a victory near the Boorne River. His victory was later consolidated by Pippin III and his son Charlemagne (ruled 768–814). The whole area of the Low Countries thus effectively formed part of the Frankish empire, which was then ruled by the Pippin, or Carolingian (Carolingian dynasty), dynasty.

The Low Countries under the Carolingians
      The administrative organization of the Low Countries during this period was basically the same as that of the rest of the Frankish empire. Supreme authority was held by the king, who, aided by servants of the palace, toured the country incessantly. The Carolingian kings naturally made several visits to the Low Countries, where they had old palaces or built new ones (Herstal, Meerssen, Nijmegen, Aix-la-Chapelle) and where they also possessed extensive crown estates. Their authority (bannus) was delegated to counts (count) who had control of counties, or gauen (pagi), some of which corresponded to Roman civitates. Among these counties in the Low Countries were the pagus Taruanensis (centred on Thérouanne), pagus Mempiscus, pagus Flandrensis (around Brugge), pagus Turnacensis (around Tournai), pagus Gandensis (Ghent), pagus Bracbatensis (between the Schelde and the Dijle rivers), pagus Toxandrie (modern Noord-Brabant), and, north of the great rivers, Marssum, Lake et Isla, Teisterbant, Circa oras Rheni, Kinnem, Westflinge, Texla, Salon, Hamaland, and Twente. In the north, however, it is frequently not possible to determine with certainty whether the word gau in fact denoted a region controlled by a count who exercised the king's authority or indicated simply a region of land without reference to its government. Smaller administrative units were the centenae, or hundreds, and districts called ambachten. These last were mainly in what are now the provinces of Vlaanderen, Zeeland, and Holland.

      The conversion to Christianity of the southern Low Countries, which took place largely during the 7th century, led to the foundation of further bishoprics at Arras, Tournai, and Cambrai, which were part of the ecclesiastical province of Rheims (Reims) (the former Roman province of Belgica Secunda). Germania Secunda contained the ecclesiastical province of Cologne, in which the civitas of Tongres (Tongeren) seems to have had an uninterrupted existence as a bishopric since Roman times; the centre of this bishopric was moved for a time to Maastricht (6th and 7th centuries) until, about 720, Liège became the seat of the bishopric. Christianity was brought to the north of the Low Countries mainly by Anglo-Saxon preachers, by Frisians influenced by them, and by Franks. This Anglo-Saxon Christianity was particularly important in the missionary bishopric of Utrecht, which at first, because of its missionary character, had no precisely defined borders. True, the city of Utrecht had been named as the see of the bishopric, but, as in England, the monasteries played an important part in the missionary work; among these was the monastery of Echternach in Luxembourg and the two important Benedictine abbeys in and near Ghent, founded by St. Amand in the early 7th century. The country between the Meuse and the Waal rivers and the area around Nijmegen belonged to the bishopric of Cologne, while certain districts in the north and east were part of the bishopric of Münster (founded by Charlemagne).

Social classes (social class)
      The social structure of the Low Countries in the Frankish era included a number of classes. At the top was an elite that probably already operated on a hereditary system and of which the members were bound to the king as vassals (vassal) and rewarded by fiefs (fief) (beneficia). Next were the freemen (liberi, ingenui), bound to the king by an oath of allegiance and traditionally under an obligation to serve in the army and in the law courts. A freeman's Wergeld (wergild)—the sum that had to be paid to his family if he was killed—was in principle 200 shillings (solidi); but the ingenui Franci, or homines Franci (found in the region of the great rivers; probably descended from native nobles who had early placed themselves in the service of the Franks in their policy of conquest), had a much higher Wergeld. At the bottom of the ladder were the bondsmen, who were closely dependent on a lord (often an important landowner), in whose service they stood, in most cases working on his estates. It may be supposed that the position of the bondsmen was relatively favourable in the coastal areas of Holland and Friesland, where there were no large estates and, moreover, where the struggle against the sea required as much manpower as the community was able to offer.

      Economically, the structure of the Low Countries in the Frankish period was principally agrarian. Particularly in the south and east, it was common practice to exploit the land from a central farmhouse ( villa, or curtis), using the services of dependent subjects (bondsmen), who were duty-bound to work on the domain of the lord and to this end received small farms from him. The nature of the land in the west and north, however, probably to a large extent precluded this classical type of exploitation of the domains; there was scattered, even fragmentary, ownership of land, and the curtis was no more than a gathering place to which the bondsmen had to take a part of their produce. In Holland and Friesland, fishing and the raising and selling of cattle were of importance. This Frisian trade, of which Dorestad (near Wijk bij Duurstede, in the river area southeast of Utrecht) was a centre, was greatly stimulated by absorption into the Frankish empire, and it reached its zenith under Charlemagne and Louis I the Pious (ruled 814–840). Moreover, by virtue of its becoming part of the Frankish empire, Friesland obtained an important hinterland in the southern regions of the Meuse and Rhine and was thus in a position to develop export and through trade to Denmark, Norway, and the Baltic countries. The importance of Frisian trade may be seen in the Carolingian coins found in Dorestad, where there was a toll and a royal mint. This trade was supplied by the southern Low Countries. Thus the cloths that were sold as Frisian cloths were produced in the area of the Schelde (later called Flanders). Quentovic (now Étaples), at the mouth of the Canche, was another trading centre; it too had a toll and a mint. Smaller trade settlements (portus, or vicus) emerged at Tournai, Ghent, Brugge, Antwerp, Dinant, Namur, Huy, Liège, and Maastricht—a clear indication of the commercial importance of the Schelde and the Meuse.

Decline of the Frankish empire
      The great Carolingian dynasty passed into a decline as early as the reign of Louis the Pious, and the process was accelerated after his death in 840. Repeated wars broke out under his sons, leading eventually to the partition of the empire. The dissolution of Carolingian power was further helped by Viking, Magyar, and Saracen attacks—the Viking attacks being of greatest import for the Low Countries. The attacks had begun immediately after the death of Charlemagne (814) in the form of plundering raids, the magnitude and danger of which soon increased. (Dorestad, for example, was destroyed four times between 834 and 837.) Churches and monasteries, with their rich treasures, were the principal targets for the Vikings, who soon took to spending the winter in the Low Countries. In order to ward off the danger, attempts were made to throw up walls around towns and monasteries or even to drive off the Vikings by fierce counterattacks—a procedure that enjoyed some success—so that the counts of Flanders, for example, were able to lay a firm foundation for their own power. Another method of defense was to admit the Vikings on the condition that they defend the areas given them against other Vikings. The danger diminished after 900.

The development of the territorial principalities and the rise of the towns (925–c. 1350)
      Politically speaking, the period between 925 and about 1350 is characterized by the emergence, growth, and eventual independence of secular and ecclesiastical territorial principalities. The rulers of these principalities (prince)—both secular and spiritual—had a feudal (feudalism) relationship with the German king (the Holy Roman (Holy Roman Empire) emperor), with the exception of the count of Flanders, who held his land principally as the vassal of the French king, with only the eastern part of his county, Imperial Flanders, being held in fealty to the German king. While the secular principalities came into being as a result of individual initiative on the part of local rulers and of their taking the law into their own hands, to the detriment of the king's authority, the development of the spiritual princes' authority was systematically furthered and supported from above by the king himself. The secular principalities that arose in the Low Countries and whose borders were more or less fixed at the end of the 13th century were the counties of Flanders and Hainaut, the duchies of Brabant and Limburg (after 1288 joined in personal union), the county of Namur, the county of Loon (which was, however, to a large degree dependent on the bishopric of Liège and incorporated in it from 1366), the county of Holland and Zeeland, and the county (after 1339, duchy) of Guelders (Gelderland). The Frisian areas (approximately corresponding to the modern provinces of Friesland and Groningen, but excluding the city of Groningen) had no sovereign authority. The spiritual principalities were Liège, Utrecht, Tournai, and Cambrai. The secular authority of the bishop of Utrecht was exercised over two separate areas: the Nedersticht (now the province of Utrecht) and the Oversticht (now the provinces of Overijssel and Drenthe and the city of Groningen).

      Although these principalities eventually displayed common characteristics in their economies, social structures, and cultures, it was the intrusion of the Burgundian (Burgundy) dynasty that brought about a certain degree of political unity, which in turn furthered economic, social, and cultural unity and even led to the beginnings of a common national feeling (which was nevertheless too weak to prevent partition in the late 16th century).

The secular principalities
      The secular princes consolidated their power in a number of ways. The count still exercised the rights that had for centuries been attached to the Carolingian office of count, denoted by the term comitatus. They included the administration of justice, various military powers, and the right to levy fines and tolls. To these rights fiefs (fief) were attached, which during the passage of time were expanded by the counts, who eventually owned such large estates that they were by far the greatest landowners in their territories. Soon the term comitatus covered not only the office, or duty, but also the whole area over which that office was exercised; thus it could be said that the count held his county in fief of the king. An important element of the count's authority was supervision over the county's religious foundations, especially the monasteries (monasticism). In the 10th century, the counts sometimes even assumed the function of abbot (lay abbot); but they later contented themselves with the control of appointments to ecclesiastical offices, through which they often had great influence over the monasteries and profited from the income from monastic land. Thus, monasteries such as St. Vaast (near Arras), St. Amand (on the Scarpe), St. Bertin (near St. Omer), and St. Bavon and St. Peter (in Ghent) became centres of the power and authority of the counts of Flanders; Nivelles and Gembloux, of the dukes of Brabant; and Egmond and Rijnsburg, of the counts of Holland.

      At the end of the 9th and in the 10th century, during the Viking attacks and while connections with the empire were loosening, the local counts built up their power by joining a number of pagi together and building forts to ensure their safety. The counts of Flanders amalgamated the pagi Flandrensis, Rodanensis, Gandensis, Curtracensis, Iserae, and Mempiscus, the whole being thenceforth called Flanders; they fortified this area of their power with new or surviving Roman citadels. In the northern coastal regions, the Viking Gerulf was granted in about 885 the rights over a number of counties between the Meuse and the Vlie (Masalant, Kinnem, Texla, Westflinge, and a district known as Circa oras Rheni, which was, as the name implies, on both sides of the Rhine); his descendants consolidated their power there as counts of west Frisia and, after 1100, took the title of counts of Holland. In Brabant and Guelders, the amalgamation of fragmentary and dispersed estates took place later than in Flanders and Holland.

      During the 10th and 11th centuries, the German kings of the Saxon (Saxon Dynasty) and Salian dynasties (Salian Dynasty) attempted to impose their authority on the increasingly powerful secular principalities by the appointment of dukes. In Lorraine, during the reign of Otto I (936–973), the king appointed his brother, Bruno (Bruno the Great, Saint), the archbishop of Cologne, to the position of duke. Bruno soon split Lorraine into two dukedoms—Upper and Lower Lorraine. In Lower Lorraine, the title of duke was given to the counts of Leuven and the counts of Limburg—the former at first called themselves dukes of Lorraine but soon assumed the title of dukes of Brabant; the latter were known as the dukes of Limburg.

The spiritual principalities
      That the German kings failed to integrate Lorraine into the Holy Roman Empire as a duchy ruled by a viceroy may be attributed to the fact that the kings soon developed another way to strengthen their power, not only in Lorraine but throughout the empire, by systematically investing bishops (bishop) and abbots with secular powers and making them pillars of authority. This procedure, developed by Otto I and reaching its summit under Henry III, was carried out in phases and led eventually to the establishment of the Imperial Church (Reichskirche), in which the spiritual and secular principalities played an important part. The most important ecclesiastical principalities in the Low Countries were the bishoprics of Liège, Utrecht, and, to a lesser degree, Cambrai, which, though within the Holy Roman Empire, belonged to the French church province of Rheims. The secular powers enjoyed by these bishops were based on the right of immunity that their churches exercised over their properties, and that meant that, within the areas of their properties, the counts and their subordinates had little or no opportunity to carry out their functions. The bishops' power was consolidated when the kings decided to transfer to the bishops the powers of counts in certain areas that were not covered by immunity.

      Certain bishops, such as those of Liège and Utrecht, were able to combine their rights of immunity, certain jurisdictional powers, regalia, and ban-immunities into a unified secular authority, thus forming a secular principality called a Sticht (as distinct from the diocese) or—where the power structure was very large and complex, as in the case of the bishop of Liège—a prince-bishopric. As princes, the bishops were vassals of the king, having to fulfill military and advisory duties in the same way as their secular colleagues. The advantage of this system to the kings lay in the fact that the bishops could not start a dynasty that might begin to work for its own ends, and its smooth running stood and fell with the authority of the kings to nominate their own bishops.

      Thus the spiritual-territorial principalities of the bishops of Liège and Utrecht emerged—the prince-bishopric of Liège and the Sticht of Utrecht. In Liège this development was completed in 972–1008 under the guidance of Bishop Notger, appointed by Otto I. As early as 985 he was granted the rights of the count of Huy, and the German kings made use of the bishopric of Liège to try to strengthen their positions in Lorraine. Utrecht, which lay more on the periphery of the empire, developed somewhat later. It was principally the kings Henry II, Conrad II, and Henry III who strengthened the secular power of the bishops through privileges and gifts of land.

Struggle for independence
      Thus, the Low Countries during the 10th and 11th centuries saw the development of the pattern of a number of more or less independent feudal states, both secular and ecclesiastical, each of which was struggling for more freedom from the king's authority, the enlargement of its sphere of influence, and the strengthening of its internal power. Flanders led the way. In the 10th and 11th centuries it needed to pay only scant attention to the weak French kings of the Capetian dynasty and was thus soon able to exercise its power farther south—in Artois—and was even able to play an important part in a political power struggle around the French crown. In 1066 the count of Flanders lent his support to the expedition to England of his son-in-law, William, duke of Normandy. The counts of Flanders built up a strong administrative apparatus—the curia comitis, based on central officials and on local rulers called burgraves (burgrave), or castellans (castellani), who were in charge of districts known as castellanies, where they had extensive military and administrative powers. The reclamation of land from the sea and from marsh and wasteland in the coastal area, which began in earnest in the 11th century, enlarged the estates and the income of the counts and brought about the need for a rational administrative system. The nobles were a power to be reckoned with, but Count Robert I (ruled 1071–93) and his successors were able to find support and a balancing force in such developing towns as Brugge, Ghent, Ypres, Courtrai, and Cassel. The murder of the powerful and highly respected Count Charles the Good (ruled 1119–27), who was childless, plunged Flanders into a crisis that involved not only the nobles and the towns but also, for the first time, the French king.

      About 1100 such other territories as Brabant, Hainaut, Namur, and Holland began to expand and form principalities, helped by the weakening of the German crown during the Investiture Contest (Investiture Controversy) (a struggle between civil and church rulers over the right to invest bishops and abbots). The Concordat of Worms (Worms, Concordat of) (1122) ruled that bishops were to be chosen by the chapter of canons of the cathedral; thus, the German king was obliged to transfer the secular powers to an electus, who was then usually ordained bishop by the metropolitan. Although the king still exercised some influence over the elections, the local counts were able to make their voices heard the loudest in the chapter, so that Utrecht, for example, soon had bishops from the families of the counts of Holland and Guelders. This was the end of the strong influence that German imperial power exercised through the bishops in the Low Countries. Thenceforth, the spiritual and secular princes stood together, although the death of a bishop still tended to plunge the principality into a crisis.

French and English influence
      As their power declined, the Holy Roman emperors could do little more than involve themselves almost incidentally in the affairs and many conflicts of the Low Countries. The German decline went hand in hand with the increasing influence of the French and English (England) kings, particularly after 1200; this applied especially to French power in Flanders. A struggle for the throne that broke out in Germany at the death of Henry VI (1197) found the two powerful factions—the Ghibellines and Guelfs—on opposite sides; in the Low Countries, a game of political chance developed, in which the duke of Brabant (Henry I) played an important role, alternately supporting both parties. The French king, Philip Augustus (Philip II), and his opponent, King John of England, both interfered in the conflict, which polarized into Anglo-Guelf and Franco-Ghibelline coalitions, each looking for allies in the Low Countries. A victory won by the French king at the Battle of Bouvines (Bouvines, Battle of), east of Lille (1214), put the count of Flanders at his mercy. The southern parts of the county were split off and incorporated into the county of Artois.

      Throughout the 13th century, the French kings increased their influence in Flanders, which was joined to Hainaut by personal union. The power of the counts diminished during the reign of two countesses from 1205 to 1278 because of the increasing pressure of the kingdom and the growing power of the cities. The counts' efforts to control the urban elites (the patriciate) by controlling the cities' finances and the appointment of the magistrates (aldermen, or schepenen) failed because the French king supported the patricians. King Philip IV, who was successful in his territorial expansion in Champagne and Gascony, also tried to incorporate the county of Flanders by a military invasion, in which he was supported by his patrician partisans. By 1300 the annexation of Flanders was almost complete. Resistance by Count Guy, which was supported by the crafts in the towns, culminated in a resounding victory by the Flemish army (which consisted largely of citizens of the towns fighting on foot) over the French knights at Courtrai (the Battle of the Golden Spurs (Golden Spurs, Battle of the), 1302) and prevented total annexation.

      French influence remained strong during the 14th century, however, as the counts (count) saw themselves repeatedly opposed by a mighty coalition of subjects in revolt. An early case was the peasant revolt in the western part of the county, supported by Brugge and lasting from 1323 to 1328; it was provoked by heavy taxation as a consequence of the French-imposed peace conditions of 1305. Only the massive help of a French army enabled the count to impose his heavy repression. Then the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War about 1337 tempted the Flemish to take sides with the English, whose wool imports they needed for their large-scale textile industry. From 1338 until his death in 1346, Count Louis I of Nevers sought the protection of the French king, to whom he fled, leaving his county virtually in the hands of the three major cities of Ghent, Brugge, and Ypres, which had developed as city-states. Again in 1379–85 a new revolt of the major cities against the count's son, Louis II of Male, provoked French military intervention, which, however, did not resolve the situation. Louis of Male also fled to France, and peace with the Flemings could only be negotiated favourably for the cities by their new prince, Philip (Philip II), duke of Burgundy, youngest son of the French king, John II.

Social (social class) and economic structure
      To obtain some insight into the social structure of the Low Countries between 900 and 1350, it is important to realize that, although the territorial princes wielded supreme power, the people were in fact directly dependent on an elite that, by virtue of owning land and possessing certain powers of jurisdiction and administration, had formed seigneuries (manorialism), in which they held considerable effective power. These lords could control their dependents by demanding agricultural services, exercising certain rights over dependents' inheritances, levying monies in return for granting permission to marry, and forcing them to make use of the lords' mills, ovens, breweries, and stud animals. In the main, the owners of these seigneuries were treated as nobles and were often, though not always, bound to the territorial prince by feudal ties. A separate class was formed by the knights (knight), who in the 12th century were usually ministeriales (servants who had originally been bondsmen) and were used by their lords for cavalry service or for higher administrative duties, for which they received a fief. It was not until the 13th century and, in many places, even later that the feudal nobility and ministerial knights became unified in a single aristocracy. Apart from these nobles, there were also freemen who owned their own land (allodium), but little is known about them; they were present, however, in large numbers in the cattle-breeding regions of Flanders, Zeeland, Holland, and Friesland, where the numerous rivers and streams must have split up the land into many small farms. The descendants of noble families who were no longer able to live as richly as the nobles and who were known as hommes de lignage (in Brabant), hommes de loi (Namur), or welgeborenen (Holland), must have been very close in status to the freemen. In the agricultural areas of Hainaut, Brabant, Guelders, and the Oversticht were dependents whose legal status is difficult to determine, though they may be classed as bondsmen because of their being liable for various services and payments.

      A factor of great, if not decisive, importance for social and economic relations, not only in the Low Countries but in all of western Europe, was the growth of the population. There is no direct statistical information but only a certain amount of indirect knowledge—after about 1050, it can be seen in the internal colonization (in the form of reclamation of such waste ground as woods and bogs), in the building of dikes and polders, in the expansion of agricultural land, and in the growth of the villages (new parishes) and towns.

      The opening up of extensive areas of wood and heathland led to the foundation of new settlements (known in the French-speaking areas as villes neuves), to which colonists were attracted by offers of advantageous conditions—which were also intended to benefit the original estates. Many of these colonists were younger sons who had no share in the inheritance of their fathers' farms. The Cistercian and Premonstratensian monks, whose rules prescribed that they must work the land themselves, played an important part in this exploitation of new land. In the coastal regions of Flanders, Zeeland, and Friesland, they were very active in the struggle against the sea, building dikes both inland and on the coast itself. At first these dikes were purely defensive, but later they took on an offensive character and wrested considerable areas of land from the sea.

      Especially important was the reclamation of marshland in the peat-bog areas of Holland and Utrecht and in the coastal regions of Flanders and Friesland. The Frisians had specialized in this work as early as the 11th century; Flemings and Hollanders soon adopted their methods, even applying them in the Elbe plain in Germany. The system, which consisted of digging drainage ditches, lowered the water table, leaving the ground dry enough for cattle grazing and, later, even for arable farming. The colonists, who were freemen, were given the right to cut drainage ditches as far back from the common watercourse as they wished. Certain restrictions were later imposed by the lords, however, who regarded themselves as the owners of these waste areas and demanded tribute money as compensation. Reclamation work was organized by a contractor (locator), who was responsible to the count and often carried out the function of local judge.

      Thus, in the 12th and 13th centuries, a large area of land in the Holland-Utrecht peat-bog plain was made available for agriculture, facilitating the rise of nonagricultural communities (i.e., the towns). In Flanders, Zeeland, Holland, and Utrecht this struggle against the sea and the inland water was particularly noteworthy in that it led to the foundation of water boards, which in the 13th and 14th centuries were amalgamated to form higher water authorities (the hoogheemraadschappen). Mastery over the water had to be carried out on a large scale and in an organized fashion; the building of dikes required a higher authority and coordinated labour. Thus, various organizations emerged, acting independently in the field of canal and dike building and maintenance and responsible only to the government itself. These were communitates, with their own servants and their own managements (dike reeves and heemraden) and empowered to take necessary measures to maintain the waterworks, administer justice, and issue proclamations. This included the levy of taxes for this purpose, under the exclusive control of the landholders, who had to contribute proportionally to the area they possessed. The need of absolute solidarity, imposed by geography, thus created a system of communal organization based on full participation and equality exceptional in European terms. In the core of Holland, three large hoogheemraadschappen controlled the whole territory. They were headed by dike reeves who also were the count's bailiffs and thus functioned as high judges and administrators. They were assisted by heemraden elected by the landholders.

      The increase in the population and the reclamation of land from the sea and marshes, as well as the fight to keep the sea out, all helped change the social and economic structures of the Low Countries. For centuries, the southern and eastern areas had been agricultural, often making use of the domain system. In the coastal areas, however, reduced labour requirements of cattle raising could be combined with fishing, weaving, and overseas trading (international trade). Dorestad, the centre of the Frisian trade, fell into decay not so much as a result of Viking raids (it was rebuilt after each one) as of a change in the course of the river upon whose banks the town was situated. Dorestad's leading position in trade was then taken over by Tiel, Deventer, Zaltbommel, Heerewaarden, and the city of Utrecht. Wheat was imported from the Rhine plain, salt from Friesland, and iron ore from Saxony, and, before long, wine, textiles, and metal goods were brought along the Meuse and Rhine from the south. The IJssel in Guelders also began to carry trading traffic through Deventer, Zutphen, and Kampen and, on the coast of the Zuiderzee (now IJsselmeer), through Harderwijk, Elburg, and Stavoren.

Growth of Flanders
      In the south, commercial developments were concentrated in two areas: one was the Artois-Flanders (Artois) region, which profited from the shipping facilities of a river system providing access to the sea and to the wide Schelde plains; the other was the Meuse corridor. For centuries, sheep farming on chalky soils and coastal marshlands had produced the wool needed in the cloth (textile) industry; but to meet an increased demand wool was imported from England, for which purpose merchants from various Flemish towns joined together in the Flemish Hanse, a trade association, in London. Flemish cloth produced in fast-growing cities such as Arras, Saint-Omer, Douai, Lille, Tournai, Ypres, Ghent, and Brugge found its buyers throughout Europe. Notary's registers in Genoa and Milan, preserved since about 1200, mention many transactions of different varieties of Flemish cloth and indicate the presence of Flemish and Artesian (from Artois) merchants. The fairs (markets) in the Champagne region linked northern Italy with northwestern Europe; in Flanders a series of similar fairs was set up to facilitate contacts and credit operations among merchants of different nationalities.

      To a large extent, the Flemish economy became dependent on the import of English wool, while its exports of finished cloth were directed mainly to the Rhineland, northern Italy, the French west coast, the northern Low Countries, and the Baltic. Flanders' early dominant position was possible owing to a favourable combination of geographic and economic factors. Because Flanders had the first large export industry in northern Europe, its production centres attained the highest levels of quality through specialization and diversification.

      For the cloth industry itself, Ghent and Ypres were among the most important towns. In Ghent the production process was run by drapers (drapiers), who bought the raw material, had it treated by spinners, weavers, fullers, and dyers, and eventually sold the final product. A drop in wool imports from England could therefore cause immediate social and political upheavals in the city.

      The area of the Meuse also carried on considerable trade and industry; merchants from Liège, Huy, Namur, and Dinant are named in 11th-century toll tariffs from London and Koblenz. This trade was supplied mainly by the textile industry of Maastricht, Huy, and Nivelles and by the metal industry of Liège and Dinant. Trade in Brabant, actively supported by the dukes, used the road (roads and highways), or system of tracks (medieval road systems were not advanced), that ran from Cologne through Aix-la-Chapelle, Maastricht, Tongres, Leuven, and Brussels to Ghent and Brugge. Four major trade routes thus developed before 1300 in the Low Countries, favouring the growth or even the emergence of cities; these were between the Rhine and the Zuiderzee, along the Meuse, along the land route from Cologne through Brabant to the sea, and through Flanders. Only the latter displayed a spectacular growth during this period, taking advantage of its proximity to the sea to build up a massive export industry of labour-intensive, high-quality consumer products.

      Since prehistoric times, fishing, particularly for herring, had been important in the coastal regions of Zeeland and Flanders. Since the 5th century BC, archaeological evidence shows that the people produced salt, important in fish preservation, by boiling seawater. In later centuries, a more sophisticated technique was devised by burning peat, from which salt could be refined. This industry was located along the coast and near Biervliet and Dordrecht on the major rivers. It evidently was established to support the fisheries. The fishing industry was given added stimulus by the shift of the herring shoals from the coast of Schonen (Sweden) to the North Sea. The ships, however, were increasingly placed at the disposal of general trade and, in particular, of the wool trade with England. The German merchants also turned their attention to Holland, where Dordrecht became the most important centre. Because of its central position in the rivers area, this town offered the counts the chance to raise tolls on all traffic in the neighbourhood; moreover, all cargoes had to be unloaded and offered for sale—wine, coal, millstones, metal products, fruit, spices, fish, salt, grain, and wood.

The towns (city)
      The towns gave the Low Countries a special character of their own. Apart from some towns that had existed even in Roman times, such as Maastricht and Nijmegen, most towns arose in the 9th century; in the 11th and 12th centuries, they expanded and developed (urbanization) considerably. The emergence of the towns went hand in hand with the population increase and the extension of cultivable land, which made possible higher production. The population centres that emerged were not primarily agrarian but specialized in industry and trade.

      The oldest towns were in the regions of the Schelde and Meuse. Near existing counts' castles or walled monasteries, merchants formed settlements (portus, or vicus). In some cases, like that of Ghent, for instance, the commercial portus was older than the count's castle and grew purely because of its advantageous location. The portus gradually merged with the original settlements to form units that both economically and in their constitutions took on their own characters with respect to the surrounding country—characters that were later manifested by defensive ramparts and walls. The cities in the Meuse valley (Dinant, Namur, Huy, Liège, and Maastricht) had already developed in the 10th century, owing to the heritage of this region as the core of the Carolingian empire. Maastricht in particular played a prominent role as one of the main seats of the German imperial church. In the Schelde valley a dense urban network had also developed. A later group (though not much later) was formed by the northern towns of Deventer and Tiel, while Utrecht had long been a town in the sense of a commercial centre. Zutphen, Zwolle, Kampen, Harderwijk, Elburg, and Stavoren are other examples of early towns. Much younger (13th-century) are the towns of Holland—Dordrecht, Leiden, Haarlem, Alkmaar, and Delft.

      All the towns formed a new, non-feudal element in the existing social structure, and from the beginning merchants played an important role. The merchants often formed guilds (guild), organizations that grew out of merchant groups and banded together for mutual protection while traveling during this violent period, when attacks on merchant caravans were common. From a manuscript dated about 1020, it appears that the merchants of Tiel met regularly for a drinking bout, had a common treasury, and could clear themselves of a charge by the simple expedient of swearing an oath of innocence (a privilege they claimed to have been granted by the emperor). Thus, there and elsewhere, the merchants constituted a horizontal community formed by an oath of cooperation and with the maintenance of law and order as its goal.

      In contrast, therefore, to the vertical bonds in the feudal world and within the manors, horizontal bonds emerged between individuals who were naturally aiming at independence and autonomy. The extent to which autonomy was achieved varied greatly and depended on the power exercised by the territorial prince. Autonomy often developed spontaneously, and its evolution might have been accepted either tacitly or orally by the prince, so that no documentary evidence of it remains. Sometimes, however, certain freedoms were granted in writing, such as that granted by the bishop of Liège to Huy as early as 1066. Such town charters (charter) often included the record of a ruling that had been the subject of demands or conflicts; they frequently dealt with a special form of criminal or contract law, the satisfactory regulation of which was of utmost importance to the town involved. Indeed, the first step a town took on the road to autonomy was to receive its own law and judicial system, dissociated from that of the surrounding countryside; a natural consequence of this was that the town then had its own governing authority and judiciary in the form of a board, whose members were called schepenen (échevins), headed by a schout (écoutète), or bailiff. As the towns grew, functionaries appeared who had to look after the town's finances and its fortifications. They were often called burgomasters (burgemeesters).

Town opposition to the prince
      The development of a town's autonomy sometimes advanced somewhat spasmodically as a result of violent conflicts with the prince. The citizens then united, forming conjurationes (sometimes called communes (commune))—fighting groups bound together by an oath—as happened during a Flemish crisis in 1127–28 in Ghent and Brugge and in Utrecht in 1159. The counts of Flanders from the house of Alsace ( Thierry, ruled 1128–68, and Philip, 1168–91) kept careful watch, supporting and aiding the towns in their economic development but otherwise keeping the process in check.

      In their struggle for autonomy, the towns had to fight for financial freedom, such as for the lessening or abolition of the taxes and tolls they had to pay to the prince but also and principally for the right to impose their own taxes, usually in the form of indirect taxation (e.g., excise duties), in order to raise money for necessary public works. Especially important to them was the right to frame their own laws; this legislative right (the keurrecht) was in most towns originally restricted to the control of prices and standards in the markets and shops but was gradually extended to cover civil and criminal law. The extent of a man's obligation to serve in the prince's armed forces was often fixed or limited or both (sometimes by the provision for payment in lieu, sometimes by a legal definition of the number of foot soldiers or manned ships to be made available).

      Thus, the town in the Low Countries became a communitas (sometimes called corporatio or universitas)—a community that was legally a corporate body, could enter into alliances and ratify them with its own seal, could sometimes even make commercial or military contracts with other towns, and could negotiate directly with the prince. Land within the town's boundaries usually became its property or its burghers' by redemption, and the town's inhabitants were usually exempt from any dependent relationship with outsiders.

      A town's population usually had a distinct social structure. The merchants, the oldest and leading group, soon emerged as a separate class (the patriciate); they generally managed to gain control of the offices of schepen and burgomaster and thus controlled the town's finances. Sometimes the homines novi, a new class of up-and-coming merchants, tried to become part of the patriciate, as in Dordrecht and Utrecht. Beneath the patriciate a lower class formed, called the gemeen (“common,” in the strict sense of the word), which embraced the artisans and organized into crafts such tradesmen as butchers, bakers, tailors, carpenters, masons, weavers, fullers, shearers, and coppersmiths. These crafts, or guilds, originally developed out of charitable organizations of people in the same profession and had to adhere to regulations laid down by the authorities. Gradually, however, they tried to obtain their independence, exercise influence in politics, cut themselves off from outsiders by means of compulsory membership, and introduce their own regulations regarding prices, working hours, quality of products, apprentices, journeymen, and masters. During the second half of the 13th century, class antagonism rose in the main industrial cities in Flanders. The political conflict between the count of Flanders, the king of France, and the partriciate opened the way for the craftsmen to score a military victory in 1302. This led to the constitutional recognition of the guilds as autonomous organs with the right of considerable participation in the cities' administration. The achievements of the Flemish artisans inspired their colleagues in Brabant and Liège to revolt and raise similar demands; Flemish military incursions provoked the same reaction in Dordrecht and Utrecht. In Brabant, the concessions were only short-lived, but their effects were more durable in the other places, although never undisputed by the old elites.

      In Flanders and in the bishopric of Liège, the towns rapidly attained such power that they constituted a threat to the territorial prince, a situation that often resulted in violent conflicts. In contrast to this, relations between the prince and the towns of Brabant were more harmonious; the political interests of the prince and the economic interests of the towns coincided for the most part during the 13th century, while John I, Duke of Brabant, sought expansion toward the Rhine valley, which offered protection for the growing trade that moved from Cologne overland through Brabant. Duke John II, however, left such formidable debts that Brabant merchants were arrested abroad, which made them claim control over the duke's finances during Duke John III's minority (1312–20). The fact that from 1248 to 1430 only two dynastic successions involved a direct adult male heir gave the cities (which had incurred massive debts) recurrent opportunities to intervene in the government and to impose their conditions on the successors in the form of public testaments called joyeuse entrée acts, which were delivered at all successions from 1312 until 1794. The acts, which also applied to Limburg, contained dozens of ad hoc regulations besides a few more general and abstract notions, such as the indivisibility of the territory, a nationality requirement for the officials, approval of the cities before embarking on a war, and the subjects' right of resistance in case of violation of any stipulation of the acts. In Holland the towns did not really develop until as late as the 13th century, when they were helped by the counts.

      During this period, when foundations were being laid for the dominant role the towns would later play in the Low Countries, a decisive change also took place in the authority of the territorial prince. Originally he regarded his powers mainly as a means of increasing his income and of extending the area over which he could exercise power. He felt little duty toward his subjects or desire to further the welfare of the community as a whole. At best there were religious as well as material motives in his dealings with the churches and monasteries. There were no direct relations between the prince and all his subjects, for he was primarily lord of his vassals. The political, social, and economic developments discussed above, however, brought a change in this situation. In the first place, the prince's increasing independence meant that he himself began to behave like a king or sovereign lord. His authority was then referred to as potestas publica (“public authority”), and it was believed to be granted by God (a Deo tradita). The area over which he ruled was described as his regnum or patria. This implied not only the duty of a lord toward his vassals but also that of a prince (princeps) toward his subjects. This duty included as its first priority the maintenance of law and order (defensio pacis) by means of laws and their administration. He had further to protect the church (defensio or advocatio ecclesiae), while his involvement in land reclamation and in the building of dikes and with the development of the towns brought him into direct contact with the non-feudal elements of the population, with whom his relations were no longer those of a lord toward his vassals but took on a more modern aspect—that of a sovereign toward his trusted subjects. He became, according to the 14th-century lawyer Philip of Leiden, the procurator rei publicae (“he who looks after the matters of the people”). Contact with his subjects was through the representatives of the communitates of the water boards and heemraadschappen and through the towns and non-urban communities, which were legally corporate bodies in dealings not only with outsiders but also with the prince. Sometimes the towns expressly placed themselves under the protection of the prince and declared themselves committed to loyalty to him. Such a town was Dordrecht, which, in a document dated 1266, expressed its loyalty and at the same time described the count of Holland as dominus terrae (“lord of the land”). These new notions point to a more modern conception of a state, to a growing awareness of territoriality, and to new possibilities of collaboration between prince and subjects.

Consolidation of territorial states (1384–1567)
      Among the many territorial principalities (Holland) of the Low Countries, Flanders, Brabant, Hainaut-Holland, and Gelderland (Guelders) in the mid-14th century had a dominating military and diplomatic position. Flanders had already arrested the course of French domination, and its feeling of territoriality was strengthened by this and by many minor wars between the principalities as well as by three major revolts of large segments of the population against the principality's count. This antagonism displayed some early expressions of Flemish nationalism against the count and the nobility, who were backed by France and were French-speaking. In Brabant, national feelings were similarly fostered by fears of foreign invasions in the 1330s. In many respects, Flanders was the real territorial leader during the late Middle Ages. Its population was by far the largest of the principalities, its economic development the strongest, and its institutions the most elaborate. The extraordinary size of the largest cities made it impossible to rule the county without their collaboration. Thus during the 13th century, the scabini Flandriae, uniting delegations from the governments of the main cities, intervened in various political matters of the principality, especially concerning economic policy. During the 14th century, the three largest cities, Brugge, Ghent, and Ypres, formed a nearly permanent consultation committee called the three members of Flanders on which was bestowed decisive powers in most political matters, including taxation, legislation, and justice; it also wielded a strong influence in international relations. During the repeated periods of revolt or of absence of the count, the three members automatically extended their functions to the overall exercise of power. This experience explains why in Flanders, in contrast to Brabant and Hainaut, a system of representation by three estates (clergy, nobility, and the burghers) did not develop spontaneously. The power of the cities proved so overwhelming that they did not have to share control with the clergy and the nobility. It was the duke of Burgundy who introduced assemblies of three estates from 1385 onward, as a means to contain the cities, just as he imposed the addition of a fourth member to the consultation committee, which provided rural representation. These moves, however, did not profoundly alter the balance of power, which remained intact until the prince expanded his territory during the 15th century.

      In the county of Holland, power relations were balanced between the count, the nobility, and the burghers; the clergy played almost no role, since there were few important abbeys. The cities were much smaller than those of Flanders; a group of the six largest cities (Dordrecht, Leiden, Haarlem, Amsterdam, Gouda, and Delft) wielded the greatest influence and power. From 1349 onward a deep cleavage among the Dutch nobility over the succession to the throne led to the formation of two parties, the Kabeljauwen (Cods) and the Hoeken (Hooks); most cities were also divided along these party lines. Feuds on a local basis took the shape of the party antagonisms, which during certain periods of crisis spread over the whole county and over neighbouring Zeeland and Utrecht as well. During the years after 1392, the periods from 1419 to 1427, 1440 to 1445, and again in the 1470s and '80s, there was a high degree of discord in which the prince and his high officials saw their prerogatives seriously challenged. The relatively small size of the cities, close links between noble and partrician families, a weak administrative organization, and dynastic rivalries for the throne contributed to the ongoing party strife until the end of the 15th century.

      Gelderland was later in its development, partly because the powerful Duke William (ruled 1379–1402) of that principality had his own financial resources as a result of his military activities in the service of the English and, later, French kings; under William's successors, however, the knights and the towns became more powerful and finally gained permanent representation as estates. In Utrecht, too, there was cooperation between the prince (the bishop) and the estates; and the clergy, particularly the collegiate churches of the town of Utrecht, played an important part: the Land Charter of Bishop Arnold in 1375 was inspired by the Joyeuse Entrée of Brabant. In the prince-bishopric of Liège, cooperation between prince and estates had to be won by violent conflicts between the towns and the bishop and, within the towns, between the patriciate and the crafts. It was mainly to these territorial estates that the princes had to turn for financial help, which was often voted to them only on limiting conditions.

The Burgundians
      In the second half of the 14th century, the dukes of Burgundy (princes of the French royal house of Valois) began to penetrate these territorial principalities in the Low Countries, whose feelings of territoriality made them regard the dukes of Burgundy with suspicion. The marriage in 1369 of Philip II the Bold of Burgundy to the heiress of the count of Flanders (Margaret) signified the beginning of this Burgundian infiltration, which was repeatedly furthered by marriages, wars, and such tricks of fate as inheritances.

      Through his marriage Philip gained possession, after the death of his father-in-law in 1384, of the counties of Flanders, Artois, Rethel, Nevers, and the free county of Burgundy (Franche-Comté), the latter being within the Holy Roman Empire. He thus not only gained a large and powerful part of the Low Countries but was also able to extend his Burgundian property. Though it seemed at first that French power might again become the dominant force in the Low Countries, it soon became clear that the Burgundian dukes, while happy to continue taking part in French politics, were extremely independent and more interested in forging a single powerful empire out of the Low Countries and Burgundy. Duke John the Fearless succeeded to all his father's lands in 1404, while his younger brother Anthony was given Brabant, where the childless Duchess Joanna had named him as her successor, which was accepted by the estates. Anthony's branch of the Burgundians died out as early as 1430, so that Brabant fell to the other branch under Philip III the Good (Philip III) (ruled 1419–67), who also gained possession—through war, family relations, and purchase—of Hainaut-Holland, Namur, and Luxembourg. This Burgundian power structure was not a state but was founded on a personal union among the various principalities, each of which jealously guarded its own freedom and institutions. The Burgundian dukes did, however, attempt to set up central organizations to bridge the differences among the principalities and to keep the various regions under stricter control by appointing governors (stadtholders (stadtholder)).

      Regional courts and exchequers increasingly enforced the central government's control in administrative, political, and judicial fields. Some principalities, such as Brabant and Hainaut, claimed that their privileges disallowed any foreign interference in their territories; in Flanders and Holland, however, the dukes introduced officials from their Burgundian homeland. In the long term, this policy of bringing in foreign administrators raised serious resistance against the central government, especially because it tended to make French the only administrative language, while the majority of the population in the Low Countries was Dutch-speaking. To further central control, Duke Philip extended his court in order to incorporate regional nobilities, and in 1430 he created The Order of the Golden Fleece, to which he brought the highest nobles from his principalities. In addition, the judicial tasks of his Great Council were entrusted from 1435 to a special group of councillors who steadily increased the weight of the central jurisdiction over local and regional customs and privileges. The ambitions of the Burgundian dukes finally ran aground on the forced and overly hasty centralization and expansion of power carried out by Charles the Bold (Charles) (ruled 1467–77), who was able, nevertheless, to annex Gelderland. Charles imposed increasingly high financial demands, which were put before the States-General (States General)—an assembly that united the delegates from the various states at meetings called by the duke and held at regular intervals; he tried to constitute a kingdom in the Low Countries with himself as regent, an endeavour that failed in 1473. Charles did manage, however, to elevate the central law court to the rank of the royal Parliament of Paris—an obvious defiance of the king of France's prerogatives. After his defeat and death in battle to French-supported forces, a movement for regional and local rights arose and won a series of privileges from his daughter Mary (ruled 1477–82) that halted the previous centralization movement. Moreover, the duchy of Burgundy itself was taken over by the French crown, so that the Burgundian union, as it was reformed by the States-General from 1477, became a union without Burgundy. The pressure of French incursions brought the members of the States-General into closer collaboration. While ensuring their loyalty to the Burgundian dynasty and organizing a defense against France, they obtained the first written constitution (Groot-Privilege, 1477) for the whole of the principalities in the Low Countries. It recognized extensive rights for the States-General, such as control over the waging of war, currency, taxation, and tolls; furthermore, it prescribed the use of the legal language to be used in the courts. This text remained for centuries a point of reference for the rights of the subjects, granting to individuals the right of resistance in cases where tenets of the document were seen to be violated.

The Habsburgs (Habsburg, House of)
      After Mary's position had become more firmly established by her marriage to Maximilian of Habsburg (Maximilian I) (the son and future successor of the Holy Roman emperor), the States-General, because of its internal particularism, proved unable to provide a lasting administration. Gradually, a restoration took place, at first under the regency of Maximilian after Mary's death in 1482. Maximilian, however, lacked the political skills to deal with the various social forces in the Low Countries. His political strategy was aimed simply at a thorough recovery of the territorial and institutional losses since 1477, but his policy of high taxation, debasement, warfare, and violation of privileges, during a period of deep general economic crisis, provoked opposition and revolt, first in Flanders but also later in Holland, Brabant, and Utrecht. His answer was, as it had been in the past, the brutal use of military force, which plunged these regions into 10 years of devastating internal war. When his and Mary's son Philip I the Handsome (Philip I) (ruled 1493–1506) took over the government, he smoothly resumed the centralization process by refounding the central law court (then known as the Great Council of Malines) and set up within the duke's council permanent commissions to discuss important political and financial questions.

      The fate of the Low Countries was already closely bound up with that of Austria by virtue of the Habsburg marriage; in 1504, this situation was intensified when Philip and his wife, Joan, inherited the Spanish crown. From then on, the Low Countries were merely a part of a greater whole, and their fate was principally decided by the struggle of this Spanish-Austrian empire for European hegemony. They repeatedly had to make sacrifices for the many wars waged against France, particularly under Emperor Charles V, who in 1519 had added the German imperial crown to his many possessions. The emperor, who was almost always out of the country, placed the Low Countries under the rule of governors-general—first his aunt Margaret (Margaret Of Austria) and later his sister Mary, who retained control and worked toward further centralization even when he was in the country.

      The States-General could do little more than offer passive resistance, principally through financial manipulations. As a meeting place for the regional deputies, the States-General did have a certain influence and, by its opposition, strengthened a sort of negative feeling of unity. That the emperor himself also saw the Low Countries as a unit can be seen in his incorporation of the territories in the north and east, including Groningen and Friesland (1522–28). A remarkable step was the imposition of temporal power over the bishop of Utrecht (1528); full power was also acquired over the duchy of Gelderland in 1543. Consequently, Charles took measures to separate his so-called Seventeen Provinces of the Low Countries from the empire as “Burgundian Kreis” (“Circle”) (1548) and in the Pragmatic Sanction (1549), which stated that succession would be regulated in identical fashion in all the regions of the Low Countries that he had included in his empire. The Low Countries were thus prevented from being split up.

      In the meantime, the process of centralization had reached a decisive phase with the foundation of the collateral councils (1531), which were separate from the Great Council. They were the Council of Finance, which had in effect already existed for some time; the Council of State, in which members of the high nobility could advise the governess; and the Secret Council, in which permanent officials dealt with everyday administration and composed ordinances without having to wait for advice. All the government organs, except for the central law court in Malines, were in Brussels, which from that time became the capital of the Low Countries. The States-General and territorial states were still a stumbling block in the acquisition of financial resources, so that Charles V was never able to provide himself with a standing army.

      Under Charles's son Philip II, who in 1555–56 succeeded as king of Spain and prince of the Netherlands, the policy of centralization was continued. It culminated in the introduction of a new ecclesiastical hierarchy. The Low Countries, which formerly had been, ecclesiastically speaking, merely an extension of the archbishoprics of Cologne and Reims, became by virtue of a papal bull of 1559 a directly governed region of the church under three archbishops and 15 bishops. There was fierce resistance to this by the high nobles, who saw the high positions in the church slip from their grasp; by the abbots, who feared the incorporation of their monasteries for the maintenance of new bishoprics; and by a number of territories, which were afraid of greater inquisitorial activities under new bishops. The high nobles, who were often excluded from the activities of the Secret Council, led the resistance (Orange, House of) under the capable Prince William of Orange (William I) (1533–84) and the popular Count of Egmond (Egmond, Lamoraal, count van). Resistance increased when the Burgundian Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle (Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot de) (bishop of Arras and virtually prime minister under the Netherlands' governor Margaret of Parma) was appointed archbishop of Malines and then cardinal and primate of the Netherlands. The government gave way, and Granvelle was forced to leave the country; yet the high nobles themselves hardly knew how to run affairs. The initiative was thus transferred to the low nobility, who in 1565 united by bond of oath in the so-called Compromise, and in 1566 presented to the governor a petition requesting the relaxation of edicts and ordinances against the Calvinists (Calvinism) and other Protestants (Protestantism). At the same time, they adopted the name Geuzen (gueux, “beggars”), originally a term of abuse.

      As the resistance grew stronger, the Protestants became more confident, and fanatics started a violent campaign against churches—the “breaking of the images” (August 1566)—against which the governor took powerful measures, but only in the first few months of 1567 was peace restored. King Philip II, however, whose information concerning these events was somewhat out of date because of slow communications and who was uneasy because of the “breaking of the images,” decided to take stern measures. He sent his trusted general, Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba (Alba, Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3er duque de (3rd duke of)), to the Netherlands. Alba's strict regime precipitated a revolt that eventually led to the partition of the Netherlands.

Economic structure
      The economic structure of the Low Countries underwent far-reaching changes in the 14th–16th centuries. The growth in population, which in western Europe had begun in the 10th century, ceased with relative suddenness after 1300. The European famine of 1315–17 had dramatic effects in the cities; in Ypres 10 percent of the population died, had to be picked up off the streets, and were buried by public means. Social tensions, insurrections, and internal wars also cost numerous lives during the 14th century, especially in the rebellious cities of Flanders and Liège. Many Flemish weavers and fullers fled to England, helping there to build up an English cloth industry, which came to compete with that of the Low Countries. The effects of recurrent plagues from 1349 onward, raging once in each decade until the early 15th century, must have been devastating as well. The population as a whole was seriously diminished, but in the cities, where overpopulation had been developing since the late 13th century, the losses were replaced by rural surpluses, leaving somewhat easier living conditions in the cities for the survivors. Generally, the standard of living in the Low Countries improved in the second half of the 14th century.

      In the 14th and 15th centuries, Brugge became the main international market (international trade) of northwestern Europe. Colonies of foreign merchants installed their offices: Italians, Catalans and other Iberians, French and English, and above all the German Hanse (Hanseatic League), for whom Brugge was the most important Kontor (office). Southern and northern Europe met at Brugge, and their exchange networks were linked there. An intensive movement of bills of exchange converged there and helped to balance the region's export deficit with the Mediterranean states. The densely populated Low Countries evidently formed an important market for imported goods such as wine, Mediterranean fruits, and Eastern spices and silk; grain was also an important import. The relatively affluent population could afford expensive goods, but it also produced labour-intensive, high-quality objects, including fashionable clothing and various works of art and applied art, such as paintings, jewelry, woodcuts, and pottery. The trade network helped to spread these works throughout Europe.

      On the other hand, the loss of some one-third of the European population, mostly to plague, had severely reduced the export markets, causing competition to intensify. The Brabantine cities had developed their own textile industry, competing internationally. Since the guilds held a firm grasp on wages and regulations from 1302 onward in Flanders, they raised the production costs higher than those in Brabant and much higher than those in England and Holland. The Flemish had to become reoriented toward ever more sophisticated methods and higher-quality products in that state's large, old cities. Improvements in linen and tapestry weaving exemplified new innovations. Entrepreneurs now shifted their production toward villages, unrestricted by guild regulations, where wages were lower and quality controls weaker. These rural manufacturers used cheaper wools from local areas and (from the 15th century) Spain, and they produced lighter, less refined cloth, which found a wide middle-class market.

      Holland became the site of marked economic change during the second half of the 14th century. The drainage of the peat bogs had produced land which was not well suited to the cultivation of bread grains, and cattle raising had become the major means of subsistence. That occupation's reduced labour requirements drove a portion of the rural population into the cities, where some found jobs in crafts and seafaring. Dairy products continued to be exported to the larger cities in Flanders and Brabant, but grain now had to be imported, largely from Artois and, increasingly from the 15th century, the Baltic region. The Dutch also learned the technique of preserving herring common to that region; the shift of the herring shoals to the North Sea had helped the Dutch take the lead in this trade. In addition, they developed a shipbuilding industry for which they again needed imports, this time of wood, iron, tar, and pitch from the Flemish Hanse area. They succeeded in building a competitive fleet that could offer transportation at a lower cost than that of the Hanse. The Dutch then were able to penetrate the Baltic Sea region, not only to buy sorely needed raw materials but increasingly also to sell and transport. None of the Dutch products were exclusive to them, the goods being often of even lesser quality than those offered by their competitors; their price, however, was always more advantageous, thanks to their excellent cargo facilities. Apart from the herring industry, the Dutch competed in cloth and, even more effectively, in beer: their quality of barley, clear water, and hops enabled them to brew a product of distinctive character for which demand grew. The cities of Delft, Gouda, and Haarlem became major beer-exporting centres, shipping to the southern Netherlands and to the Baltic regions as well. The Dutch also exported some bulk salt. When the production of salt derived from peat proved to be of insufficient quantity and quality for salting fish, the Dutch imported raw maritime salt from the French Atlantic coasts and refined it in their peat-fueled ovens. This was suitable for the fish industry and could also be exported to the Baltic area, the traditional production from Lüneburg, Ger., having slowed down.

      While Holland thus laid the basis for its remarkable 17th-century prosperity, the southern Netherlands showed a shift of commercial leadership from Brugge to Antwerp. During the 15th century, Antwerp developed strongly thanks to its free entrepreneurial climate and its two annual fairs, which were combined with two more in the nearby Schelde harbour city of Bergen-op-Zoom. At that time, the fairs still functioned as subsidiaries to the Brugge market, but they nevertheless attracted merchants from central and southern Germany. While Brugge lived through a deep political crisis in the 1480s, Antwerp attracted the new colonial trade, especially that of the Portuguese, and the important Augsburg, Frankfurt, and Nürnberg merchant and banking houses. They imported new textiles in return for copper, silver, and other metal products. The Italians soon left Brugge for Antwerp, belatedly followed by the increasingly regressing German Hanse. The fast expansion of the Antwerp market was supported by excellent relations with the monarchy which, in turn, could finance its hegemonistic policy through loans from Antwerp merchants. A special innovation was financial techniques developed at the Antwerp beurs (stock exchange), created in 1531. While Brugge remained a clearing house for international commercial debts, where exchange rates for bills were determined, the Antwerp exchange specialized in transferable, usually discounted, public debts.

      Generally speaking, a commercial capitalism was developing that stimulated the entire economy of the Netherlands. Competition in the cloth industry (textile) was growing especially strong between urban and expanding rural manufacturers. The towns battled these rural clothmakers in vain, though in 1531 Holland issued an edict to restrict them throughout the county, but with little success. Moreover, Holland itself had begun to play an increasingly important economic role; new industries were developing, but fishing, shipping, and trade remained its main means of support apart from arable farming and cattle breeding. Dordrecht, one of the major commercial centres of the Low Countries, was rivaled by Rotterdam and Gorinchem and, by the 16th century, was outstripped by Amsterdam, which cornered an increasing proportion of Baltic trade, as evidenced from the lists of the toll in the Sound (between Sweden and Denmark).

      The regions along the Meuse and IJssel also maintained their commercial activity. In the bishopric of Liège there was even a metal industry with blast furnaces, paid for by capital raised by traders. Coal mining in the area between the Meuse and the Sambre was also organized according to modern capitalist methods.

      The cultivation of commercially exploitable crops also developed in country areas—hemp for rope making, hops and barley for brewing, flax for the manufacture of linen. Yet all this was at the expense of wheat farming. Grain had to be imported in increasingly large quantities, and, whenever grain imports fell off, the people, particularly the lower classes, went hungry. The economic apparatus had become more versatile and brought greater prosperity, but at the same time, precisely because of this specialization, it had become more vulnerable. The distribution of prosperity was variable; the great mass of the people in the towns suffered the consequences and bore the main burden of the rise in prices occasioned by inflation.

Population growth
      It is impossible to estimate the population of the Low Countries before about 1470, and even for that date complete data are not available. Figures are often not available for all areas at a given date in the Middle Ages. An acceptable figure for the Low Countries in the late 15th century might be about 2,400,000 inhabitants. Flanders was by far the most populated and most densely inhabited principality, with about 750,000 people and a density of 30 persons per square mile (77 per square kilometre). It was followed by Brabant with 413,000 people and about 15 persons per square mile (40 per square kilometre) and Holland with 268,000 people and 25 per square mile (66 per square kilometre), although the latter data are from the year 1514. The other principalities counted far fewer inhabitants—for example, 209,000 in Hainaut, 180,000 in Artois, and 140,000 in Gelderland, Liège, and Luxembourg.

      After 1470 the population must have declined generally, owing to wars, bad harvests, and epidemics. From 1490 a new period of growth especially favoured Brabant and Holland. About 1570 the duchy of Brabant counted about 500,000 inhabitants, which was still less than the more densely populated Flanders. One-quarter of the Flemish peasants farmed plots of only 5 to 12 acres (2 to 5 hectares), and nearly half had even less than 5 acres. The level of urbanization was growing extremely fast in the Low Countries, especially in the largest principalities. In 1470, 36 percent of Flanders' population and 31 percent of Brabant's were city dwellers, while in Holland the proportion reached 45 percent in 1514. It should be noted, however, that the cities of Holland were still relatively small, the largest being Leiden with 14,000. In the southern Low Countries in the mid-14th century, Ghent and Brugge attained populations of 64,000 and 46,000, respectively, while Brussels counted 33,000 in 1482 and Malines (Mechelen) grew to 25,000 around 1540. Antwerp showed spectacular growth, from 15,000 in 1437 to nearly 40,000 around 1500, and more than 100,000 in 1560, its peak for this period.

      The Low Countries played an important part in the artistic, scientific, and religious life of Europe. In the late Middle Ages, when prosperity was increasing and the princely houses, particularly that of the Burgundians, as well as the middle classes in the towns, were encouraging progress, the Low Countries began to make independent contributions to cultural life.

      The most original of these were in the field of visual and applied arts. From the late 14th century the Low Countries produced sculptors like Claus Sluter (Sluter, Claus), whose most famous works are the funerary monuments for the duke of Burgundy, Philip the Bold, and his wife at Dijon, Fr., and painters like Melchior Broederlam who also served the duke. In the 15th century, however, the cities in the southern Low Countries became the core of cultural activity, because the duke's court resided mostly in that region and because the local bourgeoisie, clergy, and noblemen profited from the Burgundian prosperity and could invest in works of art, which allowed them to share somewhat in the splendour of the court. The main centres were Ghent (Jan and Hubert van Eyck and Hugo van der Goes), Leuven (Dirck Bouts), Brussels (Rogier van der Weyden), and Brugge (Hans Memling, and Gerard David). Each of these masters stands for a school of followers. Miniature painting similarly was a most flourishing activity, reaching its first height in the northern Low Countries (Utrecht) about 1400, but rising also in the south through the 15th century. Tapestry weavers in Arras attained a unique quality, which was imitated in Tournai, Brussels, Oudenaarde, Brugge, Ghent, and elsewhere. Brabant was famous for its woodcut triptychs made in Leuven and Antwerp (then in Brabant), Brugge for its lace, jewelry, and fashionable clothing. All these extraordinary works were exported through Europe, where they won the appreciation of princes, aristocrats, and rich burghers.

      In the southern Low Countries, mysticism (Christianity) reached its zenith in the 13th and 14th centuries in the poems of Sister Hadewych and the prose of the prior Joannes Ruusbroec (Jan van Ruysbroeck (Ruysbroeck, Jan van)). Ruusbroec's writings were founded on a considerable knowledge of theology; it is not certain whether his work had a direct influence on the founding of the religious movement along the IJssel—the modern devotion ( devotio moderna)—or whether mysticism merely created the intellectual climate in which the new school of thought could develop. The modern devotion was inspired by Geert Grote (Gerard Groote (Groote, Geert), 1340–84) of Deventer, who preached, as did many others, the ascetic and pious life and resistance to the secularization of the church. His message was well received, and many lay people found in themselves a desire to live in communities devoted to the service of God; these were the Brethren (Common Life, Brethren of the) and Sisters of the Common Life, who later organized themselves into the Windesheim monasteries and convents, which followed Augustinian rules. Their communities were extremely important for both education and religion; they were industrious copyists and brought a simple piety to the lower classes. Their work, like that of the mendicant orders, was a typical product of life in the towns. The movement reached its peak in Thomas À Kempis, from Zwolle, whose Imitatio Christi (The Imitation of Christ) became quite widely read, not least in Dutch versions.

Development of Dutch humanism (humanism)
      Within the modern devotion, where great importance was attached to good teaching, Dutch humanism was able to develop freely. Of importance was the foundation in 1425 of the Catholic University of Leuven (Louvain) (Leuven, Catholic University of); it received in 1517 the Collegium Trilingue where Latin, Greek, and Hebrew were taught. The greatest Dutch humanist was Erasmus (Erasmus, Desiderius) (1469–1536), whose fame spread throughout the world and who had been taught in the schools of the Brethren of the Common Life. He drew his inspiration, as did many other humanists, from antiquity and was famed for his pure Latin. He was in touch with the greatest minds of his time, visited England (Cambridge) and Italy, and worked for some years in Basel and in Freiburg. Erasmus' greatest achievement was to turn the science of theology, which had degenerated into meaningless Neoscholastic disputes, back to the study of sources by philological criticism and by publishing a new edition of the Greek New Testament. Although he vociferously criticized the church and even the princes, he avoided out of conviction a break with the church and pleaded for religious tolerance.

      The humanists were principally intellectuals, however, expressing themselves in literary and scientific treatises and having little impact on the broad masses of the people. Many of them, like Erasmus, desired no break with the church and did not accept that break when it became a fact by the appearance of Martin Luther. Instead, they wanted Reformation within the church. It was otherwise for the reforming movements that brought turmoil to the Low Countries in the first half of the 16th century. Even Lutheranism had few followers, despite its early appearance (Luther's dogmas were condemned by the Catholic University of Leuven as early as 1520). There was a Lutheran community in Antwerp; but otherwise, support was limited to individual priests and intellectuals. Another Protestant group, the Sacramentarians, differed with Luther over the question of the Eucharist; they denied the consubstantiation of Christ in the Eucharist, although their stance enjoyed little support from the people.

      An uproar was caused by the Anabaptists (Anabaptist) (so called because they rejected the baptism of infants and therefore had themselves rebaptized as adults), who refused to swear the oath of allegiance to the prince or to serve in the armed forces or in government per se and who believed in a lumen internum (“inner light”). This baptist movement won great popularity in the Low Countries after 1530; from the very beginning there were two branches—the social revolutionaries and the “quiet baptists.” The first of these was characterized by a lively enthusiasm and a willingness, once the external trappings of the church had been rejected, to organize itself into communities, which soon formed close ties with each other. Prophesies by the social-revolutionary branch of the imminent coming of Christ and of a New Jerusalem fascinated the masses, while their fanaticism and readiness to sacrifice themselves made a deep impression on a population suffering poverty and misery. In 1534 a section of the Anabaptists moved to Münster in Westphalia, where they supposed that the New Jerusalem would be built; and in 1535 an abortive attempt was made to take over the town hall in Amsterdam. After a long siege, the bishop of Münster succeeded in reconquering his town, and the Anabaptists suffered terrible vengeance. Only the “quiet baptists” were able to continue, under the leadership of the Frisian pastor Menno Simons (these Mennonites (Mennonite) are even today strongly represented in the provinces of Groningen, Friesland, and Noord-Holland).

      The future of the movement for reformation in the Netherlands was assured, however, not by the biblical humanists nor by the Anabaptists but by a movement less intellectual than the first and more realistic than the second— Calvinism.

      The theology of John Calvin (Calvin, John) (1509–64) was radical, strict, logical, and consistent. Its central theme was the absolute might and greatness of God, which made man a sinful creature of no significance who hoped merely to win God's grace by honouring him in daily hard work. Calvinism found its way to the Netherlands by way of France, though there may have been some direct influence from Geneva, Calvin's town. Calvinist writings were known in Antwerp as early as 1545, while the first translation into Dutch of his Christianae religionis institutio is dated 1560, which was also the year in which support for him spread in the Netherlands, largely because the Calvinists preached their creed in public and held open-air services.

      Calvinist teaching appealed not only to the lower classes but also to the intellectual and middle classes because of its glorification of work, its discipline, its organization into communities, and its communal singing of the psalms. The government, however, saw the movement as a threat to its plans for unity and centralization, which were supported by the Roman Catholic church, and it took stern measures against Calvinism. Calvinists forcibly removed their coreligionists from prisons and occasionally even attacked monasteries. This group's rejection of icons, paintings, statues, and valuables in churches sometimes led them to remove them and hand them over to the town magistrates. But this idealism became corrupted, and the leaders were unable to retain control of the movement.

      It should be noted that Calvinism and other forms of Protestantism had spread rapidly among the urban middle classes after 1550 in defiance of rule by Roman Catholic Spain. From 1551 to 1565 the number of persons persecuted in the county of Flanders for heresy rose from 187 to 1322. In Antwerp, the largest city of the Low Countries, with some 100,000 inhabitants around 1565, one-third of the population openly declared for Calvinist, Lutheran, or other Protestant denominations; another third declared itself to be Roman Catholic, while the last third was undeclared. Similar proportions are assumed to have existed in the other main cities, while the rural textile area in southwest Flanders counted large numbers of Anabaptists and Calvinists. It was among these Calvinists that an iconoclast movement to desecrate churches and destroy church images began in August 1566, spreading within a week to more than 150 villages and towns in the southern principalities.

      The movement was weakened, however, when it lost the support of the nobility, and especially the lower nobility, which had been sympathetic to Calvinism. The government now besieged and captured the Calvinist centre, Valenciennes, by defeating a Calvinist army at Oosterweel (1567), near Antwerp. The result was a great exodus of Calvinists. Nevertheless, Calvin's ideas had penetrated deeply, and his supporters, who had emigrated to England, East Friesland, and the Pfalz of Germany, were able to maintain their unity and support their coreligionists in the Low Countries. The Calvinists were to become the driving force behind the revolt against Spanish rule.

The revolt and the formation of the Republic (1567–79)
      The forcible measures taken by the central government against the “breaking of the images” were followed by a brief period of peace. The Duke of Alba (Alba, Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3er duque de (3rd duke of)) (who became governor after the departure of Margaret of Parma on the last day of 1567) introduced stern measures at the express command of the king. These provoked a resistance to the government (often referred to as the “revolt”) that triggered the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648). The iconoclast movement itself, which had raged across the country like a storm, had already shown a deep-rooted resistance that had many causes and was brought to a head by Alba's measures.

Causes of the revolt
      It is impossible to label any of the causes of the revolt as the decisive factor. An important one, however, was a religious motive. Criticism of the structure of the Roman Catholic church and the riches and worldly way of life of its prelates and the accompanying desire for reform had always been strong in the Low Countries; and Protestantism, through the teaching of Luther, the Sacramentarians, the Anabaptists, and, above all, the Calvinists, had gained a firm foothold. The measures taken against the resistance—harsh edicts, prison sentences, torture, and death sentences, carried out with great cruelty—fanned the flames all the more and among all classes. Social and economic causes, however, also lay behind the resistance, especially among the lower classes—the wars with France, the epidemics, poor harvests, hard winters, floods, and a frightening inflation and consequent rise in prices all combined to cause despair and misery among the masses and made them susceptible to radical ideas. At the same time, in the upper classes of the nobility and the urban patriciate, there was a sharply felt reaction against the absolutist policy of the king, who lived far away in Spain (Spanish Netherlands) and yet whose wish was law in the Low Countries. Towns felt their privileges being threatened, and the nobles found their independent status being undermined by the ever-increasing activities of the Secret Council. The mercenaries, who were often stationed in a town as a garrison and acted as occupying forces, also aroused hostility. The fact that the resistance did not present a united front may be ascribed to the particularism among the territories—Holland, with its commercial interests, could hardly be expected to be enthusiastic on behalf of typically agrarian feudal provinces such as Hainaut or Artois.

      The main cleavage in the opposition groups, however, was social as well as religious: the high nobility and richest merchants mostly remained Roman Catholic, as did the peasants and the urban poor living on the church's alms. The lower nobility, the urban middle classes, and the rural textile workers massively opted for one or the other form of religious, political, and social protest against the prevailing order. This fundamentally explains the earlier accommodation of the rural provinces of Artois, Hainaut, Namur, and Luxembourg under Spanish rule, while opposition was fierce in the urbanized provinces of Flanders, Brabant, Holland, and Zeeland. The rural northeast also remained predominantly Roman Catholic until well into the 17th century.

      It is clear, however, that the terror organized by Alba burst like a bombshell in this political, social, economic, and religious climate. William, the prince of Orange (William I), with sharp political insight, had decided not to wait for Alba's arrival; he had managed to escape in time to his birthplace in Nassau-Dillenburg, leaving behind all his possessions, which were promptly confiscated. His son, Philip William, was taken prisoner to Spain. Alba sent his troops to the principal towns and set up the Council of Troubles (Troubles, Council of) (or Council of Blood), which imposed severe penalties, often including the death sentence or confiscation of property, sparing nothing and nobody, not even the most powerful—the counts of Egmond (Egmond, Lamoraal, count van) and Hoorne (Horne, Filips van Montmorency, count van) were publicly beheaded in Brussels in June 1568.

      Alba also rushed through installation of the new ecclesiastical hierarchy, which had not been completed. Furthermore, he attempted to make the central government independent of the provincial states by means of new taxes (taxation) on property, on the sale of land or building, and on the sale of goods. This met with violent resistance because the taxes were to be general and permanent, so that the separate states would no longer have the means to make conditions for the furnishing of taxes (although they themselves already levied taxes on the sale of goods) and, more important, because a permanent tax system would make the king independent of his subjects. The taxes were the final link in the policy of absolutism and centralization, which would lead to a unified state controlled by a prince with unlimited power.

      The severity with which Alba ruled was not able to prevent the immediate appearance of resistance. The Geuzen (guerrilla forces) conducted pillaging raids in the country and piracy at sea, for which they had “authority” in the form of letters of marque issued by William of Orange in his capacity as sovereign of the principality of Orange. Attacks took place as early as 1568. A small force led by Louis of Nassau, William's brother, enjoyed a modest victory over the Spaniards at Heiligerlee (in the province of Groningen), considered the beginning of the Eighty Years' War; but shortly afterward Louis was defeated near Jengum in East Friesland. A greater setback, however, was the complete failure, due to lack of funds, of a campaign led by William himself in Brabant. During the sombre years of 1568–72 the “Wilhelmus” was written—a song of faith, hope, and trust that was to become the Dutch national anthem. Other songs written by the Geuzen lifted the spirits of the people during this period and in later years.

      During these years, William negotiated for help from Germany, England, and, above all, the French Huguenots. A large-scale attack was planned for the summer of 1572. Before William could carry it out, the Geuzen seized the port of Brielle (April 1, 1572), west of Rotterdam. This was a move of considerable strategic importance because the port controlled the mouth of both the Meuse and the Waal, and the prince immediately supported the movement. The Geuzen then took Flushing, Veere, and Enkhuizen, so that William had useful bases in Holland and Zeeland. The help that the Geuzen received from the Calvinists (Calvinism) in these towns was striking—the Calvinists, a radical minority, were again and again able to force the more conservative town magistrates either to cooperate or to resign. Oudewater, Gouda, Dordrecht, Leiden, Hoorn, and Haarlem followed, only Amsterdam keeping the Geuzen out. The purposeful activities of the Calvinists also led to their gaining churches, often the principal church of a town, for their services; they closed monasteries, and Roman Catholic services were soon forbidden.

      The revolt was at first successful only in Holland because of its unique position. As a commercially oriented province, it had been more inclined to look after its own interests than to cooperate with other provinces. Trade had been seriously threatened by the Geuzen but was now free again. Moreover, the province lay in a strategically favourable position—difficult to reach from the central government in Brussels and almost inaccessible to the Spanish armies by virtue of its many rivers, lakes, drains, and bogs.

      To give the revolt a legal basis, the fiction was invented that it had been a revolt not against the king but against his evil advisers, particularly the governor. By their own authority, in July 1572 the states of Holland gathered in Dordrecht, where William of Orange was proclaimed stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland. The prince himself went to Holland and, realizing that the Calvinists had been the driving force behind the revolt, became a member of the Calvinist church. But he repeatedly expressly avowed his ideal of the United Netherlands, in which there would be room for Catholics and Calvinists alike.

      Alba, disappointed by his failure to push through the tax reforms and about to return to Spain, learned of the fall of Brielle and decided to stay and start a counteroffensive. The south was immediately brought under control with the occupation and plundering of Malines; then Zutphen and Naarden in the north were taken and likewise plundered. This provoked stronger resistance, and Haarlem was retaken only after a long siege, which not only demoralized and decimated Alba's troops but also strengthened the other towns in their decision to offer resistance (1573). Thus, the Spaniards were unable to take Alkmaar, their fleet suffered a heavy defeat in the Zuiderzee, and a long siege of Leiden was relieved by flooding the surrounding country (1574). (As a reward, the town later was given a university (Leiden, State University of), where Calvinistic theology was to be a principal subject for study.) Spanish troops never again forced their way into Holland—a heavy blow for the most powerful monarchy in the world.

Unification after Alba
      Alba left on Dec. 18, 1573, and his successor, Don Luis de Requesens (Requesens y Zúñiga, Luis de), was unable to prevent further secessions in the north. Even the south, which had been loyal to Spain until then but where active Calvinist movements existed (especially in Ghent), became amenable to William's ambition for a united resistance to the Spanish regime. Problems involved were considerable, with one of the most contentious points being the question of religion—the more radical north demanded the total abolition of Roman Catholicism in Holland and Zeeland and the acceptance of Calvinism by the southern provinces. William, however, was diplomatic enough not to make this demand. It was finally agreed that the States-General would deal with the question later, and until such time the Calvinists would be masters only of Holland and Zeeland. A new governor (Requesens died in March 1576) was to be accepted only if he approved the pacification and sent away the foreign troops, who, because they had received no pay, were beginning to mutiny and plunder and were becoming an increasing nuisance. Another condition of his acceptance was that he govern with native officials and in close consultation with the states. On this basis, delegates from all the provinces came to an agreement, and on Nov. 8, 1576, they signed the Pacification of Ghent (Ghent, Pacification of). Their sense of unity was further strengthened by the news that on November 4 Antwerp had been invaded by mutinying Spanish troops, who had slaughtered 7,000 citizens in a massacre that came to be known as the “Spanish Fury.”

      William's idealism, his desire for unity, and his tolerant ideas had apparently triumphed. Unity of thought, however, did not last long; and within three years signs of a split appeared between the urbanized and rural provinces (which later became a permanent split). It was immediately obvious that within the United Netherlands there were opposing powers of radicalism and reaction. For various reasons, they could not maintain equilibrium; the reactionaries tried to force their ideas on the country with the help of the new governor, Don Juan of Austria (Juan de Austria), a half-brother of the king, and the Calvinists continued their radical program to make theirs the official and only religion. In Ghent, Malines, and Brussels, radical Calvinists took over the city governments, while in Antwerp, the magistrates displayed a conspicuous tolerance toward the Protestants.

      Many intractable factors underlay these conflicts—deep-running religious differences between regions; a deeply rooted particularism that hindered cooperation; and structural and economic differences between Holland and Zeeland on the one hand (commerce and industry) and Hainaut and Artois on the other (agrarian economy and feudal possession of land). It is impossible to point to any one factor that was of paramount importance. William did his utmost to save the pacification, and he found support for his ideas of tolerance among the rich burghers; yet he was unable to bridge the differences between rich and poor, Roman Catholics and Calvinists. Moreover, Don Juan died in 1578 and was succeeded by Alessandro Farnese (Farnese, Alessandro, duke of Parma and Piacenza) (duke of Parma and son of the earlier governess Margaret), who was conspicuous for his military and diplomatic gifts, which made him a worthy opponent for William and who may be credited with removing Calvinist control in the south and with the return of loyalty to the king in the southern provinces.

      Notable, too, was the appearance in the north and south of movements toward “closer unions,” which within the whole of the United Netherlands were to bring about greater community of interests between certain provinces. On Jan. 6, 1579, the Union of Arras ( Artois) was formed in the south among Artois, Hainaut, and the town of Douay (Douai), based on the Pacification of Ghent but retaining the Roman Catholic religion, loyalty to the king, and the privileges of the estates. As a reaction to the accommodation of Artois and Hainaut, the Union of Utrecht was declared, at first including northern principalities but later drawing signees from parts of the south as well. The participation of the south was eventually broken by military force.

C. van de Kieft Wim Blockmans

Additional Reading
Petrus Johannes Blok, History of the People of the Netherlands, 5 vol. (1898–1912, reprinted 1970; originally published in Dutch, 8 vol., 1892–1908), is a classic history of the northern territories, although now outdated, particularly so on the history of the Middle Ages. Henri Pirenne, Histoire de Belgique, 7 vol. (1900–32), a brilliantly written history extending to 1914 by the famous Belgian historian, covers for the period of the Middle Ages the northern as well as the southern parts of the Low Countries, although emphasis is on the south (the post-Revolt period is covered only for the south). George Edmundson, History of Holland (1922), is an excellent general work, although better for the republican than the modern period. Ivo Schöffer, A Short History of the Netherlands, 2nd rev. ed. (1973), provides a useful history of the northern Netherlands. An excellent general synthesis written by expert authors is J.A. Bornewasser et al. (eds.), Winkler Prins Geschiedenis der Nederlanden, 3 vol. (1977–78). Pieter Geyl, Geschiedenis van de Nederlandsche stam, rev. ed., 3 vol. (1948–58), is a monumental work in which the linguistic-ethnic unity of the Dutch-speaking Low Countries is emphasized. D.P. Blok et al. (eds.), Algemene Geschiedenis der Nederlanden, 15 vol. (1977–83), is an extensive history of both the northern and southern Low Countries from Roman times to the present day, with detailed bibliographies. The Dutch-speaking part of actual Belgium is considered in Max Lamberty et al. (eds.), Twintig Eeuwen Vlaanderen, 15 vol. (1972–79). Other works concerning the same area include Renée Doehaerd et al. (eds.), Histoire de Flandre: des origines à nos jours (1983), an excellent and up-to-date general synthesis; and A.G.H.A. Baart and J. Louage (eds.), Culturele geschiedenis van Vlaanderen, 10 vol. (1982–83), a more popular version by good scholars of the general history of art, literature, and daily life. The French-speaking regions have been competently dealt with by Émile Coornaert, La Flandre française de langue flamande (1970); Louis Trenard (ed.), Histoire des Pays-Bas français (1972, reissued 1984); and Hervé Hasquin et al. (eds.), La Wallonie: le pays et les hommes, 6 vol. (1975–81). The prehistory of the Low Countries is presented by Sigfrid J. de Laet, The Low Countries (1958), the only general survey in English on the topic, but now out of date in many respects; L.P. Louwe Kooijmans, The Rhine/Meuse Delta (1974), on prehistory and Holocene geology in the Dutch coastal wetlands; H.T. Waterbolk, “Archaeology in the Netherlands: Delta Archaeology,” World Archaeology, 13(2):240–54 (1981), a short evaluation of Dutch archaeology in the last decades; and J.H.F. Blowmers, L.P. Louwe Kooijmans, and H. Sarfatij, Verleden Land: Archeologische opgravingen in Nederland (1981), a full-colour presentation of modern-day archaeology in the Netherlands, from the Middle Paleolithic up to post-medieval times. W. Jappe Alberts, H.P.H. Jansen, and J.F. Niermeyer, Welvaart in wording: sociaal-economische geschiedenis van Nederland van de vroegste tijden tot het einde van de Middeleeuwen, 2nd enlarged ed. (1977), presents a social and economic history of the northern Netherlands during the Middle Ages, with emphasis on the economic aspects. É. de Moreau, Histoire de l'Église en Belgique, 5 vol. (1945–52), with exhaustive bibliographies, and a supplemental vol. containing maps (1948); and R.R. Post, Kerkgeschiedenis van Nederland in de Middeleeuwen, 2 vol. (1957), are extensive handbooks of the church history of, respectively, the southern and the northern Netherlands. D.P. Blok, De Franken in Nederland, 3rd ed. (1979), offers a brilliant portrayal of the early history of the northern Netherlands. P.C.J.A. Boeles, Friesland tot de elfde eeuw: zijn vóór- en vroege geschiedenis, 2nd ed. (1951), is an authoritative work on early Frisian history, with a lengthy English summary. François-L. Ganshof, La Flandre sous les premiers comtes, 3rd ed. rev. (1949), recounts the history of the important principality of Flanders, tracing its origins and ending with the eventful crisis of 1127–28. Henry Stephen Lucas, The Low Countries and the Hundred Years' War, 1326–1347 (1929, reprinted 1976), is a reliable and richly documented account of political events. A series of books by Richard Vaughan, Philip the Bold: The Formation of the Burgundian State, rev. ed. (1979), John the Fearless: The Growth of Burgundian Power, rev. ed. (1979), Philip the Good: The Apogee of Burgundy (1970), and Charles the Bold: The Last Valois Duke of Burgundy (1973), are well-documented studies of the Burgundian dukes and the growth of their political power. J. Huizinga, The Waning of the Middle Ages: A Study of the Forms of Life, Thought, and Art in France and the Netherlands in the XIVth and XVth Centuries (1924, reprinted 1985; originally published in Dutch, 1919), is a classic work. Walter Prevenier and Wim Blockmans, The Burgundian Netherlands (1986; originally published in Dutch, 1983), is a magnificently illustrated scholarly general synthesis concerning the period 1380–1530. Geoffrey Parker, The Dutch Revolt (1977), analyzes the period 1565–1659.

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