- Laski, Harold Joseph
▪ British political scientistborn June 30, 1893, Manchester, Englanddied March 24, 1950, LondonBritish political scientist, educator, and prominent member of the British Labour Party who turned to Marxism in his effort to interpret the “crisis in democracy” in Britain during the economic depression of the 1930s.Born into a liberal Jewish middle-class family in Manchester, Laski was the son of a cotton-shipping merchant. Without his parents' consent, he married Frida Kerrey, a Christian woman, in 1911. Laski briefly studied eugenics at University College, London, before entering New College, Oxford, in 1911. After graduating from Oxford and working for the Daily Herald, Laski left England to teach political science at McGill University in Montreal (1914–16). Later he obtained a post at Harvard University, where he taught from 1916 to 1920 and established friendships with Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. (Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr.), and Louis Brandeis (Brandeis, Louis), both justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, and Felix Frankfurter (Frankfurter, Felix), who was later appointed to the court. During this period he wrote Authority in the Modern State (1919) and The Foundations of Sovereignty, and Other Essays (1921). In both works he attacked the notion of an all-powerful sovereign state, arguing instead for political pluralism. In his Grammar of Politics (1925), however, he defended the opposite position, viewing the state as “the fundamental instrument of society.”After his return to England in 1920, Laski became an active worker in the Labour Party election campaign of 1923. In 1926 he accepted a position at the London School of Economics and Political Science, where he taught political science until his death. His doubts about the eventual implementation of reform by the ruling class led him to embrace Marxism during the Great Depression. In The State in Theory and Practice (1935), The Rise of European Liberalism: An Essay in Interpretation (1936), and Parliamentary Government in England: A Commentary (1938), Laski argued that the economic difficulties of capitalism might lead to the destruction of political democracy. He came to view socialism as the only available and possible alternative to the rising menace of fascism in both Germany and Italy. During World War II, Laski lectured throughout England and served as an assistant to Clement Attlee (Attlee, Clement, 1st Earl Attlee of Walthamstow, Viscount Prestwood), who was then deputy prime minister to Winston Churchill (Churchill, Sir Winston) (1942–45). In Reflections on the Revolution of Our Time (1943) and Faith, Reason, and Civilization: An Essay in Historical Analysis (1944), he called for broad economic reforms.Selected as Labour Party chairman in 1945, Laski felt that his cause was at least partially vindicated by Labour's decisive electoral triumph that year. However, his period as chairman was turbulent; after suggesting to Attlee, who was by then prime minister, that he resign and that the Labour Party conference dictate policy to the government, Attlee advised him that a “period of silence on your part would be appreciated.”Among Laski's many other works are The American Presidency: An Interpretation (1940) and the lengthy and controversial The American Democracy: A Commentary and Interpretation (1948).Additional ReadingPolitical biographies written to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Laski's birth are Isaac Kramnick and Barry Sheerman, Harold Laski: A Life on the Left (1993); and Michael Newman, Harold Laski: A Political Biography (1993). Other biographies include Kingsley Martin, Harold Laski, 1893–1950: A Biographical Memoir (1953, reissued 1969); and Herbert A. Deane, The Political Ideas of Harold J. Laski (1955, reissued 1972).
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