Kuldja, Treaty of

Kuldja, Treaty of

▪ Sino-Russian relations
Kuldja also spelled  Kulja 

      (1851), treaty between China and Russia to regulate trade between the two countries. The treaty was preceded by a gradual Russian advance throughout the 18th century into Kazakhstan.

      Encouraged by the success of Britain, France, and other Western powers in extracting concessions from China in the wake of the trading conflict known as the first Opium War (1839–42), Russia began to send merchants into Chinese Central Asia in the mid-19th century. The resulting Treaty of Kuldja gave the Russians their first major foothold in the area.

      Similar to other previous agreements between Russia and China, the treaty was negotiated on general terms of equality and reciprocity. It granted the Russians trading rights in the area, specifying the trade routes, the times of year trade was allowed, warehousing facilities, and place and number of official residences. It also established that the Russians were not subject to Chinese law while in the territory but could be under the control of their own consul at Chuguchak (modern Tacheng) and Kuldja, the city where the treaty was signed and the major city of the territory. The treaty was followed by an accelerated Russian expansion into Central Asia.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Нужно сделать НИР?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Treaty of Kulja — The Treaty of Kulja (also spelled Kuldja) was a treaty established in 1851 between Qing Dynasty (China) and Russian Empire, opening Kulja and Chuguchak to Sino Russian trade. The treaty was preceded by a gradual Russian advance throughout the… …   Wikipedia

  • china — /chuy neuh/, n. 1. a translucent ceramic material, biscuit fired at a high temperature, its glaze fired at a low temperature. 2. any porcelain ware. 3. plates, cups, saucers, etc., collectively. 4. figurines made of porcelain or ceramic material …   Universalium

  • China — /chuy neuh/, n. 1. People s Republic of, a country in E Asia. 1,221,591,778; 3,691,502 sq. mi. (9,560,990 sq. km). Cap.: Beijing. 2. Republic of. Also called Nationalist China. a republic consisting mainly of the island of Taiwan off the SE coast …   Universalium

  • Dungan revolt (1862–1877) — Dungan revolt Yakub Bek Date 1862 1877 Location …   Wikipedia

  • Shuiding — The town of Shuiding ( zh. 水定镇, Shuiding Zhen), formerly Suiding ( zh. 绥定) is the county seat of Huocheng County in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, People s Republic of China. It is located some 40 km to… …   Wikipedia

  • Huiyuan, Xinjiang — The townnship of Huiyuan ( zh. 惠远镇 Huìyuǎn zhèn ) is located within Huocheng County, in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, People s Republic of China. It is located near the Ili River, some 30 km to the west… …   Wikipedia

  • China — • Includes history, government, education, and religion Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. China     China     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture — 伊犁哈萨克自治州 Yīlí hāsàkè Zìzhìzhōu Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture ىله قازاق اۆتونومىيالى وبلىسى ئىلى قازاق ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستIli Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture (Chinese: 伊犁哈萨克自治州, Pinyin: Yīlí Hāsàkè zìzhìzhōu , Kazakh: ىله قازاق اۆتونومىيالى وبلىسى,… …   Wikipedia

  • Yining — (zh stp |t=伊寧 |s=伊宁 |p=Yíníng; Uighur غۇلجا Ghulja; also Ili, Yili, Kuldja, Kulja, Ghulja, Ining, tr. Kulca) is a county level city in western Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of northwestern China, and the capital of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous… …   Wikipedia

  • The Church in China —     The Church in China     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The Church in China     Ancient Christians     The introduction of Christianity into China has been ascribed not only to the Apostle of India, St. Thomas, but also to St. Bartholomew. In the… …   Catholic encyclopedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”