▪ Romanian Orthodox patriarchoriginal name Ioan Marinaborn Feb. 22, 1901, Romaniadied March 26, 1977, Bucharestpatriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church (1948–77) who helped his church become one of the strongest in Eastern Europe.After completing his studies at the Theological Faculty at Bucharest, Justinian was ordained in 1923 and worked in a parish until he was appointed to the staff of the Theological Seminary at Râmnicu Vâlcea. Justinian rose through the hierarchy of the church, becoming the director of the seminary; the metropolitan of Moldavia and Suceava in 1947; and the archbishop of Bucharest, metropolitan of Ungro-Vlahia, and patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church in 1948.Justinian's tenure as patriarch was marked by his ability to reconcile Marxist ideology with Orthodox religion. In exchange for acquiescing to formal government control, Justinian's church enjoyed relative prosperity and the freedom to support several thousand parishes, nearly 200 monasteries, and about a dozen religious periodicals.Justinian was also distinguished for developing strong relationships with other churches, particularly the Anglican Church. In 1965 Anglican archbishop Michael Ramsey visited Romania to present Justinian with the Lambeth Cross for his contributions to Christian unity. As one of his last acts, Justinian approved his church's granting of honorary doctorates to several non-Orthodox foreign churchmen.
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