Jordan, Louis

Jordan, Louis

▪ American musician
Introduction
in full  Louis Thomas Jordan  
born July 8, 1908, Brinkley, Ark., U.S.
died Feb. 4, 1975, Los Angeles, Calif.

      American saxophonist-singer prominent in the 1940s and '50s who was a seminal figure in the development of both rhythm and blues and rock and roll. The bouncing, rhythmic vitality of his music, coupled with clever lyrics and an engaging stage presence, enabled Jordan to become one of the few African-American artists of the 1940s to enjoy crossover popularity with a white audience.

      Jordan's father was a professional musician, and it was through him that Jordan absorbed the black musical traditions of the American South. As a teenager Jordan toured as a singer, dancer, comedian, and woodwind player with a variety of performing troupes including the Rabbit Foot Minstrels. He joined drummer-bandleader Chick Webb (Webb, Chick)'s orchestra in 1936, remaining (alongside the young Ella Fitzgerald (Fitzgerald, Ella)) for two years before forming his own band. Though Jordan had developed into an accomplished alto saxophonist in the mold of Benny Carter (Carter, Benny), he did not set out to form a jazz group. His goal, instead, was to create a music that would have a broader appeal.

      Jordan and his Tympany Five (a name chosen despite the fact that he was normally accompanied by six musicians, none of whom played tympani) became by 1942 one of the most popular recording acts in the country. They often combined Count Basie (Basie, Count)-style riffs with a buoyant, boogie (boogie-woogie)-based shuffle, and hits such as “Ain't Nobody Here But Us Chickens” and “Choo Choo Ch'Boogie” inspired countless “jump blues” combos. Though largely retaining the sound and subject matter of his African-American roots, he enjoyed celebrity status among both blacks and whites, starring in numerous Hollywood short films and receiving equal billing on recorded collaborations with Louis Armstrong (Armstrong, Louis) and Bing Crosby (Crosby, Bing).

      Jordan's musical style exerted a profound influence on a wide range of performers, most notably Chuck Berry (Berry, Chuck), Ray Charles (Charles, Ray), and Bill Haley (Haley, Bill). Among many others who covered his material were Woody Herman (Herman, Woody), Muddy Waters (Waters, Muddy), and Eric Clapton (Clapton, Eric). Jordan's popularity had faded considerably by the time of his death, but his music enjoyed a revival during the 1990s, when Five Guys Named Moe, a musical based on Jordan's songs, played in London and New York City.

Representative Works

● “G.I. Jive” (1944)
● “Is You Is or Is You Ain't (Ma' Baby)” (1944)
● “My Baby Said Yes” (1945, with Bing Crosby)
● “Choo Choo Ch'Boogie” (1946)
● “Ain't Nobody Here But Us Chickens” (1947)
● “Baby It's Cold Outside” (1949, with Ella Fitzgerald)
● “Saturday Night Fish Fry” (1949)
● “Life Is So Peculiar” (1950, with Louis Armstrong)

Additional Reading
John Chilton, Let the Good Times Roll: The Story of Louis Jordan and His Music (1992), is a full-length biography of Jordan, providing little in-depth discussion of the music but a good overview of his life. Arnold Shaw, Honkers and Shouters: The Golden Years of Rhythm and Blues (1978, reissued 1986), provides an excellent introduction to Jordan and his influence on popular music since World War II. Johnny Otis, Upside Your Head!: Rhythm and Blues on Central Avenue (1993), gives a fascinating account by an insider (and later Jordan record producer) of the jazz and rhythm-and-blues scene in post-World War II Los Angeles. George Lipsitz, “‘Ain't Nobody Here but Us Chickens': The Class Origins of Rock and Roll,” chapter 13 in his Rainbow at Midnight: Labor and Culture in the 1940s (1994), pp. 303–333, explores the working-class roots of rock; the author looks to Jordan's music to exemplify his assertions.

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Universalium. 2010.

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