- Johnson, Lyndon B.
▪ president of United StatesIntroductionborn August 27, 1908, Gillespie county, Texas, U.S.died January 22, 1973, San Antonio, Texas36th president of the United States (1963–69). A moderate Democrat and vigorous leader in the United States Senate, Johnson was elected vice president in 1960 and acceded to the presidency in 1963 upon the assassination of President John F. Kennedy (Kennedy, John F.). During his administration he signed into law the Civil Rights Act (1964), the most comprehensive civil rights legislation since the Reconstruction era, initiated major social service programs, and bore the brunt of national opposition to his vast expansion of American involvement in the Vietnam War. (For a discussion of the history and nature of the presidency, see presidency of the United States of America.)Early lifeJohnson, the first of five children, was born in a three-room house in the hills of south-central Texas to Sam Ealy Johnson, Jr., a businessman and member of the Texas House of Representatives, and Rebekah Baines Johnson, daughter of state legislator Joseph Baines and a graduate of Baylor College. Sam Johnson had earlier lost money in cotton speculation, and, despite his legislative career, the family often struggled to make a living. After graduating from high school in 1924, Johnson spent three years in a series of odd jobs before enrolling at Southwest Texas State Teachers College at San Marcos. While pursuing his studies there in 1928–29, he took a teaching job at a predominantly Mexican American school in Cotulla, Texas, where the extreme poverty of his students made a profound impression on him. Through his later work in state politics, Johnson developed close and enduring ties to the Mexican American community in Texas—a factor that would later help the Kennedy-Johnson ticket carry Texas in the presidential election of 1960.Career in CongressAfter graduating from college in 1930, Johnson won praise as a teacher of debate and public speaking at Sam Houston High School in Houston. That same year he participated in the congressional campaign of Democrat Richard Kleberg (son of the owner of the King Ranch, the largest ranch in the continental United States), and upon Kleberg's election he accompanied the new congressman to Washington, D.C., in 1931 as his legislative assistant. While in Washington, Johnson worked tirelessly on behalf of Kleberg's constituents and quickly developed a thorough grasp of congressional politics.In 1934, in San Antonio, Texas, Johnson married Claudia Alta Taylor, known from childhood as “Lady Bird.” A recent graduate of the University of Texas, where she finished near the top of her class, Lady Bird Johnson (Johnson, Lady Bird) was a much-needed source of stability in her husband's life as well as a shrewd judge of people.In Washington, Johnson's political career blossomed rapidly after he was befriended by fellow Texan Sam Rayburn (Rayburn, Sam), the powerful chairman of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce and later Democratic leader of the House of Representatives. Following two years as director of the National Youth Administration in Texas (1935–37), he ran successfully for a seat in the House as a supporter of the New Deal policies of Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt (Roosevelt, Franklin D.). He represented his district in the House for most of the next 12 years, interrupting his legislative duties for six months in 1941–42 to serve as lieutenant commander in the navy—thereby becoming the first member of Congress to serve on active duty in World War II. While on an observation mission over New Guinea, Johnson's plane survived an attack by Japanese fighters, and General Douglas MacArthur (MacArthur, Douglas) awarded Johnson the Silver Star for gallantry. Johnson proudly wore the decoration in his lapel for the rest of his life.Johnson ran unsuccessfully for a seat in the United States Senate in a special election in 1941. Running again in 1948, he won the Democratic primary (which in Texas was tantamount to election) after a vicious campaign that included vote fraud on both sides. His extraordinarily slim margin of victory—87 votes out of 988,000 votes cast—earned him the nickname “Landslide Lyndon.” He remained in the Senate for 12 years, becoming Democratic whip in 1951 and minority leader in 1953. With the return of a Democratic majority in 1955, Johnson, age 46, became the youngest majority leader in that body's history.During his years in the Senate, Johnson developed a talent for negotiating and reaching accommodation among divergent political factions. Despite a severe heart attack in 1955—which he would later describe as “the worst a man could have and still live”—Johnson became a vigorous and effective leader of his party. By methods sometimes tactful but often ruthless, he transformed the Senate Democrats into a remarkably disciplined and cohesive bloc. At the Democratic convention in 1956, Johnson received 80 votes as a favourite-son candidate for president. With an eye on the presidential nomination in 1960, he attempted to cultivate his reputation among supporters as a legislative statesman; during this time he engineered the passage of two civil rights measures, in 1957 and 1960, the first such legislation in the 20th century.Vice presidencyAt the Democratic convention in 1960, Johnson lost the presidential nomination to John F. Kennedy (Kennedy, John F.) on the first ballot, 809 votes to 409. He then surprised many both inside and outside the party when he accepted Kennedy's invitation to join the Democratic ticket as the vice presidential candidate. Overcoming his disappointment at not heading the ticket himself, he campaigned energetically, and many observers felt that without his presence Kennedy could not have carried Texas, Louisiana, and the Carolinas, states that were essential to his victory over the Republican candidate, Richard M. Nixon (Nixon, Richard M.).Johnson was generally uncomfortable in his role as vice president. His legendary knowledge of Congress went largely unused, despite Kennedy's failure to push through his own legislative program. Although he served on the National Security Council and was appointed chairman of some important committees—such as the National Aeronautics and Space Council, the Peace Corps Advisory Council, and the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity—Johnson regarded most of his assignments as busy work, and he was convinced that the president was ignoring him. His frustration was compounded by the apparent disdain with which he was regarded by some prominent members of the Kennedy administration—including the president's brother, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy (Kennedy, Robert F.), who later regarded LBJ, with his Texas drawl and crude, occasionally scatological sense of humour, as the “usurper” of Kennedy's Camelot. Johnson, in turn, envied President Kennedy's handsome appearance and his reputation for urbanity and sophisticated charm. Despite Johnson's physically imposing presence (he stood six feet three inches [nearly two metres] tall and usually weighed more than 200 pounds [more than 90 kg]), he suffered from deep-seated feelings of inferiority, which his dealings with the Kennedys—the scions of the “Eastern establishment”—seemed to make all the more acute. As he frequently said, it was his curse to have hailed from “the wrong part of the country.”Accession to the presidencyIn Dallas on November 22, 1963, during a political tour of Johnson's home state, President Kennedy was assassinated. At 2:38 PM that day, Johnson took the oath of office aboard the presidential plane, Air Force One, as it stood on the tarmac at Love Field, Dallas, waiting to take Kennedy's remains back to Washington. In one afternoon Johnson had been thrust into the most difficult—and most prized—role of his long political career. One of the new president's first acts was to appoint a commission to investigate the assassination of Kennedy and the shooting of Lee Harvey Oswald (Oswald, Lee Harvey), the alleged assassin, two days later. Chaired by Earl Warren (Warren, Earl), the chief justice of the United States, the Warren Commission concluded in September 1964 that there had been no conspiracy in Kennedy's death.In the tempestuous days after the assassination, Johnson helped to calm national hysteria and ensure continuity in the presidency. On November 27 he addressed a joint session of Congress and, invoking the memory of the martyred president, urged the passage of Kennedy's legislative agenda, which had been stalled in congressional committees. He placed greatest importance on Kennedy's civil rights bill, which became the focus of his efforts during the first months of his presidency. “No memorial oration or eulogy could more eloquently honor President Kennedy's memory,” he said, “than the earliest possible passage of the civil rights bill.” In February 1964, after a series of amendments by civil rights supporters, the House passed a much stronger bill than the one that Kennedy had proposed, and the measure was finally passed by the Senate in June, after an 83-day filibuster by Southern opponents.The Civil Rights Act, which Johnson signed into law on July 2, 1964, was the most comprehensive and far-reaching legislation of its kind in American history. Among its provisions were a prohibition of racial segregation (segregation, racial) and discrimination in places of public accommodation, a prohibition of discrimination by race or sex in employment and union membership, and new guarantees of equal voting rights. The law also authorized the Justice Department to bring suit against local school boards to end allegedly discriminatory practices, thereby speeding up school desegregation. The constitutionality of the law was immediately challenged but was upheld by the Supreme Court in 1964.Johnson outlined his domestic agenda in a commencement address at the University of Michigan in May 1964: “In your time we have the opportunity to move not only toward the rich society and the powerful society, but upward to the Great Society. The Great Society rests on abundance and liberty for all. It demands an end to poverty and injustice, to which we are totally committed in our time.” (See primary source document: The Great Society (Lyndon B. Johnson: The Great Society).) The Great Society program, beginning with the Civil Rights Act and continuing with other important measures passed during Johnson's second term, was the most impressive body of social legislation since the New Deal of the 1930s. It encompassed measures designed to fight the “war on poverty,” including legislation establishing the Job Corps for the unemployed and the Head Start program for preschool children; new civil rights legislation, such as the Voting Rights Act (1965), which outlawed the literacy tests and other devices used to prevent African Americans from voting; and Medicare (Medicare and Medicaid) and Medicaid, which provided health benefits for the elderly and the poor, respectively. (See primary source document: The War on Poverty (Lyndon B. Johnson: The War on Poverty).) Other legislation addressed problems in education, housing and urban development, transportation, environmental conservation, and immigration. Johnson saw these measures as building on and completing the New Deal vision of Franklin D. Roosevelt; with their adoption the United States joined the ranks of the welfare states of western Europe and Scandinavia. However, the effect of these undertakings was soon vitiated by increasing American military involvement in the war in Vietnam, which began during the Eisenhower administration and was accelerated by President Kennedy.Election and the Vietnam WarIn the presidential elections of 1964, Johnson was opposed by conservative Republican Barry Goldwater (Goldwater, Barry). During the campaign Johnson portrayed himself as level-headed and reliable and suggested that Goldwater was a reckless extremist who might lead the country into a nuclear war. When Republican supporters of Goldwater declared, “In your heart, you know he's right,” Democrats responded by saying, “In your heart, you know he might.” Goldwater's remark to a reporter that, if he could, he would “drop a low-yield atomic bomb on Chinese supply lines in Vietnam” did nothing to reassure voters. On election day Johnson defeated Goldwater easily, receiving more than 61 percent of the popular vote, the largest percentage ever for a presidential election; the vote in the electoral college was 486 to 52. Johnson interpreted his victory as an extraordinary mandate to push forward with his Great Society reforms. (See primary source document: Inaugural Address (Lyndon Baines Johnson: Inaugural Address).)In early August 1964, after North Vietnamese gunboats allegedly attacked U.S. destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin near the coast of North Vietnam without provocation, Johnson ordered retaliatory bombing raids on North Vietnamese naval installations and, in a televised address to the nation, proclaimed, “We still seek no wider war.” Two days later, at Johnson's request, Congress overwhelmingly passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which authorized the president to take “all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression.” In effect, the measure granted Johnson the constitutional authority to conduct a war in Vietnam without a formal declaration from Congress. Although there were contradictory reports about the “engagement” in the gulf—about which side did what, if anything, and when—Johnson never discussed them with the public.Despite his campaign pledges not to widen American military involvement in Vietnam, Johnson soon increased the number of U.S. troops in that country and expanded their mission. In February 1965, after an attack by Viet Cong guerrillas on a U.S. military base in Pleiku, Johnson ordered “Operation Rolling Thunder,” a series of massive bombing raids on North Vietnam intended to cut supply lines to North Vietnamese and Viet Cong fighters in the South; he also dispatched 3,500 Marines to protect the border city of Da Nang. Fifty thousand additional troops were sent in July, and by the end of the year the number of military personnel in the country had reached 180,000. The number increased steadily over the next two years, peaking at about 550,000 in 1968.As each new American escalation met with fresh enemy response and as no end to the combat appeared in sight, the president's public support declined steeply. American casualties gradually mounted, reaching nearly 500 a week by the end of 1967. Moreover, the enormous financial cost of the war, reaching $25 billion in 1967, diverted money from Johnson's cherished Great Society programs and began to fuel inflation. Beginning in 1965, student demonstrations grew larger and more frequent and helped to stimulate resistance to the draft. From 1967 onward, antiwar sentiment gradually spread among other segments of the population, including liberal Democrats, intellectuals, and civil rights leaders, and by 1968 many prominent political figures, some of them former supporters of the president's Vietnam policies, were publicly calling for an early negotiated settlement of the war. As his popularity sank to new lows in 1967, Johnson was confronted by demonstrations almost everywhere he went. It pained him to hear protesters, especially students—whom he thought would venerate him for his progressive social agenda—chanting, “Hey, hey, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?” To avoid the demonstrations, he eventually restricted his travels, becoming a virtual “prisoner” in the White House.Domestic problemsMeanwhile, as Johnson's reform consensus gradually unraveled, life for the nation's poor, particularly African Americans living in inner-city slums in the North, failed to show significant improvement. Vast numbers of African Americans still suffered from unemployment, run-down schools, and lack of adequate medical care, and many were malnourished or hungry. Expectations of prosperity arising from the promise of the Great Society failed to materialize, and discontent and alienation grew accordingly, fed in part by a surge in African American political radicalism and calls for black power. Beginning in the mid-1960s, violence erupted in several cities as the country suffered through “long, hot summers” of riots or the threat of riots in the Watts district of Los Angeles (1965), Cleveland, Ohio (1966), Newark, New Jersey, and Detroit, Michigan (1967), Washington, D.C. (1968), and elsewhere. Fears of a general “race war” were in the air. The president responded by appointing a special panel to report on the crisis, the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, which concluded that the country was in danger of dividing into two societies—one white, one black, “separate and unequal.”Last daysOn January 23, 1968, an American intelligence-gathering vessel, the USS Pueblo, was seized by North Korea; all 80 members of the crew were captured and imprisoned. Already frustrated by the demands of the Vietnam War, Johnson responded with restraint but called up 15,000 navy and air force reservists and ordered the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS Enterprise to the area. The Pueblo (Pueblo Incident) crew was held for 11 months and was freed only after the United States apologized for having violated North Korean waters; the apology was later retracted.To make matters worse, only one week after the seizure of the Pueblo, the Tet Offensive by North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces in South Vietnam embarrassed the Johnson administration and shocked the country. Although the attack was a failure in military terms, the news coverage—including televised images of enemy forces firing on the U.S. embassy in Saigon, the South Vietnamese capital—completely undermined the administration's claim that the war was being won and added further to Johnson's nagging “credibility gap.”Meanwhile, Senator Eugene McCarthy (McCarthy, Eugene J.) declared his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination, an unprecedented affront to a sitting president, and Robert Kennedy announced his own candidacy soon thereafter. On March 31, 1968, Johnson startled television viewers with a national address that included three announcements: that he had just ordered major reductions in the bombing of North Vietnam, that he was requesting peace talks, and that he would neither seek nor accept his party's renomination for the presidency.The assassination of African American civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. (King, Martin Luther, Jr.), in April 1968 provoked new rioting in Washington, D.C., and elsewhere. Two months later Robert Kennedy was shot dead in Los Angeles, and the Democratic presidential nomination of Vice President Hubert Humphrey (Humphrey, Hubert H) was ensured. At the tumultuous Democratic convention in Chicago in August, delegates nominated Humphrey against weak opposition by McCarthy as antiwar protesters and student radicals engaged in televised battles with police outside the convention hall. During his campaign against Republican candidate Richard Nixon (Nixon, Richard M.) and third-party candidate George Wallace (Wallace, George C.), Humphrey, heavily burdened by his association with Johnson's unpopular Vietnam policies, tried to distance himself from the president by calling for an unconditional end to the bombing in North Vietnam. Meanwhile, negotiations had begun with the North Vietnamese, and in October, one week before the election, Johnson announced a complete cessation of the bombing, to be followed by direct negotiations with Hanoi. But it was too late for Humphrey, who narrowly lost the election to Nixon by a popular vote of nearly 30.9 million to Nixon's 31.7 million.After attending his successor's inauguration in January 1969, Johnson retired to his home in Texas, the LBJ Ranch near Johnson City, where he worked on plans for his presidential library (dedicated May 1971) and wrote his memoirs, The Vantage Point: Perspectives of the Presidency, 1963–1969 (1971). In January 1973, less than one week before all the belligerents in Vietnam signed an agreement in Paris to end the war, Johnson suffered a heart attack and died. He was buried at the place he felt most at home: his ranch.Cabinet of President Lyndon B. JohnsonCabinet of President Lyndon B. Johnson Cabinet of President Lyndon B. JohnsonThe table provides a list of cabinet members in the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson.Additional ReadingA collection of Johnson's papers covering 1963–69 can be found in Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Lyndon B. Johnson, 10 vol. (1965–70).Biographical studies include Robert A. Caro, The Years of Lyndon Johnson (1982– ); Paul K. Conkin, Big Daddy from Pedernales (1986); and Robert Dallek, Lone Star Rising: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1908–1960 (1991), which covers Johnson's life up to his election as John F. Kennedy's vice president. John A. Goldsmith, Colleagues: Richard B. Russell and His Apprentice, Lyndon B. Johnson (1993), provides insight into Johnson's early political career through his presidency, covering the years from about 1950 to 1971. Johnson's relationship with John and Robert Kennedy is examined in Paul R. Henggeler, In His Steps: Lyndon Johnson and the Kennedy Mystique (1991). Joseph A. Califano, Jr., The Triumph & Tragedy of Lyndon Johnson: The White House Years (1991), presents a detailed account of Johnson's presidency from 1965 to 1969, when the author was a top aide for domestic affairs. Robert A. Divine (ed.), The Johnson Years, 2 vol. (1987), collects scholarly essays on his presidency.Foreign relations during Johnson's presidency are treated in H.W. Brands, The Wages of Globalism: Lyndon Johnson and the Limits of American Power (1995). Johnson's foreign policy specifically in regard to Vietnam is addressed in Larry Berman, Planning a Tragedy: The Americanization of the War in Vietnam (1982), and Lyndon Johnson's War: The Road to Stalemate in Vietnam (1989); John P. Burke et al., How Presidents Test Reality: Decisions on Vietnam, 1954 and 1965 (1989), which compares the decision-making process of Dwight D. Eisenhower and Johnson at two critical points; David M. Barrett, Uncertain Warriors: Lyndon Johnson and His Vietnam Advisers (1993), an examination of Johnson's advisory process; George C. Herring, LBJ and Vietnam: A Different Kind of War (1994), an analysis of Johnson's Vietnam policy; and Lloyd C. Gardner, Pay Any Price: Lyndon Johnson and the Wars for Vietnam (1995), which uses newly declassified documents from the Lyndon B. Johnson Library. Examinations of other policies during the Johnson presidency include David M. Welborn, Regulation in the White House (1993), on trade regulatory policy; Mark Stern, Calculating Visions: Kennedy, Johnson, and Civil Rights (1992); David M. Welborn and Jesse Burkhead, Intergovernmental Relations in the American Administrative State (1989); and Irving Bernstein, Guns or Butter (1996), the last two focusing on domestic policy. Lyndon B. Johnson, A Bibliography (1984– ), compiled by the Johnson Library staff, contains many helpful references. Biographical works dealing with Lady Bird Johnson include Marie Smith, The President's Lady (1964); and Liz Carpenter, Ruffles and Flourishes (1970, reissued 1993), written by Mrs. Johnson's White House press secretary.
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