- Jewel, John
▪ English bishopborn May 24, 1522, Buden, Devon, Englanddied September 23, 1571, Monkton Farleigh, WiltshireAnglican bishop of Salisbury and controversialist who defended Queen Elizabeth I's religious policies opposing Roman Catholicism. The works Jewel produced during the 1560s defined and clarified points of difference between the churches of England (England, Church of) and Rome, thus strengthening the ability of Anglicanism to survive as a permanent institution.During the reign of the Protestant king Edward VI (1547–53), Jewel was influenced by the work of the Italian scholar and Reformer Peter Martyr Vermigli (Vermigli, Peter Martyr) to become a leader of the Reformers in England. For self-protection Jewel signed a set of anti-Protestant statements on the accession of the Roman Catholic queen Mary I (1553), who repealed laws establishing Protestantism (Protestant Heritage) in England. Finding it prudent to flee the country, he traveled throughout Europe, visiting Zürich, Padua, and Strasbourg, where he met Vermigli.When Elizabeth restored the legal protection of Protestantism, Jewel returned to England and in 1559 disputed with Catholics at the Westminster Conference. In a sermon that same year, he challenged Catholics to produce scriptural and other traditional sources in support of their position on various issues dividing Anglicans and Catholics, including clerical vestments and worship ritual. At first preferring to de-emphasize liturgical elaboration in accord with Puritan views, he soon came to accept Elizabeth's policy of moderation.Jewel became bishop of Salisbury in 1560 and began writing a series of polemics in which he propounded his theological views. In 1562 he published the Apologia pro ecclesia Anglicana (“Defense of the Anglican Church”), described by Mandell Creighton as “the first methodical statement of the position of the Church of England against the Church of Rome.” After Thomas Harding, who had been deprived of the title of prebendary (honorary canon) of Salisbury, published his Answer to Jewel in 1564, Jewel wrote his Reply in 1565, which evoked a Confutation from Harding the next year. Jewel responded with his Defense of the Apology (1567).
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