- Japan Railways Group
▪ Japanese organizationprincipal rail network of Japan, consisting of 12 corporations created by the privatization of the government-owned Japanese National Railways (JNR) in 1987.The first railroad in Japan, built by British engineers, opened in 1872, between Tokyo and Yokohama. After some initial opposition to foreign influence, Japanese engineers began building railroads at a rapid rate, and the railways' expansion was promoted as part of national policy. In 1906 the state began buying up private lines, and out of these efforts emerged the JNR in 1949. By the mid-1980s JNR's rail lines provided passenger and freight service over more than three-fourths of Japan's track mileage. The remainder was operated by a number of privately owned intercity passenger railway companies.In 1964 the first section of the Shinkansen, a high-speed passenger line, was opened between the cities of Tokyo and Ōsaka, and the line was later extended until it became one of the mainstays of the railway's operations. It was also in 1964, however, that JNR first began to lose money on its operations, and these losses continued over the next two decades until the corporation had amassed a huge long-term debt. In response, it was decided in 1987 that the JNR would be privatized and broken up into 12 interdependent companies: 6 regional railways, the Shinkansen lines, a nationwide cargo railway corporation, and four other companies. The JR Group has a total route length of about 12,500 miles (20,100 km), of which about half is electrified.
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