- Itard, Jean-Marc-Gaspard
▪ French physicianborn April 24, 1774, Oraison, Francedied July 5, 1838, ParisFrench physician noted for his work with deaf-mutes, especially the “wild boy of Aveyron.”Itard was originally marked for the banking profession, but, when the French Revolution intervened, he became a military surgeon, initially attached to Napoleon's famous surgeon Baron Larrey. After meeting the Abbé Sicard, the director of the National Institute for Deaf-Mutes in Paris, Itard received an appointment as the institute's residential physician to study the functions and malfunctions of hearing. From about 1800 he devoted a great deal of his time and private fortune to the education of deaf-mutes.Itard was one of the first to attempt the instruction of mentally retarded children on a scientific basis. In Rapports sur le sauvage de l'Aveyron (1807; Reports on the Savage of Aveyron), he explained the methods that he used (1801–05) in trying to train and educate an unsocialized 11-year-old boy who had been found in a forest in Aveyron, south of Paris.Itard also wrote Traité des maladies de l'oreille et de l'audition (1821, 1842; “Treatise on the Maladies of the Ear and of Hearing”), which advocated the combination of sign and oral communication in the education of persons with hearing impairments, and Mutisme produit par lésion des facultés intellectuelles (1824; “Mutism Produced by Lesion of the Intellectual Faculties”). Itard became a member of the Academy of Medicine in 1821.
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