Il-Khanid Dynasty

Il-Khanid Dynasty

▪ Mongol dynasty
also spelled  Īl-khān 

      (1256–1353), Mongol dynasty that ruled in Iran. Il-khan is Persian for “subordinate khan.”

       Hülegü, a grandson of Genghis Khan, was given the task of capturing Iran by the paramount Mongol chieftain Möngke. Hülegü set out in about 1253 with a Mongol army of about 130,000. He founded the Il-Khanid dynasty in 1256, and by 1258 he had captured Baghdad and all Iran. The Il-Khans consolidated their position in Iran and reunited the region as a political and territorial entity after several centuries of fragmented rule by petty dynasties. During the reign of the Il-Khan Maḥmūd Ghāzān (Ghāzān, Maḥmūd) (reigned 1295–1304), the Il-Khans lost all contact with the remaining Mongol chieftains of China. Maḥmūd Ghāzān himself embraced Sunnite Islām, and his reign saw an Iranian cultural renaissance in which such scholars as Rashīd ad-Dīn flourished under his patronage.

      Ghāzān's brother Öljeitü (reigned 1304–16) converted to Shīʿite Islām in 1310. Öljeitü's conversion gave rise to great unrest, and civil war was imminent when he died in 1316. His son and successor, Abū Saʿīd (reigned 1317–35), reconverted to Sunnite Islām and thus averted war. But during Abū Saʿīd's reign factional disputes and internal disturbances continued and became rampant. Abū Saʿīd died without leaving an heir, and with his death the unity of the dynasty was fractured. Thereafter various Il-Khanid princes ruled as regional dynasts until 1353.

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Universalium. 2010.

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