- Humbert of Silva Candida
▪ French cardinalborn c. 1000, Lorraine [France]died May 5, 1061, Rome [Italy]cardinal, papal legate, and theologian whose ideas advanced the 11th-century ecclesiastical reform of Popes Leo IX and Gregory VII. His doctrinal intransigence, however, occasioned the definitive schism between the Eastern and Western churches in 1054.A monk of the Benedictine monastery of Moyenmoutier, in the Vosges mountains, France, from the age of 15, Humbert became expert in Greek and Latin and concentrated his theological studies on the problem of church-state relations. His friendship with Bruno of Toul and their common zeal in reforming ecclesiastical abuses ended in his being summoned to Rome in 1049 after Bruno's accession to the papal throne as Leo IX (Leo IX, Saint). Thenceforth he developed as the major instrument in implementing papal policy during the reigns of Leo and his successors, Victor II, Stephen IX, and Nicholas II.Humbert joined in a wide-ranging dispute over the nature of the Eucharist and in 1050 castigated the reform doctrine of Berengar Of Tours. In the spring of 1050 Leo named Humbert archbishop of Sicily and later made him cardinal. Humbert advocated a monarchical concept of the bishop and centralized authority in the papacy. To a denunciation of the Latin rite by Michael Cerularius, patriarch of Constantinople, he replied in 1053 with the tract Adversus Graecorum calumnias (“Against the Slanders of the Greeks”). Pope Leo dispatched Humbert to Constantinople in 1054 to determine the significance of the expression by Emperor Constantine IX Monomachus of a desire for Greek-Roman reunion, and while there Humbert engaged leading Byzantine theologians in public disputation. Frustrated by the theological stalemate in the discussions with the Greeks and by their repudiation of his inflexible demands for submission to the Latin Church, Humbert, in a formal convocation in the cathedral of Hagia Sophia on July 16, 1054, excommunicated Patriarch Michael as a heretic; a general condemnation of the entire Greek Orthodox Church followed. With the death of Pope Leo in 1054 Humbert returned to Rome and continued as consultant to Pope Victor II. He was made papal chancellor and librarian of the Roman Church when his friend Frederick of Lorraine became Pope Stephen IX in August 1057. Humbert assisted in drafting the Papal Election Decree diminishing secular influence in church government and in effecting the papal alliance of 1059 with the Normans. He also wrote the tract Adversus simoniacos (“Against Simoniacs”—those who bought spiritual benefices and offices), in which he maintained the extreme opinion that the ministerial acts of simonaical or schismatic churchmen were invalid. In order to abolish the rampant abuses of lay investiture (Investiture Controversy) (the practice of laymen conferring ecclesiastical offices), he proposed that the election of bishops be carried out by the people and clergy, as had been practiced in early Christianity.Historians hold divergent views on the extent of Humbert's influence on the papal policy of this period. Other writings attributed to him on the basis of textual evidence are the Vita Leonis IX (“Life of Pope Leo IX”) and Diversorum patrum sententie (“Collection of Seventy-Four Titles”), a compilation of ecclesiastical law. Concepts embodied in these works and expressed by Humbert elsewhere were reflected in the later reforms executed by Pope Gregory VII. Central to Humbert's thought were the separation of temporal and spiritual jurisdiction and opposition to lay ownership of church property. His tendency toward reactionary theology was challenged by the conservative St. Peter Damian, leading spokesman for the 11th-century Roman orthodoxy.Humbert's works have been collected in Monumenta Germaniae Historica…Libelli de Lite…, vol. 1 (1891), pp. 95–253, and in J.-P. Migne (ed.), Patrologia Latina, vol. 143 (1882).
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